2013 Beef IQ Flies

January 13, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Science, Biology, Zoology, Entomology
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Beef IQ: Biology and Management of Horn Flies and Face Flies Kelly Loftin Associate Professor/Extension Entomologist Department of Entomology Fayetteville, Arkansas 479 575-3462 [email protected]

Livestock Pests - Flies  “Pasture”

breeding flies

– Horn Fly – Face Fly  “Premise”

breeding flies

– House Fly – Stable Fly  Black

flies or Buffalo Gnats  Biting Midges  Horse Flies

Family Muscidae Horn Fly Haematobia irritans

Horn Fly – Economic Importance Most economically important insect pest of pastured cattle in the U.S.  Losses occur through blood loss and annoyance, infestations of up to 10,000 flies per animal have been documented.  Losses in cow-calf production is an indirect reduction in calf weaning weight. Reduction in calf weaning weights vary from 18 pounds and up.  Stocker cattle gains may be reduced by 50 pounds.  Linked to increased summer mastitis in cattle 

Horn Fly - Life Cycle & Biology Haematobia irritans  Complete metamorphosis  Adult remains on host - except for egg laying. 

Horn Fly - Life Cycle & Biology Adults live from 6 - 8 weeks, mating occurs on the host about 3 days after emergence.  Eggs laid on fresh cattle manure, less than 10 minutes old  Larvae develop in manure.  Horn flies overwinter as pupae in the soil.  Life cycle from egg to adult is from 9 - 12 days. 

Two Seasonal Peaks in Abundance 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 March

April

May

June

July

August Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Horn Fly Management Return of $ 2-5, for each $ 1 spent.  Treat when population reach an average of 200 per animal for beef cattle (100 for dairy cattle).  Dust bags, back rubbers, mechanical traps.  Mineral/feed additives (IGR’s –methoprene, diflubenzuron; Larvicides - tetrachlorvinphos).  Sprays, pour-ons, dusts.  Insecticide impregnated ear tags. 

Economic Thresholds and Counting Horn Flies Economic injury level is 150-200 flies per animal (75-100 dairy).  Count flies on a minimum of 10 animals to obtain an average.  Whole body, one side, two sides? Whole animal counts are more accurate but not always possible.  When flies are less than 25 per animal count individually, when greater than 25 count in multiples of 5, 10, etc. 

b

a Drawings of estimated population of horn flies on cattle; a = 50, b = 100 and c = 200.

c

Horn flies on bull and belly of Hereford.

Control Methods

Horn fly (Bruce) trap Passive, no chemicals  Restrict access to feed or water  Animal must pass through trap  Up to 70% control  Cost (material): $500-550 

Potential Issues with Trap  Trap

maintenance (horned cattle)  Alternate water sources (rainfall and wet weather water sources)  On occasion individual animals will not pass through trap

Horn Fly Demonstration – Dallas County 250 Treatment threshold 200 per animal

Average horn flies per animal

200

150

Trap Control 100

50 Cattle moved to another pasture

Date

4 00 23 /2 9/

9/

16 /2

00

4

04 9/ 20

04 9/

8/

9/

2/ 20

4 26 /2

00

4 00 19 /2 8/

8/

12 /2

00

4

04 8/

5/ 20

4 00 29 /2 7/

7/

22 /2

00

4

0

Insecticide Impregnated Ear Tags One treatment ? If not applied too early  Organophosphates, pyrethroids, organochlorines and now macrocyclic lactone (abamectin)  Insecticide resistance should be considered  Insecticide classes should be rotated 

Horn Fly Demonstration – Stone County 400

350

Average horn flies per animal

300

250 Treatment threshold 200 per animal Control Ear Tag*

200

Backrubber** *One Avenger ear tag per animal. **Backrubber charged with permethrin and diesel

150

100

50

0 8/21/2006

8/28/2006

9/4/2006

9/11/2006

9/18/2006

Date

9/25/2006

10/2/2006

10/9/2006

Ear tag Insecticide classes Insecticide Class

Beef Dairy*

Synthetic Pyrethroid

Yes

Yes

Organochlorine**

Yes

No

Organophosphate

Yes

No

Macrocyclic lactones

Yes

Yes

* Lactating dairy cattle. ** Existing stock only (Avenger), no longer manufactured.

Remember to rotate insecticide classes and remove tags when they become ineffective or at the end of the fly season to lessen insecticide resistance or tolerance issues.

