3.3 Intratextual Factors
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The Twilight Saga: Literary Translation A comparative analysis of the translations of the Twilight Series
November 2010 Stinne Bjerrekær Elkjær Vejleder: Anne Schjoldager Cand.ling.merc. TT, Engelsk Det erhvervssproglige kandidatstudium i engelsk ISEK Aarhus School of Business, University of Aarhus
Title Sheet Thesis Title:
The Twilight Saga – Literary Translation. A comparative analysis of the translations of the Twilight series.
Stinne Bjerrekær Elkjær
1st November 2010
Cand.ling.merc TT English
Number of Characters:
176.099 (80 standard pages)
1. INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................................... 4 1.1 PROBLEM STATEMENT ............................................................................................................................ 5 2. LITERARY TRANSLATION .................................................................................................................... 6 2.1 DEFINITION OF LITERATURE ................................................................................................................... 6 2.2 DEFINITION OF LITERARY TRANSLATION ............................................................................................... 9 2.3 THE THEORIES BEHIND LITERARY TRANSLATION ................................................................................ 10 2.3.1 Eugene A. Nida .............................................................................................................................. 10 2.3.2 Lawrence Venuti ............................................................................................................................ 12 2.3.3 Christiane Nord ............................................................................................................................. 13 2.4 CHALLENGES OF LITERARY TRANSLATION........................................................................................... 15 3. ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORK.............................................................................................................. 17 3.1 TEXT ANALYSIS IN TRANSLATION ........................................................................................................ 17 3.1.1 Important Factors in Translation Process ..................................................................................... 18 3.2 EXTRATEXTUAL FACTORS..................................................................................................................... 20 3.3 INTRATEXTUAL FACTORS ...................................................................................................................... 21 3.4 MACRO STRATEGIES ............................................................................................................................. 21 3.5 MICRO STRATEGIES ............................................................................................................................... 22 4. TWILIGHT – THE PHENOMENON ..................................................................................................... 23 4.1 GENRE ................................................................................................................................................... 23 4.2 THE TWILIGHT SAGA ............................................................................................................................. 25 4.2.1 Twilight .......................................................................................................................................... 26 4.2.2 New Moon ...................................................................................................................................... 26 4.2.3 Eclipse............................................................................................................................................ 27 4.2.4 Breaking Dawn .............................................................................................................................. 28 4.2.5 Other Related Publications ............................................................................................................ 30 4.2.6 Movies ............................................................................................................................................ 30 4.2.7 Translations ................................................................................................................................... 32 4.3 SYMBOLISM ........................................................................................................................................... 32 4.3.1 Literary References ........................................................................................................................ 32 4.3.2 The Vampires ................................................................................................................................. 33 4.3.3 The Titles........................................................................................................................................ 34
5. TRANSLATION ANALYSIS OF THE TWILIGHT SAGA ................................................................ 35 5.2 SOURCE TEXT ANALYSIS - TWILIGHT ................................................................................................... 35 5.2.1 First Sight - summary .................................................................................................................... 36 5.2.2 Extratextual Factors ...................................................................................................................... 36 5.2.3 Intratextual Factors ....................................................................................................................... 39 5.3 TARGET TEXT ANALYSIS - TUSMØRKE ................................................................................................. 43 5.3.1 Extratextual Factors ...................................................................................................................... 43 5.3.2 Intratextual Factors ....................................................................................................................... 45 5.4 MACRO STRATEGY ................................................................................................................................ 48 5.5 MICRO STRATEGIES ............................................................................................................................... 51 5.5.1 Dominant Micro Strategies ............................................................................................................ 51 5.6 OTHER TRANSLATION ISSUES ............................................................................................................... 55 5.7 SOURCE TEXT ANALYSIS – NEW MOON................................................................................................ 59 5.7.1 Party - Summary ............................................................................................................................ 59 5.7.2 Extratextual Factors ...................................................................................................................... 60 5.7.3 Intratextual Factors ....................................................................................................................... 61 5.8 TARGET TEXT ANALYSIS - NYMÅNE ..................................................................................................... 64 5.8.1 Extratextual Factors ...................................................................................................................... 64 5.8.2 Intratextual Factors ....................................................................................................................... 66 5.9 MACRO STRATEGY ................................................................................................................................ 67 5.10 MICRO STRATEGIES ............................................................................................................................. 69 5.10.1 Dominant Micro Strategies .......................................................................................................... 70 5.11 OTHER TRANSLATION ISSUES ............................................................................................................. 76 6. RESULTS ................................................................................................................................................... 78 6.1 EXTRA- AND INTRATEXTUAL FACTORS ................................................................................................ 79 6.2 MACRO STRATEGY ................................................................................................................................ 80 6.3 MICRO STRATEGIES ............................................................................................................................... 81 6.4 THE BEST TRANSLATION ....................................................................................................................... 83 6.5 THE CHANGE IN TRANSLATOR .............................................................................................................. 83 7. CONCLUSION .......................................................................................................................................... 85 8. DATA LIST ................................................................................................................................................ 88 9. REFERENCE LIST .................................................................................................................................. 88
1. Introduction My motivation behind this thesis was primarily my wish to become a literary translator. I have always read many books and love to be swept away by a good story. So to think that it might actually be a possibility to get a job, where I would get to do that all day long and be able to retell the story to other people was a much desired dream. However, I realised that I did not know much about translating literature. I had not been introduced to it in my studies, nor do I know any literary translators. In order to learn more about this vast field of translation, I decided to write a thesis about it. It proved quite difficult, though, to only write about literary translation. The art of translating literature is quite elusive and abstract. There are many theories behind and there are many opinions on how it is done best. Every theorist seems to think that their way is the superior and that theirs is the only way to translate literature. There was so much literature about literary translation I got lost trying to make sense of it all. Instead I figured it would be a good idea to look at what other literary translators have done and analyse that in order to see which strategies and theories they have worked with. To achieve that, I would need some good data. I admit that I am a huge fan of the Twilight Saga. I have read all the books numerous times, and each time I get swept away by Bella and Edward’s love story and the challenges they face, before they get to live their life in peace. When my friend first introduced me to it, I was somewhat sceptic. Vampires falling in love with human girls… While shining like diamonds… And not drinking human blood?! It sounded a bit weird. Vampires are supposed to be creepy monsters, sleeping in motes and only coming out at night to prey on innocent girls and women, like we know it from Dracula. In spite of my reluctant approach I was soon hooked, reading all four books – 2444 pages – in less than a week. The phenomenon has swept across the world and has gathered even more followers wherever the books were released. Upon talking to a friend about the greatness of the series, she told me that she did not quite see the appeal. She had not found the first book that exciting or sweeping as I had. She had read the Danish translation and I had read the original. This made me wonder about the quality of the Danish translation. She had not had the same experience as I had, which is, ideally, what a translator should aim at accomplishing; the target text receivers should have the same experience as the source text receivers, depending on the intended function of the text, of course. It made me look into the problem and indeed I found out that the Danish translation was not optimal nor did it provide the reader with the same experience as the source text did. A closer look at the rest of the series revealed that a different translator had translated the three remaining books in the series, and so the plot thickened. Why would the Danish publisher change
translator? I decided to find out what the first translator, Birgitte Brix, had done when she translated Twilight, the first instalment in the series. Then I would compare it to what the next translator, Tina Sakura Bestle, had done with New Moon, the second instalment in the series. So, this became the starting point for my thesis. 1.1 Problem Statement The problem statement I will be working with is as follows:
What is literary translation?
