1.2 Clemente Pignatti Morano

January 8, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Social Science, Law, Labor Law
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The advantages and shortcomings of different occupational categorizations InGRID Expert Workshop “New skills new jobs: Tools for harmonising the measurement of occupations” – AIAS, 10 February 2014

Clemente Pignatti Morano Research Department International Labour Organization

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Alternative occupational categorizations • Occupational classifications may differ over a number of dimensions I.

Content: what kind of information the classification seeks to collect II. Resolution: to what degree of detail is the information reported III. Coverage: all jobs in the economy or focus on specific areas, groups or occupations

• Differences in survey methodology should reflect different needs of their main users

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Alternative occupational categorizations • Different use of occupational categorizations (Hoffmann, 1999) I.

Statistical use

Sorting function

To sort and present information according to the groups specified by the classification. Information on the nature of the job is rarely needed. Definitions tend to be short II.

Client-oriented use

Database function

To make decisions affecting individuals and/or to provide them advice. Higher variability, but in general greater attention to the content and nature of tasks and duties

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Alternative occupational categorizations • Three examples of occupational categorizations that depart from the ISCO classification I.

Task-based approach: the US Standard Occupational Classification (SOC)


Skill specialization: the German Klassifikation der Berufe (KidB)

III. Clusters of occupations: the French Répertoire Opérationnel des Métiers et des Emplois (ROME)

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US Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) 23 Majors (Healthcare Practitioners and Technical Occupations) 97 Minors (Health Diagnosing and Treating Practitioners) Task-based classification

461 Broad occupations (Physicians and Surgeons) 840 Detailed occupations (Family and General Practitioners)

1. 2. 3.

Major groups represent aggregations of detailed occupations with broadly similar duties, but with no link to skills Jobs with varying levels of skills but implying similar tasks are in the same major (e.g. supervisors) Still 4 level and hierarchical classification, but no attempt to cover jobs in the informal economy Clemente Pignatti (ILO)

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US Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) • Advantages I.

Good to capture generic skills (and thus fits the US labour market) and their portability across similar tasks

• Shortcomings I.

Not very useful for the analysis of labour market and social structures and behaviours II. Risk of confusion between the areas of work identified and the definitions of industries III. Skills allow to perform tasks that generate output, while maybe skills also produce output (or at least shape it)

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German Klassifikation der Berufe (KidB) • German KiDB gives priority to skill specialization 1. The classification is structured first according to skill specialization and then according to skill levels 2. Greater attention to the definitions of occupations, which should include typical information (tasks and duties) and specific details (machinery, materials, working conditions) 3. Still hierarchical classification, but with 5 levels

• Advantages: Good for sorting individuals into training programmes and to carefully design the content of the training • Shortcomings: Not the best tool for describing occupations with generic skills (and maybe service oriented economies)

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French Répertoire Opérationnel des Métiers et des Emplois (ROME) 1. 3-level classification: professional categories, professional domains and occupations/jobs, the latter identified by a card 2. Each card includes the definition of the occupation/job, ways of access, training needed, working conditions and environments 3. Job placement characteristics: definition of similar and specific skills and list of close and “worth considering” jobs (see below)

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French Répertoire Opérationnel des Métiers et des Emplois (ROME) • Advantages

I. Provides a detailed description of the occupations II. But allows for flexibility with clusters of similar skills/jobs III. Good for employees looking for any job • Shortcomings I. Not very handy for statistical purposes II. Skills are not coded III. Risk of arbitrary decisions

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Conclusions • Occupational classifications adopt different categorization approaches according to the main need they serve • There is no one-size-fits-all recommendation, but guidelines can be identified regarding the general approach… I. Coherence with the main scope II. Fit for the national labour markets III. Coordination with the work of other agencies • …as well as on the design of the classification I. Consistency in the structure II. Flexibility across levels III. Up-dating and maintenance VS revision Clemente Pignatti (ILO)

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