2011 VUS.2 and 3 notes on Exploration and
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Early European Exploration and Colonization
The student will describe how early European exploration and colonization resulted in cultural interactions among Europeans, Africans, and American Indians.
4 Reasons for Exploring
VUS 2 Interactions among Europeans, Africans, and American Indians
VUS2a: Essential Understandings
Early European exploration and colonization resulted in the redistribution of the world’s population as millions of people from Europe and Africa voluntarily and involuntarily moved to the New World. Exploration and colonization initiated worldwide commercial expansion as agricultural products were exchanged between the Americas and Europe. In time, colonization led to ideas of representative government and religious tolerance that over several centuries would inspire similar transformations in other parts of the world. 3
Figure 4.1: Distribution of Non-Indian Nationalities Within the British Mainland Colonies, 1700–1755
Map 4.3: French and Spanish Occupation of North America, to 1750
Figure 4.2: Populations of Boston, New York, and Philadelphia, 1690–1776
VUS.2a: 1. Why did Europeans settle in the English colonies? 2.
How did their motivations influence their settlement patterns and colony structures?
Immigration and British Colonial Expansion, to 1755
How did their motivations influence their settlement patterns and colony structures?
Land Divisions in Sudbury, Massachusetts, 1639–1656
“We shall be as a city upon a hill, the eyes of all people are upon us.”
Reflect European’s understanding of social hierarchical order
Rich show charity to poor, who accepts rule by their superior, as god’s will
Map 2.2: Major Religions in Europe, c. 1560 ???33
VUS2a: Characteristics of early exploration and settlements in the New World
New England was settled by Puritans seeking freedom from religious persecution in Europe. They formed a “covenant community” based on the principles of the Mayflower Compact and Puritan religious beliefs and were often intolerant of those not sharing their religion. They also sought economic opportunity and practiced a form of direct democracy through town meetings.
The Middle Atlantic region was settled chiefly by English, Dutch, and German-speaking immigrants seeking religious freedom and economic opportunity. 10
New England Way: Plymouth1620 Plymouth: Separatists called Pilgrims went to Holland & from there in 1620 small group sailed on Mayflower – One died on route & one born – –
named Oceanus ½ died during winter 1621 celebrated 1st Thanksgiving due to help from Native Americans Leaders include Cp. Miles Standish & Gov.William Bradford Fish, furs, & lumber
Majority rule: Mayflower Compact reflect self-gov’t and early written constitution Small compared to giant neighbor Mass. Bay
New England: Massachusetts Bay 1630 English Migration 1610–1660
Not Separatists; persecuted by new king, Charles I 1630: Came with Ma. Bay Colony led by John Winthrop
– Great Migration (15,000 more settlers) during 1630s due to a civil war
Rep. gov’t albeit limited
Plymouth and Mass. Bay Colonies 2 Puritan Colonies: Plymouth (separatist) and Massachusetts Bay Puritans were a threat to James I; Puritans wanted to purify Church of England from Catholic rituals
VUS2a: Characteristics of early exploration and settlements in the New World
The Middle Atlantic region was settled chiefly by English, Dutch, and German-speaking immigrants seeking religious freedom and economic opportunity.
VUS2a: Characteristics of early exploration and settlements in the New World (cont…)
Virginia and the other Southern colonies were settled by people seeking economic opportunities. Some of the early Virginia settlers were “cavaliers,” i.e., English nobility who received large land grants in eastern Virginia from the King of England. Poor English immigrants also came seeking better lives as small farmers or artisans and settled in the Shenandoah Valley or western Virginia, or as indentured servants who agreed to work on tobacco plantations for a period of time to pay for passage to the New World. Jamestown, established in 1607 by the Virginia Company of London as a business venture, was the first permanent English settlement in North America. The Virginia House of Burgesses, established by the 1640s, was the first elected assembly in the New World. It has operated continuously and is known today as the General Assembly of Virginia. 16
VUS 2a: European Imperial Claims and Settlements in Eastern North America, 1565–1625
VUS2a: Interactions among Europeans, Africans, and American Indians. 1.In what ways did the cultures of Europe, Africa, and the Americas interact? 2.What were the consequences of the interactions of European, African, and American cultures?
The explorations and settlements of the English in the American colonies and Spanish in the Caribbean, Central America, and South America, often led to violent conflicts with the American Indians. The Indians lost their traditional territories and fell victim to diseases carried from Europe. By contrast, French exploration of Canada did not lead to large-scale immigration from France, and relations with native peoples were generally more cooperative. The growth of an agricultural economy based on large landholdings in the Southern colonies and in the Caribbean led to the introduction of slavery in the New World. The first Africans were brought against their will to Jamestown in 1619 to work on tobacco plantations. 18
Map 2.3: Major Transatlantic Explorations, 1000–1587
Map 2.1: Europe, Africa, and Southwestern
Asia in 1500
What were the consequences of the interactions of European, African, and American cultures?