With what strategies have Twilight and New Moon been translated into Danish?
Are there any differences between the two translations?
Is there room for improvement?
In the following thesis I will work with the Danish translations of the books Twilight and New Moon, written by author Stephenie Meyer, part of the popular Twilight Saga. Firstly, I will make an introduction to the field of literary translation, which is the backbone of the thesis, and I will provide a definition of literature and literary translation. There are many theories behind literary translation, but it seems insurmountable to outline and discuss every theory that has been made with regards to literary translation in the limited scope of a thesis. Thus I will choose three important theorists who have been prominent in the ever ongoing discussion about the aims of literary translation. Secondly, I will briefly introduce the model for translation-oriented analysis set forth by Christiane Nord, which will form the basis for the analysis. Thirdly, I will discuss the Twilight phenomenon, where I will summarise each book and briefly introduce what more the phenomenon has brought about. There will also be an analysis of the symbolism found in the series. Fourthly, I will analyse the two Danish translations of the books Twilight and New Moon. The original versions and the Danish translations will be subjected to Christiane Nord’s model for translation-oriented analysis, where I will analyse the extra- and intratextual factors of all four texts, and then identify the macro strategies and micro strategies the translators have worked with during their translations. I will also address other interesting translation issues found in the Danish translations. To conclude the analysis I will compare the strategies the two translators have worked with and determine which the best strategy is in the given case. In the thesis source text and target text will unconditionally be abbreviated with ST and TT.
2. Literary Translation There are many different kinds of translations that comprise the field of translation. While studying for my master degree I have been introduced to legal, financial and technical translation, as well as the translation of common texts. However, one of the areas of translation I was not introduced to is literary translation. This particular area of translation is very vast and elusive, and in the following section I will make an introduction to literary translation by defining what literary translation is. Some of the theories behind literary translation will be discussed and I will also examine the challenges a literary translator could be faced with.
Before commencing on this section I have to clarify the scope of it. Literature and thus literary translation covers many different kinds of texts, from stories, poems and plays to academic texts on a subject (Macmillan, 2002: 834). In this section literature will refer to all any form of printed books in all shapes and sizes. Whenever I write about translators I am referring to literary translators, unless anything else is stated.
2.1 Definition of Literature Literature is a phenomenon which is difficult to define. If the word is looked up in a dictionary, such as the Macmillan English Dictionary, the definition is this: Literature: 1. stories, poems, and plays, especially those that are considered to have value as art and not just entertainment: great works of literature ♦ She is studying German language and literature. 2. books or other printed information about a subject: Police discovered racist literature in his home. 2a. academic books and articles about a particular subject: + on Recent literature on cancer emphasises the importance of diet.(Macmillan 2002: 834). If you look up the Danish word litteratur1, in a Danish encyclopaedia the definition is this: Litteratur, opr. alt skrevet, efter bogtrykkerkunstens opfindelse alt trykt; fra ca. 1800 især om kunstneriske udformede tekster. Man skelner i dag mellem kunstnerisk,
fiktionspræget litteratur (skønlitteratur) og faglitteratur2. (Löb, 2005: 576)
According to Ida Klitgård 3 literature is characterised by its non-commercial and fictional nature, its genre conventions as an art-form and the inherent “tension”, which is the central argument in the text, often constituting a conflict between an individual and the society. The essence of literature is when an author is telling an imaginative story, but actually tells another, more important underlying story by way of similarities (Klitgård, 2008: 249). Based on these three definitions it seems there is an agreement that a work is deemed as literature especially when it has a value of art. But who is to determine what art is? The Macmillan dictionary defines art as this: Art1: 1. [U] paintings, drawings, and SCULPTURES that are created to be beautiful or to express ideas: Do you like modern art? ♦ the art of ancient Mexico. 1a. something that people feel has value because it is beautiful or expresses ideas: Are these films art or entertainment? 2. (…) 3. arts. [plural] subjects of study that are not scientific, such as history, literature, and languages: the Faculty of Arts ♦ an arts graduate/degree/subject ♦ the decorative/graphis arts. 4. (…) 5. (…) (Macmillan, 2002: 65).
It becomes clear that art, as literature, covers many forms. The definition given in 1a might be the key as to why and how literature can be defined as art. A novel can be both beautiful and express ideas of the author’s. However, an even more important notion is evident in the definition: something that people feel has value. The perception of what art is, and thus literature, lies with the people who see, and read, it. This would suggest that the notion of literature is actually determined
[Literature: org. everything written, after the invention of the art of printing everything in printing; since 1800 especially about artistically produced texts. Today there is a distinction between artistic literature, fiction and nonfiction.] 3 Ida Klitgård is a Danish professor at Roskilde University and she holds a cang.mag. of English and Translation Studies. Her research areas are academic writing, rhetorics, textual analysis, the internationalisation process in the Danish universities and more (www.ruc.dk).
by the culture in which these people live. According to Gideon Toury4 that is exactly the case. Literature is first and foremost a cultural institution, he claims. In every culture there are certain features, models, techniques and text utilising them, which are regarded as literary. Their literariness is established in terms of a given cultural system (Toury, 1995: 170). By way of this definition another interesting aspect comes to mind. If literature is based on cultural systems, then is literature in one culture also considered as literature in another culture?
Throughout my research I have encountered numerous references to many of the great writers through time; Homer, Shakespeare, Dostoyevsky, Lewis Carroll and many more (See Schjoldager, 2008, Hasselbalch et al, 1999, Weissbort, 2006 for examples). There seems to be an agreement among theorists and linguists that before novels can be considered as literature they need to be deemed as art. However, in my opinion, that leaves out quite a few novels. Of course, some literary works are greater and deserve the praise and recognition they have already received, such as the works of the aforementioned authors. They have revolutionised the literary genre, they have contributed to the evolvement of the Human Race and changed lives. However, the definition of literature as set forth by, e.g., the aforementioned theorists does pose a problem. All the other novels, short stories, poems and plays, at any given time, written by unknown authors do not get the recognition they might deserve with this definition of literature hovering over the genre. Is what they have written simply a text that falls into oblivion to never get categorised or recognised by literary theorists? Prior to the research I have done in connection with this thesis my definition of literature has always been that literature comprised any form of printed books in all shapes and sizes. This broad definition will have to be the basis for my discussion. If literature is only deemed as such due to the artistic quality inherent in the story, then there is much literature, by my definition, that goes undefined. One of my first thoughts after reading the aforementioned definition was that it would entail that the data I have chosen for analysis later in this thesis cannot even be defined as literature, and if it cannot be defined as such, how am I to base an entire thesis on that premise? Based on the two dictionary entries quoted above, there is a clear cultural element present. The Macmillan entry is English and the dictionary is printed in England. The entry shows the English perception of what 4
Gideon Toury is an influential theorist in the field of Translation Studies. He is a Professor of Poetics, Comparative Literature and Translation Studies at Tel Aviv University. He participated in developing “polysystem theory” along with other prominent translation theorists, and has through extensive empirical analysis defined his definition of “translation norms” (Gentzler, 2001: 123-131). He has also further developed the studies of descriptive analysis (Toury, 1995).