Backrubbers and Dust Bags Self treatment device  Recharge when needed  Backrubber is saturated with a light oil solution containing insecticide  Dust bags are closed mesh burlap bags containing insecticide dust – no mixing necessary  Best if forced use 

Paired, forced-use dust bags

Forced-use backrubber

Issues with Backrubbers and Dust Bags  Are

the animals using the self-treatment device?  Forced-use deployment is best (restrict access to feeders, etc.)  Maintenance and charging

IGR’s and Larvicides Insecticide mixed into trace minerals formulated as a block, as granular form mixed with feed, or as liquid feed  Consider proximity to untreated animals  Kills horn fly larva developing in manure  Animals must eat a specified amount each day  Examples: IGR’s - Altosid (methoprene) and ClariFly (diflubenzuron). Larvicides – Rabon (tetrachlorvinphos) 

A small amount of insecticide is poured down the backline  Rates vary ~ about ½ ounce maximum  Higher insecticide concentration than sprays (310%)  Two types: traditional insecticide and endectocide  Endectocide pour-ons control internal parasites, lice and horn flies, consider horn fly control as an added benefit 

Pour-ons

Endectocides for horn fly control? Ivomec, Cydectin, etc. Pour-ons  Cost of endectocide pour-ons are decreasing especially with generics.  Probably best not to rely on endectocides alone to control horn flies (use when necessary for internal (worms) parasites). Label excerpt …should be a part of the parasite control program for both internal and external parasites.  Ivomec pour-on will control horn flies from 1428 days, meaning multiple applications may be required during a fly season. 

Sprays

Controls adult flies, ticks, lice  High pressure sprays to apply a large volume of insecticide solution (1-2 quarts)  Low-volume sprays apply about 2 ounces per animal, uses nozzles set up in gate or doorway where animal must pass 

Walk through sprayer Restrict access to minerals or water  Animals are automatically treated as they pass through (electronic eye)  Not to be continuously operated – operate only when fly numbers reach treatment threshold  Commercial units are available 

Solar powered automatic sprayer

Horn fly demonstration – Washington County 700

600

400 Treatment threshold 200 per animal

Automatic sprayer* Control

300 *Charged with permethrin (2 oz. Permethrin-10 per gallon water) 200

100

Date

10/18/2006

10/11/2006

10/4/2006

9/27/2006

9/20/2006

9/13/2006

9/6/2006

8/30/2006

8/23/2006

8/16/2006

8/9/2006

8/2/2006

7/26/2006

7/19/2006

0

7/12/2006

Average horn flies per animal

500

Issues with automatic sprayer Are the animals using the sprayer? Similar issues with back rubbers, dust bags and trap.  Restrict access to minerals or water (forced use).  Individual animals may not use the sprayer (observe).  Cattle should be acclimated to sprayer.  Inert ingredients (xylene) in some insecticide formulations will damage pump. Most animal insecticides work fine (exception: Ravap, but formulation may be changed to remove xylene). 

http://www.uaex.edu/Other_Areas/publications/PDF/FSA-7031.pdf

Consult MP 144 “Insecticide Recommendations for Arkansas” which is updated yearly. http://www.uaex.edu/Other_Areas/publications/HTML/MP-144.asp Read and follow the insecticide label.

Family Muscidae Face Fly Musca autumnalis

Face Fly – Economic Importance Musca autumnalis  Introduced into North America in 1952, native to Europe, China, North Africa, etc.  Economic losses from decreased weight gain, decreased milk production, and mechanical transmission of pinkeye  Does not reach pest status every year in Arkansas, usually only a major problem 1 or 2 years out of every 5 years. More of a pest in north Arkansas than south Arkansas 

Face flies on cow (left) and calf infected with pinkeye (right).

Face Fly

Face Fly Biology Intermittent feeders  Females feed on secretions around the eyes and on saliva (ptotein for egg production)  Female and Male feed on nectar and pollen  Once feeding is complete the female leaves the host 

Adult female lays eggs on fresh cattle manure  Eggs hatch into larvae  Larvae develop in the manure  Larvae pupate in soil near manure pat  Adults emerge from pupae (white)  Life cycle from egg to adult is from 11 - 17 days  Overwinter as adults 

Face Fly Life Cycle

Face Fly Management Face fly are difficult to control because they are found on the face (hard to treat area) and spend little time on the host.  Insecticide treatment may be necessary when an average of 10 flies per animal (face) are present.  Face flies are equally attracted to adult cattle and calves.  Self treatment devices (back and face rubbers, dust bags, face misters) provide control.  Insecticide impregnated ear tags provide limited control (pyrethroid ear tags (2 per animal) are generally more effective for face flies than the organophosphates). 

Consult MP 144 “Insecticide Recommendations for Arkansas” which is updated yearly. http://www.uaex.edu/Other_Areas/publications/HTML/MP-144.asp Read and follow the insecticide label.

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