African Origins of North American Slaves, 1690–1807
Protestant Reformation Produces Puritanism Protestant
• Anglican, Calvinists, Lutheran • French Huguenots, Scottish Presbyterians, Puritans, Dutch Reformed Church
• beliefs: predestination, conversion • Purest Puritans (Separatists): left Anglican Church • Moderate Puritans: reform from within
In what ways did the cultures of Europe, Africa, and the Americas interact? (see motivation handout)
Attack on Mystic Fort, Pequot War 1637
VUS3: Essential Understanding Economic and political institutions in the colonies developed in ways that were either typically European or were distinctively American, as climate, soil conditions, and natural resources shaped regional economic development. The African slave trade and the development of a slave labor system in many of the colonies resulted from plantation economies and labor shortages. 24
(Chapter 2) Bartholomew Gosnold Trading with Wampanoag Indians at Martha’s Vineyard (1602) One dimension of the Atlantic world was the exchange of goods between Native Americans and visiting Europeans. In this print, Theodore de Bry, a Dutch engraver, depicts English explorer Bartholomew Gosnold’s visit to the island of Martha’s Vineyard, off the Massachusetts coast, in 1602. On the basis of two crew members’ published accounts, de Bry made this print and included it in one of the thirteen volumes of illustrations, both his own and others’, of European voyages to the “New World.” In de Bry’s rendering, Indians clamber aboard the ship on the right while Englishmen come ashore in the foreground, offering knives to their hosts in exchange for belts of wampum. Other Englishmen approach Indians’ houses to the left, and two more English ships appear in the background. Altogether it is a scene characterized by unmitigated friendliness and harmony between the two peoples. Although the men carry and exchange weapons, there is nothing to suggest that they are anxious or suspicious of one another. The written accounts provide a more complicated story. Although relations began on the friendly footing de Bry represents, mutual suspicions and distrust grew to hostility until the English withdrew five weeks after they arrived. Despite this discouraging conclusion, the English remained optimistic about the prospect of colonizing Martha’s Vineyard. Although “some of the baser sort [of Indians] would steal,” wrote one, “the better sort [political leaders] we found very civil and just.” Perhaps even more importantly, he added that “the wholesomeness and temperature of this climate rather increased our health than otherwise and . . . not one of us was sick.” and Textiles in New England).
Why would de Bry have emphasized the friendliness of the encounter and overlooked the tensions that arose? Does the picture suggest in any way that one side had an advantage over the other?
Colonial trade: Mercantilism Navigation Acts in 1651: Forced colonies to trade only with England – Not allowed to make
products that they could buy from England
Triangular Trade Routes 1. Shipped products to Europe 2. Colonial merchants then traded Europeans products in England. 3. Finally, goods manufactured in England were brought to colonies
1. Colonies to West Indies for sugar and molasses to make rum 2. Colonies to Africa to trade rum and guns for slaves. 3. African slaves were shipped to West Indies or colonies
VUS3: How did the economic activity and political institutions of the three colonial regions reflect the resources and/or the European origins of their settlers?
VUS3: Economic characteristics of the Colonial Period A strong belief in private ownership of property and free enterprise characterized colonial life everywhere.
The New England colonies developed an economy based on shipbuilding, fishing, lumbering, small-scale subsistence farming, and eventually, manufacturing. The colonies prospered, reflecting the Puritans’ strong belief in the values of hard work and thrift. The middle colonies of New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware developed economies based on shipbuilding, smallscale farming, and trading. Cities such as New York and Philadelphia began to grow as seaports and/or commercial centers. Southern colonies developed economies in the eastern coastal lowlands based on large plantations that grew “cash crops” such as tobacco, rice, and indigo for export to Europe. Farther inland, however, in the mountains and valleys of the Appalachian foothills, the economy was based on small-scale subsistence farming, hunting, and trading. 31
New England Colonies 1. Massachusetts 2. New Hampshire 3. Rhode Island 4. Connecticut
Middle Colonies 1. New York 2. Delaware 3. New Jersey 4. Pennsylvania
Southern Colonies 1. Virginia 2. Maryland 3. North Carolina 4. South Carolina 5. Georgia
Why was slavery introduced into the colonies?