literature is and how it is defined. As much of the research I have done have been in English and from English publications, the cultural element shines through and shows that there is in fact a difference. In England literature has to be of an artistic quality, while in Denmark we regard everything printed as being literature, and then have more sub-divisions into genres. This explains why there was a discrepancy between my own presumptions and the statements I found in my research. The Twilight Saga has not been deemed as high literature or art in any way, nor has it been canonised as the aforementioned authors have. Stephenie Meyer was at the time of publication a completely unknown author, and her story was unlike anything at the time. According to my own – Danish – definition, though, The Twilight Saga does fall under the definition as being literature, and that is the basis of my thesis. The staggering sales figures of the Twilight Saga support my statement: 100 million books worldwide (publishersweekly.com), and counting. As discussed earlier, the definition that Klitgaard has put forward bears the signs of the Danish cultural influence. As she claims, literature is characterised by its non-commercial and fictional nature, which is also the state of The Twilight Saga. The genre conventions are fulfilled, with it being published as a book, and there is an inherent tension and conflict in the story of Bella and Edward, which I will cover in section 4. Another important element is the opinions of the readers. The enormous target group of the Twilight Saga seems to agree that the series is literature and that the story is definitely worth reading and worth the praise it have been given.
2.2 Definition of Literary Translation In order for a translation to be deemed as literary it would mean that literature is being translated; that the ST is defined as literature in the ST culture. However, based on Toury’s claim, the TT culture might not deem the ST to be literature in their culture. The TT culture might be using different features, models and techniques when it comes to literature. As he puts it, only rarely will two different systems fully concur. So, in order for a translation to be a literary translation the result of the translation must be acknowledged as literature in the target situation and culture, thus bearing the target literature requirements upon it (Toury, 1995: 170). The translation of literature then entails that the text conforms to models and norms which are deemed literary at the target end. The ST being conformed to the target culture entails that some of the features that determined the text to be literature in the source culture are suppressed, even those which marked it as literary in the first place. It also entails the addition of other features that will enhance the acceptability of the translation as a target literary text (Toury, 1995: 171).
Based on Toury’s claims, a broad definition of what a literary translation is now established; a literary translation is a translation of a text deemed literary in the source culture, which conforms – translates – to the requirements of a literary text in the target culture.
2.3 The Theories behind Literary Translation There are several approaches to literary translation, each with their own advantages and disadvantages. Literary translation is an elusive craft and it cannot be put into boxes or models where there are a set of approved or fixed terminology and layout, as seen in, i.e. translation of legal documents. That entails that there are no specific models or just one theory which literary translators can follow. Throughout my research into the field of literary translation I have not yet encountered an established theory that has been produced with the sole purpose of aiding literary translators in their work. However, within the field of literary translation there are many theorists with each their own views on what is best for any given translation and how literature is best translated. In the following I will outline the opinions and approaches of three influential theorists in translation studies.
2.3.1 Eugene A. Nida Eugene A. Nida is one of the most influential theorists regarding literary translation. His Towards a Science of Translating (1964) is still very relevant and is still being discussed and further developed by other theorists. Though his focus of translation has primarily been on Bible translations he has developed a theory which can be applied to any type of translation. He emphasises the need of better models, resources and training for the translator. He designed an approach that would enable the translator to capture the meaning and spirit of the ST (Weissbort, 2006: 346), which is very relevant when it comes to literary translation. In literary translation one of the main challenges is to convey the spirit of the ST to the TT, and Nida’s approach is a good tool for achieving that. Nida has a linguistic approach to translation. A linguistic approach is based on the study of how a language works. The theorists working with this approach tend to focus on the micro structure of a text, words and units, which leads to a strong ST-orientation. This would then entail some opposition to the notion of “free translation” (Enghild, 2001: 4). In translation studies there is the never-ending discussion as to whether ST orientation or TT orientation is the better alternative. There are also many “labels” for either orientation, and in the dichotomy Nida works with the
distinction is between literal and free translation. Nida is in favour of the notion of “free translation”, despite the fact that translators working with the linguistic approach in normally in favour of literal translation (Enghild, 2001: 4). Nida has made his own formulation of the facets of translation strategy, where he has labelled the two opposites as “the letter vs. the spirit” (Nida, 1964: 2-3). Literal translation focuses on word-to-word translations and is, as such, very SToriented, which would mean that the translator focuses on the letter rather than the message of the text. As Nida has formulated it, adherence to the letter may indeed kill the spirit (Nida, 1964: 161), which leads us to the notion of spirit. The message, purpose or intention can also be named the spirit of a text, which is what Nida is referring to here. A literal translation with a word-to-word strategy can make a translation clumsy and unnatural in the target language, especially if the translator insists on making the TT comprise as many letters, literally, as the ST (Enghild, 2001: 5). One of the notions that Nida has really set forth is the notion of equivalence. There are two types of equivalence; formal and dynamic. If a translator works with a strategy of formal equivalence the focus is on the message in both form and content. The translator will attempt to reproduce as literally and meaningfully as possible the form and content of the original. The receiver will be able to identify himself as fully as possible with a character in the source culture and context and be introduced to thoughts, customs and means of expression (Nida, 1964: 156-160). Nida is in favour of the dynamic equivalence, an approach which was designed to enable the translator to capture the meaning and spirit of the original language without the limitations of its linguistic structure (Weissdort, 2006: 346). While formal equivalence was based on structural equivalence dynamic equivalence is based on the principle of equivalent effect. Nida argued that in a translation based on the notion of dynamic equivalence “the relationship between receptor and message should be substantially the same as that which existed between the original receptors and the message” (Nida, 1964: 159). With this he is saying that the TT receivers should have the same experience as the ST readers, which could be interpreted as meaning that the function of the text is more important than the form and the words. There is no absolute correspondence between languages which means that there cannot be an exact translation of the languages either (Nida, 1964: 156). Of course, the notions of formal and dynamic equivalence are two poles, and there are varying degrees as to the application of these two strategies. It is difficult for a translator to only comply fully with one of these strategies and s/he will often make use of both in order to produce a naturalness of expression, but also stay loyal to the ST. In high literature it might be appropriate to use the formal equivalence approach and stay loyal to
the form and content of the ST. If the translator uses the dynamic equivalence approach it might entail that the author’s intentions do not come across in the translation.
