14.2 Trade, Towns, & Financial Revolution

January 7, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Arts & Humanities, Performing Arts, Comedy
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Trade, Towns, & Financial Revolution Chapter 14 Section 2

I Growing Food Supply • Euroipes great revival would be impossible without farming • Warmer climatesfarming on lands once too cold to farmnew farming methods

A. Using horsepower • Ppl depended on Oxen to plow fields because they were easy to take care of • Began to use horses because they could plow 2x as much as oxen • Needed to develop new harness for horse to use for plowing

• Developed harness that went around the chest horses replace oxen

B. Three Field System • Villagers begin to organize farms diff.

Two Field System

Three Field System

II Trade & Finance Expand • As agriculture expanded so did trade and finance

A. Fairs & Trade • Most trade took plasce in towns in the form of fairs • Fairs brought peasants from nearby manors to buy goods needed for daily life

• No longer were all goods produced ibn a self-sufficient manor

B. The Guilds • Fairs were controlled bu guilds for each craft and trade • Guild= an association of ppl who worked in the same occupation

• Guilds Controlled wages and price ogf their craft • Enforced standards of quality

• Only masters could be guild members • Child apprentice(5-9 yrs.)journeyman(worked for wages) until the could make a Master Piece that met the guilds standardMaster

II Urban Splendor Reborn A. Trade and Towns Grow Together • Growing tradegrowing cities • Ppl began to challenge feudal system by leaving the manor • Illegal for serfs

• Cities grew butunsanitary conditions • Towns under rule of feudal lords until burghers organized themselves • Burghers= town dwellers

IV the Revival of Learning • Growth of trades & citiesrenewal in interest of learning • New European institution arose: the UINIVERSITY

A. Scholars & Writers • University= anywhere a group of schalars met and discussed ideas • PEOPLE not building made up medieval universities

• While most scholars studies latin some poets began to use vernacular • Vernacular= everyday language of their ghomeland

• Dante Alighieri writes The Divine Comedy (Italian) • Geoffrey Chaucer writes The Canterbury Tales (English) • These writers brought lit. to the masses because many could not read or write latin

B. The Muslim Connection • Crusades brought Europeans into contact with Muslims who had preserved Greek writings • Alexandrian Library

• Crusaders learned and brought back superior Muslim technology, ships, navigation methods, & medicine

C. Aquinas and Medieval Philosophy • Could Christian schalars use Aristolt’es logical approach to truth and still keep faith in the Bible? • Thomas Aquinas argues that most basin religious truths could be proved by logical argument • Summa Theologica= combines Greek thought w/ Christian thought

• Scholastics= Aquinas and his followers • Their teachings on law and gov’t influenced the thinking of Europeans

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