(Chapter 3) Tobacco Label Tobacco is a plant of course, but above all, it is a product and a commodity. This label appeared on packages of tobacco marketed by a London merchant named Kositzky. In the center of the top panel, an enslaved African wields a scythe to cut down tobacco plants. The crest under which he works proclaims the nobility of agricultural labor. The lower panel seems to suggest that the gentleman sitting on the left reached into the barrel, pinched a bit of tobacco for his pipe bowl, and lit up. Two other gentlemen examine some tobacco leaves, apparently admiring their quality, while a slave arrives with a drink for one of them. We can begin to understand this advertising’s appeal to English consumers by looking more closely at the people and lifestyles it portrays. We see two distinct kinds of people—scantily clad black slaves and wealthy, handsomely attired white gentlemen. The picture betrays no evidence of tension, conflict, or exploitation, and the two peoples each play clearly defined roles. Note the absence of either black or white women. Tobacco was marketed to white men who either enjoyed or aspired to enjoy the leisurely lives of gentlemen. As gentlemen, they were above performing manual labor themselves but liked to think that they were benevolent toward those who did work, especially those whom they supervised or were otherwise associated. In smoking Kositzky’s Best Virginia, the label assured them, they consumed a product that was not only for gentlemen but developed by gentlemen whose laborers were content and well treated.
How does the label reinforce English assumptions about class and race? What aspects of tobacco production are missing from the label? Why do you suppose that they are missing?
How did the institution of slavery influence European and African life in the colonies?
VUS3: Social characteristics of the colonies New England’s colonial society was based on religious standing. The Puritans grew increasingly intolerant of dissenters who challenged the Puritans’ belief in the connection between religion and government. Rhode Island was founded by dissenters fleeing persecution by Puritans in Massachusetts (Anne Hutcheson & Roger Williams). The middle colonies were home to multiple religious groups who generally believed in religious tolerance, including Quakers in Pennsylvania, Huguenots and Jews in New York, and Presbyterians in New Jersey. These colonies had more flexible social structures and began to develop a middle class of skilled artisans, entrepreneurs (business owners), and small farmers. Virginia and the Southern colonies had a social structure based on family status and the ownership of land. Large landowners in the eastern lowlands dominated colonial government and society and maintained an allegiance to the Church of England and closer social ties to Britain than did those in the other colonies. In the mountains and valleys further inland, however, society was characterized by small subsistence farmers, hunters, and traders of Scots-Irish and English descent. The “Great Awakening” was a religious movement that swept both Europe and the colonies during the mid-1700s. It led to the rapid growth of evangelical religions, such as Methodist and Baptist, and challenged the established religious and 40 governmental orders. It laid one of the social foundations for the American
Protestantism: priest has no special power, wanted Bible translated, increased literacy & indoctrination Lutheran
Calvinis; (Scotland = Presbyterian)
Anabaptist/ Mennonites/ Amish
Anglicans (Episcopal = US) vs. Puritans/ Separatists
Switzerland (John Central Europe C is Fr) Mennonites split to be Amish
England Henry VIII just wanted a divorce
Faith alone, not deed = felt “reborn”
Challenged Luther’s interpretation; sinful humans to hell but save a few to show off his grace
Wanted to restrict baptism to “converted adults”/ ban or shunning sinners (New Testament)
View that Catholics too obsessed with death and the dead; said that prayers, ritual, saints, pilgrimage don’t work
Changed nam to Church of England (Anglican Church)
41 Reborn; scripture = authority;
Predestination; scripture; original
Gov’ts & 4/13/2015 Bartholomew churches (L & C) Massacre
Kept all Catholic
Social characteristics of the colonies
Jonathan Edwards Born in Connecticut Major role in the Great Awakening 1703-1758 Focus on reading Bible on your own
VUS3 (cont.) Political life in the colonies New England colonies used town meetings (an “Athenian” direct democracy model) in the operation of government. Middle colonies incorporated a number of democratic principles that reflected the basic rights of Englishmen. Southern colonies maintained stronger ties with Britain, with planters playing leading roles in representative colonial legislatures. 44
VUS3 (cont).The development of indentured servitude and slavery 1.Why was slavery introduced into the colonies? 2.How did the institution of slavery influence European and African life in the colonies?
The growth of a plantation-based agricultural economy in the hot, humid coastal lowlands of the Southern colonies required cheap labor on a large scale. Some of the labor needs, especially in Virginia, were met by indentured servants, who were often poor persons from England, Scotland, or Ireland who agreed to work on plantations for a period of time (4-7 yrs.) in return for their passage from Europe or relief from debts. Most plantation labor needs eventually came to be satisfied by the forcible importation of Africans. Although some Africans worked as indentured servants, earned their freedom, and lived as free citizens during the Colonial Era, over time larger and larger numbers of enslaved Africans were forcibly brought to the Southern colonies (the “Middle Passage”). The development of a slavery-based agricultural economy in the Southern colonies eventually led to conflict between the North and South and the American Civil War. 45