2.3.2 Lawrence Venuti Lawrence Venuti is also a very influential theorist in translation studies. He works as a translator and has also published influential works which have set their mark on translation studies, such as The Translator’s Invisibility – A History of Translation (1995). In the text sampled in Weissdort, 2006, Translation as Cultural Politics: Regimes of Domestication in English, Venuti makes rather harsh assertions about the actual act of translation. Based on a statement from Roland Barthes5, Venuti compares translation to terrorism and violence committed on language and cultures. He states that “the power of translation to (re)constitute and cheapen foreign texts, to trivialise and exclude foreign cultures, and thus potentially to figure in racial discrimination and ethnic violence, international political confrontations, terrorism, war” (Venuti, 1993: 208-223). It seems that he is actually against the whole institution of translation, because it violates the original language of a text, and if a text is stripped of some of its cultural determiners in the course of translation it might actually lead to war. This statement does seem a bit far-fetched, but his views are at least worth considering because to a certain extent he is right. Translation is a violation of the original language, because it can never be reproduced with the exact same meaning, tension and significance as the author intended. As Venuti also states, translation is forcible replacement of the linguistic and cultural difference of the foreign text with a text that will be intelligible to the target-language reader (Venuti, 1993: 208-223). To return to the topic at hand, Venuti brings another set of translation strategies to the mix. He has chosen to label the two opposite strategies domestication vs. foreignizing (Weissbort, 2006: 546). The domesticating method aims at the “ethnocentric reduction of the foreign text to target-language cultural values”. To put it in simpler terms, this means that the author is brought home to the reader. The context of the text is moved to the reader (Venuti, 1993: 208-223). This means that the translator makes the elements in the text relatable to the reader by familiarising them. So, to compare and relate this to the concepts already discussed, this will be along the lines of TT orientation and, in Nida’s terms, dynamic equivalence. The translator will minimise the original content of cultural values and replace them with cultural values from the target culture.
A metalanguage is always terrorist. Weissdort, 2006: 546.
As a contrast there is the foreignizing translation strategy. When a translator works with this strategy s/he will put an “ethnodeviant pressure on those [cultural] values to register the linguistic and cultural difference of the foreign text”. Also put in simpler terms, the reader is sent abroad to the author (Venuti, 1993: 208-223). As can be concluded from the introductory statements about translation leading to war if the cultural differences are ignored or forcibly removed from a text, Venuti seems to be in favour of the foreignizing method. Based on the article mentioned above Venuti seems to be against the fact that, according to him, the domesticating method has been the preferred method of translating in the Anglo-American culture in many years. He even suggests that the foreignizing method should be promoted as a strategic intervention in the current state of world affairs (Venuti, 1993: 208-223). This is an interesting aspect in today’s state of world affairs, where the Western world experiences continuous clashes with the Muslim society of the world. Had the literature always been translated with Venuti’s views in mind there might not be such a big gap between the two worlds as they would have been introduced to each other through literature. If one culture was used to experiencing other, and many, cultures through literature they might not seem that different and scary when we encounter them in real life. Translated literature based on Venuti’s views would lead to a better understanding of new cultures and religions, as well.
2.3.3 Christiane Nord Christiane Nord is a German translation theorist, who believes in a functional approach to translation. The most important aspect of the functional approach is that there is set a function for the TT before it is translated and the translator will use the relevant translation strategies to make the TT fulfil the intended function. Nord has produced models, one of which I will employ later in the thesis, that are very functional in the translation process and which are designed to be of use in both translator training and for established translators, and which can be applied to any text type (Nord, 2005: 1-3). Nord is primarily known for her further development of the skopos theory, as set forth by Hans J. Vermeer and Katharina Reiss6. One element of the skopos theory is the relevance of the ST. According to Vermeer and Reiss the ST is merely an offer of information, meaning that the focus
The skopos theory is based on the assumption that every translation has an aim and that the translator should choose translation strategies that will best enable the TT to fulfil that aim. Every translation should have a skopos (Schjoldager, 2008: 154).
should be on producing a functional TT not being bound by the restrictions presented by the ST, but Nord sees the ST as being of great importance in the translation process; “there can be no process of “translation” without a source text” (Nord, 2005, 32). She has developed the concept of loyalty, which means that the translator should always stay loyal to both the ST sender and the TT receivers. As the translator is part of both cultures s/he is bilaterally committed to staying loyal to both sides to the extent possible. Nord also has her own macro strategies which will be the final pair poured into the strategy mix of literary translation in this thesis. She works with the concepts of documentary and instrumental translation. A documentary translation will focus on a word-for-word approach, which will entail an exoticizing of the text and a preservation of “local colour” of the ST. In other words, the ST is being reproduced for the new TT receivers (Nord, 2005: 80). An instrumental translation is a communicative instrument in its own right, where the message is being conveyed directly from the ST sender to the TT receivers (Nord, 2005: 80). There are three kinds of instrumental translation types. The first type is called equifunctional translation. This means that the TT can fulfil the same function as the ST did. The second type is called heterofunctional translation. This is used in case the TT receivers will not be able to understand the ST function(s). The functions will then be adapted so that the TT receivers will be able to understand them, though the TT functions may not be in violation of the sender’s intention and they must still be compatible with the ST functions. The third type is called homologous translation. Here the translator will reproduce the same effect the ST had in its own literary context in the TT literary context (Nord, 2005: 81). Even though Nord claims that the ST is one of the most important factors in the translation process, she still disregards the importance of the ST when it comes to the actual process of translating. Theorists with a functional approach are often concerned with ensuring that the TT fulfils its intended function, and it seems as though that can be done regardless of what the ST contains or dictates. The focus on the function of the TT hints at the notion that Nord is in favour of an instrumental translation, where the translation functions as a communicative instrument in its own right. Nord states that loyalty is very important in translation, but it will prove rather difficult to remain loyal to the ST and the sender’s intentions if the initiator of the translation sets forth a function for the TT that is in violation with the sender’s intentions or demands a change of some form in the ST, be it in layout, a change in the presuppositions the author has made or in the intended effect of the TT.
2.4 Challenges of Literary Translation The purpose of a literary text can be manifold and difficult to determine for someone other than the author. The author wrote the novel with the intention of accomplishing something with the readers, but who is to say what those intentions were? Usually, the author has something he wants to express and communicate to his audience. However, the translator is not guaranteed access to the author to question him about the intention behind his novel; he might be dead, or simply unavailable. The translator has to understand and transmit the purpose of a text in order to do a translation, where the intentions of the translator match those of the author (Klitgård, 2008: 250). The theme and purpose of the Twilight Saga is also manifold. The surface story is about Bella and Edward’s love for each other, which is a constant theme throughout the series. On a deeper level, Meyer could be communicating, or expressing her opinion on, how love conquers all, about eternal and unconditional love, but also love in spite of “race” with Bella and Edward being two different kinds of “people”, and love in spite of complications and drama.
When working with literature there seems to be problems related to the analysis of the ST, which is made in order to establish the purpose and before beginning a translation. Andrew Bennett7 has identified the following pitfalls. The fallacy of singularity, which means that literary texts can be full of contradictory meanings and ambiguity, thereby not having a single unequivocal meaning. This leads to the next pitfall; the fallacy of comprehensive comprehension. There are several ways of understanding a text. “Similarly, it is often at points where the “meaning” appears to be obscure or complex that literary texts are working most intensively. Literary texts often appear to bend or distort “ordinary” language – but always for a purpose (even if that purpose involves an exploration or demonstration of purposelessness)”. This statement does not necessarily apply to the Twilight Saga. The meaning or purpose of Twilight does not seem to be complex or obscure, but to be a simple love story with many different scenarios. However, a story can be understood in many ways, depending on the reader’s own situation at the time of reading the story (Nord, 2005: 17). It is difficult, though, to know exactly what meaning or purpose the author intended the reader to conclude from the story, which leads us to this: the fallacy of authorial authority. It is impossible as a reader or translator to know what the author really meant when writing the text; what his real intentions were. A reader participates in creating meanings whenever reading a text, based on his or Andrew Bennett listed these pitfalls in a piece on “Literary Studies” in a course reader for English students at Aalborg University. All the following “pitfalls” and quotations are from Bennet 1994. This list and reference was found in Klitgård 2008: 254. 7
her own assumption and imagination, and the author might not even have intended the meanings some readers come up with. When a text can contain many different meanings it must be difficult for a translator to fully understand the layers of the text, and thereby being able to translate all of the layers as they were intended by the author, which means that the translator could experience difficulties in deciding how the translation is to touch or move the target reader (Klitgård, 2008: 250). According to Thomas Harder8 and the dissertation he has written in Danske Afhandlinger om Oversættelse (1995), there are many challenges combined with literary translation. One of the important issues is not necessarily what the translator does not know, but it is what the translator thinks s/he knows. False friends can put the translator in situations that could have been avoided, if the translator would stop and think about the situation at hand and not being too confident of their own knowledge (Harder, 1995: 11-12). From this can be inferred that it is very important to do research on the subject the novel is concerned with. If the translator does this s/he will be able to produce a translation that is more likely to create the same effect with the TT receivers as with the ST receivers. Another important issue to consider in translation is the extent to which the TT bears signs of the ST. This means that a translation can often bear signs of the original text and the grammatical structure inherent in the given ST language. According to Harder it is important for the translator to ask “what would one say in Danish?” There is a constant question of whether the translator should follow the structure of the ST unit, resulting in unnatural Danish sentences, or change the ST structure to a natural Danish structure, while compromising on a stylistic point made by the author. An extreme case of trying to be loyal to the ST structure can lead to the TT bearing signs of translationese. Translationese is a term used to define the situation where a translated text lacks the original smoothness or the text has a special awkwardness to it (Boase-Beier, 2006: 89). This usually happens when the translator tries to adapt the language of the ST to the TT, but ends up with a “third” language in between both languages, resulting in the translation having a language of its own (Boase-Beier, 2006: 25). One of the biggest challenges for a literary translator is the whole cultural element inherent in every publication and text production. It can only be assumed how difficult it can be to detect every cultural element or reference. Some cultures will be very far apart, and it will be very difficult for the two cultures to understand the frame of references they each have. The translator will have a 8
Thomas Harder holds a cand.mag in Italian and History, translates Italian and English literature to Danish and he also works as an interpreter, author of books about Italy, Rom and London, and he also works as a writer for Weekendavisen (DAO, 1995: 7).
huge responsibility to basically act as a mediator between two cultures. The ideal situation for a translator is to not only be bilingual, but also bicultural. The translator will know much about his/her own culture, the TT culture, while knowing preferably as much about the author’s culture, the ST culture. This will enable the translator to make translation choices that will convey and adapt the ST cultural information into information that will make sense in the TT culture. The knowledge of the ST culture will enable the translator to reconstruct the possible reactions of the ST receivers, and their knowledge of the TT culture allows the translator to anticipate the possible reactions of the TT receivers (Nord, 2005: 12-13).
3. Analytical Framework Some theorists, such as Venuti, claim that the ST is the most important factor when translating, while others, like Nida and Nord, claim that the effect of the novel on the target audience9 is what should be focussed on most. However, all these theorists and translators disagreeing and not acknowledging anyone else’s theories have led to a lack of a specific analytical model for translation. In the following section I will be examining the analytical framework as set forth by Christiane Nord. In the 2005 translated version of her 1988 book, Text Analysis in Translation – Theory, Methodology, and Didactic Application of a Model for Translation-Oriented Analysis, Nord states how important text analysis in the process of translation, and she proposes a model suited for all kinds of text types. This model will be the basis of my analysis in section 5.
3.1 Text Analysis in Translation One of the most important aspects of translation according to Nord is the need of comprehensive analysis before and while translating. Nord, as mentioned in the previous chapter, believes in a functional approach to translation. When working with a functional approach focus is not on the ST and its effect on the ST receivers, nor its original function (Nord, 2005: 10). This is, however, what characterises the equivalence-based approach. The functional approach focuses on the intended function of the TT, which in another term is called the “skopos” of a text. The intended function of the TT is based on the needs of the initiator, which should be put forward in a translator’s brief (Nord, 2005: 10). These terms will be explained and defined later in this section. 9
In this section the terms audience and receivers are used interchangeably. The term audience is the one Nord uses in her theory. I use the term receiver, but they refer to the same entity. The term target group will also refer to the same entity as receivers and audience.
3.1.1 Important Factors in Translation Process There are factors in a translation process that have to be present. In the following I will identify the two most important factors of translation, which are the initiator and the translator. Nord does not list the receivers as being one of the more important factors in the translation process, but she does imply that the process of text reception is of importance.
a. The Initiator and Brief Some people might be of the impression that the ST is the most important factor in the translation process. However, as important as it may be, it is not the most important factor. In order for a translation to even take place an initiator is needed. The initiator starts the process of translation and determines its course (Nord, 2005: 9). The initiator wants the translation for a specific purpose and s/he needs the TT as a communicative instrument. The translator will, ideally, receive a brief, where the intended function (skopos) of the TT is outlined, and where everything the translator needs to know about the assignment is stated (Schjoldager, 2008: 153). However, not all initiators are capable of defining a brief for the translator and cannot communicate to the translator what the function of the TT really is. In these cases the translator will have to decode the information given by the initiator about the target situation into a practicable definition of the TT skopos (Nord, 2005: 10). The initiator and the brief are crucial roles in the translation process. Without these the skopos of the TT is not defined, and an intended function of a translation cannot necessarily be derived from a comprehensive ST analysis. The TT has to have a purpose, in the functional approach point of view (Nord, 2005: 10-11). The TT situation helps define that purpose, and the translator should know as much as possible about the situational factors in the target situation. These factors can be possible receivers, time and place of text reception, intended medium etc. (Nord, 2005: 11). Information about the addressees is very important when establishing a function of a text in the brief. So, if the translator knows as much as possible about the intended target group it will be easier for her/him to choose the correct translation strategies and adapt the text to them. As has been established now, the initiator and the brief are of great importance to the translation process. But what would a translation process be without a translator?
b. The Translator Even though the initiator is the one requesting the translation, the responsibility of the translation lies with the translator. It is the translator who is the expert in this area, and thereby has the
competence to work according to the brief from the initiator and make the text fulfil its intended function. This might be stating the obvious, but the translator is the central element in a translation process. S/he is a part of both the ST culture and the TT culture. The translator receives the ST, although not necessarily as part of the intended target group, and also produces the TT for the target group. When stating that the translator is not necessarily a part of the intended target group, it means that the translator reads the ST for different reasons than the actual receivers. The translator does not read the ST because of their own personal interest or for their own entertainment. They read it because they have to translate it, which also leads to the translator reading the ST with critical eyes and with the purpose of translating the text in mind. The translator will presumably have received the brief before reading the ST, meaning that the translator is already somewhat influenced by the information given in the brief (Nord, 2005: 12). The translator is ideally bi-cultural. Her/his knowledge of the ST culture and the ST situation will enable him to reconstruct the ST into a TT that will produce the same receiver-reactions as the ST receivers had, if this is what the intended function of the translation is. On the other hand, the translator’s knowledge of the TT culture can enable him to predict or anticipate the reactions of the TT receivers, ensuring that the intended function of the translation is fulfilled (Nord, 2005: 12-13).
Without either of these factors a translation process would not exist. In any case, there has to be an initiator who initiates the translation, and to complete the translation a translator is needed. However, the “roles” in a translation situation can be “played” by anyone. The receiver of the translation can also be the initiator, in case he needs the translation for his own personal purposes. Admitted, the translator-role cannot be played by just anyone; the translator will, at least, have to have command of the two languages involved, in order to even make a translation. However, the translator can be the ST receiver, initiator, translator and TT receiver; a Danish English teacher reads an English article about, say, translation theories in a magazine from a translators union and finds the article so interesting that she wants to translate it, which she does as a trained translator, in order for her to use it in one of her Danish classes in school.
c. The Receiver Information about the receivers is very important in the translation process. If the translator does not have any information about the receivers of the TT it can be very hard to achieve the intended
function set forth in the brief. As mentioned earlier, the more information the translator has about the TT receivers, the better s/he can establish the function of the text and fulfil the initiator’s needs (Nord, 2005: 11). However well the brief is formulated and no matter how well the translator makes the text fulfil its function, it can never guarantee the way in which the TT receivers actually receive the text (Nord, 2005: 17-19). When an author writes a text he will have an intention which he wishes to realise through the production of the specific text. The intention will determine the text production strategies, such as elaboration of subject matter, choice of stylistic devices, non-verbal elements and so forth, thus influencing the function of the text (Nord, 2005: 17). However, it cannot be guaranteed that the author’s intention has been successfully realised in the text, meaning that the receivers will not necessarily be able to decode the intention of the author. On the other hand, the intention may have come across quite well, but the receivers have not interpreted the intention as the author intended. This means that receivers cannot always be sure that what they render from a text is in fact the author’s intention (Nord, 2005: 17). This is the case if the author’s intention has not been successfully communicated or if the receivers read the text with their own expectations and inferred their own version of the author’s intention. Text reception is based on individual expectations.
3.2 Extratextual Factors The extratextual factors of a text are the factors of the communicative situation in which the ST is used (Nord, 2005: 41). These factors are part of the external structure of the text, and comprise the following: Sender/Author: Who wrote the text? Sender’s Intention: What was this text written for? Audience: Who is the text directed at? Medium/Channel: By which medium is the text communicated? Place: Where is the text produced and received? Time: When is the text produced and received? Motive: Why is the text produced? Function: With what function was the text written? (Nord, 2005: 42) All of these factors are interdependent. The sender of the text will have her/his own intention and motive with the text. The intention and motive will determine at which target group the text can be or will be directed. The audience determined by the sender’s intention and motive also determines
by which medium the text should be communicated, to some extent. The medium will both influence the time and place of text production, but they will also influence the medium; which medium is even possible to use? All of the abovementioned factors will then influence the function which the receivers of the text will infer from reading the text. The intratextual factors will also be influenced by the extratextual factors.
3.3 Intratextual Factors The intratextual factors of a text are concerned with the text itself, the internal factors, and they comprise the following: Subject Matter: What is the text about? Content: What content or information is presented in the text? Presuppositions: What is not presented in the text? Text Composition: What is the composition or order of the text? Non-verbal elements: Does any non-linguistic or paralinguistic elements accompany the text? Lexis: Which words are used? Sentence Structure: What kinds of sentences are constructed? Suprasegmental Features: In which tone is the text written? (Nord, 2005: 42) The intratextual factors will also be interdependent to a certain extent. The subject matter will determine the content, be it factual or fictional. The content will in turn influence the presuppositions made by the author; if the content is factual the author will be bound by the real world and the presuppositions will be more natural. On the other hand, if the content was fictional presuppositions might not be used to a great extent as the fictional world might not correspond to the real world, and the reader cannot be expected to understand the possible presuppositions. The composition of the text will also influence the lexis and the sentence structure, where the non-verbal elements will accompany the text in one way or another.
3.4 Macro Strategies The concept of macro strategies is an important aspect in translation, especially in relation to the functional approach presented by Nord. The macro strategy is the translator’s overall plan (Schjoldager, 2008: 89). Using the right macro strategy will enable the translator to make the right
adjustments to the text in order for it to fulfil its intended function. In this section I will briefly outline the two main macro strategies as set forth by Anne Schjoldager in her 2008 book, Understanding Translation. I will use her dichotomy of source-text oriented macro strategy and target-text oriented macro strategy. This dichotomy resembles those of Nida, who uses the terms functional equivalence and dynamic equivalence, Venuti, who uses the terms foreignizing and domesticating translation, and Nord, who uses the terms documentary and instrumental translation. A source-text oriented macro strategy enables the translator to stay close and loyal to the form and content of the ST. It also entails an overt translation, where the receiver is aware that s/he is reading a translation (Schjoldager, 2008: 71). A target-text oriented macro strategy enables the translator to focus on the effect of the TT. The translator will adapt the TT to the TT receivers, which means that they might not be aware that they are in fact reading a translation, or in other words, they are reading a covert translation (Schjoldager, 2008: 71).
3.5 Micro Strategies Micro strategies deal with problems at the micro level, which is in connection with words, phrases and sentences. Schjoldager has also provided a dichotomy of micro strategies, which I will use to identify what the translator has done in the translation. Schjoldager’s taxonomy of micro strategies comprises the following: Direct transfer: Transfers something unchanged. Calque: Transfers the structure or makes a very close translation. Direct translation: Translates in a word-for-word procedure. Oblique translation: Translates in a sense-for-sense procedure. Explicitation: Makes implicit information explicit. Paraphrase: Translates rather freely. Condensation: Translates in a shorter way, which may cause implicitation (making explicit information implicit). Adaptation: Recreates the effect, entirely or partially. Addition: Adds a unit of meaning. Substitution: Changes the meaning. Deletion: Leaves out a unit of meaning. Permutation: Translates in a different place (Schjoldager, 2008: 92). These strategies complement the macro strategies, and can be divided as such. Direct transfer,
calque, oblique and direct translation all help the translator working with a source-text oriented macro strategy. The rest of the micro strategies will complement the target-text oriented macro strategy, as they all, in varying degree, change the ST to accommodate the TT receivers.
4. Twilight – The Phenomenon In the following section I will provide an introduction to the phenomenon that is Twilight. Firstly, I will define the genre to which the Saga belongs. Secondly, I will make a summary of each book to provide the full scope of the series. Lastly, I will make an analysis of the symbolism in the series, primarily based on the titles of the books and the content of the first and second instalment in the series, Twilight and New Moon, but also with references to the two other books as well.
4.1 Genre Generally speaking, The Twilight Saga is a series of fiction novels. The audience, as will be described later, consists of teenage- and young girls/women, from the age of 12 and up. The novel can be categorised as a cross-over novel, according to the Danish publisher, Randi Bjerre Høfring at Forlaget Carlsen. It is not a children’s book, nor is it an adult’s novel. It is right in between those two genres, which can be defined as a cross-over genre, or even young-adult genre. Furthermore, the series belong to the genre of fantastic literature. As quoted by Monica Birkler Christensen10 in her dissertation on the translation of a fantasy novel, Christian Arenbrandt11 defines fantastic literature like this: “fantastic literature is literature covering three genres: science fiction, fantasy and horror”. The authors Anne Mette Finderup and Agnete Fog have worked with the fantasy genre and have written the book Worlds of Fantasy in 2005, and according to them the fantasy genre can be rather broadly defined as depicting a story that simply is impossible in real life (Finderup, 2005: 8). There are elements that cannot possibly be completed, executed or produced in our real world, which would mean that it is indeed impossible. Fantasy stories often deal with a metaphorical description of inner conflicts, as Twilight will also prove. The actions of the hero will correspond to an inner development in reality (Finderup, 2005: 9). They also provide a dichotomy of different types of fantasy genres: The Fairy tale, Heroic/High Fantasy, Urban/Contemporary Fantasy, Humorous 10
At the time of the dissertation her name was Monica Møller Christensen. Author of the essay Fantasy – ej blot til lyst printed in Plys 16 Årbog for børne- og ungdomslitteratur, Det fantastiske(s) begær, FANTASY, p. 114. 11
Fantasy, Science Fiction, and Sword and Sorcery. According to Finderup and Fog the fantasy genre generally follows the same conventions. However, there are many minor variations of the conventions based on each author’s own perception of the fantasy genre and their own story. The setting of a fantasy novel can be set in two different worlds. The first world is what is referred to as ‘a second world’, the latter a ‘parallel world’. The ‘second world’ is entirely different and only bears small resemblances to the real world. This kind of world is usually seen in science fiction novels. The ‘parallel world’ co-exists as a part of the real world, but then there is some kind of passageway into the fictional world. This kind of world is usually seen in urban/contemporary fantasy novels, and the most popular example of this kind of novel is the Harry Potter series (Finderup, 2005: 10). Twilight falls into the category of urban/contemporary fantasy novel, because the story takes place in a real city in America. The story also takes place in a parallel world setting. Everything is very realistic and the cities mentioned – Phoenix, Arizona and Forks, Washington – are real cities in America. Bella flies to Forks, begins a regular high school with regular peers and drive a regular old car. All things changes when Edward enters the picture. He and his family function as the passageway into the parallel world where vampires exist and live among humans. The novels also fall into the fantasy genre of vampires. With the production of these novels Meyer might even have created a new sub-genre; vampire romance. Previously vampire stories were very unrealistic, and there was always an element of horror present. The vampires would never go out during the day, sleep in a coffin and turn into a bat if they needed to travel somewhere. At least this seems to be most people’s first thoughts when they think of vampires, and it was also mine. In the Twilight series Meyer has created a vampire world, where a vampire can live and interact with humans and, more importantly, where a vampire can fall in love with a human girl and love her enough to not kill her. These new vampires are inhumanly beautiful, move fast, are strong and shines like diamonds in the sunlight instead of being pale with black hair and pointed teeth, lurking in the dark and bursting into flames in the sunlight. The focus of this genre seems to be the beauty and intense mystery that surrounds the vampires. Bella is consumed with the mystery Edward represents and she wants to be a part of it, which is a new element; not many innocent girls wanted to get bitten by their vampire assailant. Nevertheless, Meyer has still kept an element of horror in the genre, as there are vampires in her world that are dangerous to humans. With these novels Meyer has provided the world with a new take on how modern vampires behave themselves in the world.
4.2 The Twilight Saga Twilight has set its mark on this fairly new century. Let there be no doubt! The series is known throughout the world and already has an established herd of loyal followers; TwiHards. The Twilight Saga was written by the then unknown author Stephenie Meyer. One night she simply dreamed a dream that would eventually turn into one of the most popular series in the world at present time. She had dreamed of a God-like gorgeous man and a simple redheaded girl having an intense conversation. The conversation was about the difficulties of their relationship. The two of them were falling in love with each other, but with him being a vampire he thirsted intensely for her blood, even more so than other human’s blood (stepheniemeyer.com). From this first dream the story kept evolving and soon Bella and Edward became the main characters in Stephenie Meyer’s first published novel, with more to come. On 5th October 2005 the first instalment, Twilight, was published and it did not take long for the American girls to get completely caught up in the romantic drama about Bella and Edward and the challenges they are forced to face, because of their somewhat unconventional relationship. During the first weeks the book hit #5 at New York Times Bestseller List and was named Publishers Weekly Best Book of The Year (stepheniemeyer.com). The book is a young-adult novel about first romances and growing up. The target group of the book is more difficult to determine precisely. The Danish publisher of the Twilight Saga in Denmark, Randi Høfring, describes the books as a crossover novel. The intended target group is young adults from 14 year-old girls and up. However, the actual target group is girls all the way down to 9 years old and up, which could mean that the book could be classified as a children’s book as well. The range of the target group is then quite extensive, ranging from 9 year-old girls to 25 year-old women and 50 year-old moms (twilightmoms.com) with the odd boy or man put into the mix every once in a while. With the theme of the book so universal it is sure to hit a wide target group. Everyone can relate in some way to the intense love of Bella and Edward. Either you are young, waiting and wanting to experience your first love at some point, or you are a bit older, already having experienced the feeling of butterflies in the stomach whenever you see the “love of your life”. It is still fresh in memory how it feels to be the object of someone’s adoration and how you only long to be with your love. Older women might also enjoy reading the books, because they can think back on their young lives and their first love. The basic themes of the books, being love, falling in love and teenage life, are all easily related to, again extending the target group.
4.2.1 Twilight The first book in the series was published on 5th October 2005. Twilight is about Bella Swan and it is written in first person narrative, so the reader follows her perspective. She moves to a small town called Forks in the state of Washington to live with her father. On her first day in high school Bella already feels like an outsider, and is having difficulties adjusting to the wet and foggy weather, which is in complete opposition of Phoenix, where she lived with her mother. She makes friends with some of the people from her class, but the ones that really get her attention is the Cullen family. They are outsiders, like Bella, but mysterious and impossibly beautiful. Bella and the youngest of the Cullen siblings, Edward, develop a relationship that soon becomes close and personal. Bella finds out that Edward and the rest of the Cullens are in fact vampires who are impossibly strong, fast and beautiful, but not the “normal” kind of vampires. The Cullens do not drink blood from humans, but have chosen a more humane form of blood drinking feeding on animals instead. This does not mean that they are immune to the smell of human blood, which still greatly appeals to them all. However, Bella’s blood appeals to Edward more than other peoples blood do. As it is written in the book, Bella is exactly Edward’s brand of heroin (Meyer, 2005: 268). Edward and Bella become a couple and are now faced with the dangers that are inevitably intertwined with the existence of vampires. Soon Bella is hunted by another small coven of vampires, driving Bella and the Cullens into a chase across the country, yet still outsmarted by the trained tracker vampire, James, and his mate, Victoria. James catches Bella and beats her up, ending with biting her to drink her blood, eventually making her a vampire. At that moment Edward arrives, saves Bella and kills James. Bella wants to become a vampire so that she can be with Edward forever, but Edward does not want her to become a “monster” like him. The book ends with them claiming their eternal love for each other, leaving the typical target group reader desperate for more.
4.2.2 New Moon The second instalment of the Saga is called New Moon. The sequel was first published on 21st August 2006, and was much anticipated. The book hit #1 on the New York Times Bestseller List and stayed there for more than 25 weeks (stepheniemeyer.com). In New Moon everything changes. Now the threat to Bella’s life is no longer an enemy vampire, but Edward’s own brother, Jasper. A paper cut and one drop of Bella’s blood from opening a birthday
gift makes Jasper attack her. This proves to Edward how dangerous he and his family are to Bella, and they decide to leave, leaving the broken-hearted Bella behind to go on with her life. She doesn’t. Instead, she turns into a “zombie” doing nothing more than what is required of her, always awaiting Edward’s return. She becomes best friends with Jacob Black from the Quileute Indian Reservation in La Push, close to Forks. Soon she spends every day with him and he is falling in love with her. It turns out that Jacob and the rest of the Quileute boys also have a “magic” secret. They get the ability to turn into werewolves when their mortal enemy, vampires, is within close vicinity. The Cullens have generated the need for werewolves at first; however, they were not a threat to humans, so the pack was small. Now a new threat is closing in, calling for more protection from the wolves; Victoria is trying to get to Bella and kill her. This means an increase in the wolf pack and more danger for Bella. Based on a misunderstanding with Bella jumping off a cliff to get an adrenaline rush, Edward is told that she is dead. He cannot exist in a world where she is not alive, which proves that he never stopped loving her, and he wants to die too. Bella and Edward’s sister, Alice, travel to Italy where Edward has asked the Volturi, a royal vampire family, to kill him. Vampires are not killed easily, like humans, only other vampires (and werewolves) have the strength to do it. The Volturi refuse, and Bella and Edward are reunited in Italy. However, now a more imminent danger lingers, as they have promised the Volturi that Bella will be changed into a vampire soon, otherwise they will kill her, because she knows too much about the secret world of vampires. Back in Forks together Bella and Edward now face the trouble of having to deal with the werewolves and Bella gets caught in a triangle drama between her, her best friend and the love of her life. The book ends with Bella being in even more danger than ever; Victoria is still hunting her and the Volturi are waiting to kill her!
4.2.3 Eclipse The third instalment is called Eclipse and was released on 7th August 2007. It was, if possible, even more anticipated than the sequel. In this book Bella and Edward’s relationship is back to what it was before he left, if not more intensified by their separation. Bella and Jacob are not speaking to each other, but Bella is upset that their friendship is falling apart. She wants to make it up to Jacob, but Edward will not let her anywhere near the dangerous and unstable werewolves. This results in Bella trying to steal away to La Push to see Jacob. Eventually, the three of them make the compromise that Bella is with Jacob while Edward is out hunting to protect Bella as much as possible. Because now the danger scenarios
left open in New Moon are played out. Seattle is experiencing many unexplained deaths and disappearances, and eventually the Cullens find out that someone is creating an army of newborn vampires. A vampire is at their ultimate strongest when they are newborn. The abnormal vampire activity also alerts the Volturi, possibly drawing them to Seattle, as one of their main objectives is to protect the vampire secret, and the newborn vampire army is attracting attention to themselves. This is another problem, because Bella is still human and the Volturi might decide to stop by Forks to check up on the promise Edward and Alice made in Italy about changing Bella. The Cullens find out that the newborn vampire army is created in order to kill the Cullen family, which leads the Cullens to team up with the ever growing Quileute wolf pack to fight the newborns. They also discover that Victoria is in fact behind all these occurrences and that she plans to kill Bella. The fight begins, and ends with the Cullens and the wolves defeating the newborns and Edward kills Victoria. Meanwhile, Edward has asked Bella to marry him in exchange for him changing her, as well as Jacob proclaiming his love for Bella, promising to fight for her as long as her heart is beating. Bella lets him down and Jacob is heart-broken. The book ends happy with no imminent threats hanging over Bella’s head. However, Jacob is so sad that Bella and Edward are getting married that he changes into his wolf-form and runs off, never looking back.
4.2.4 Breaking Dawn Breaking Dawn is the final instalment in the series. The book completes the story of Bella and her encounter with the fantasy world in Forks. It was released on 2nd August 2008 and during the first 24 hours the book sold an astounding 1.3 million copies (stepheniemeyer.com). Breaking Dawn is divided into three parts and is a bit different from the first three books. The first part is written from Bella’s perspective. Edward and Bella get married and go on their honeymoon. On their honeymoon Bella is finally having luck with convincing Edward to have sex. He has been afraid that he would accidentally kill her if he lost control of his instincts during the act. He doesn't kill her, but he does hurt her and she wakes up with bruises all over her body. They keep trying to perfect the act, and one morning Bella wakes up because she feels something in her stomach. It turns out she is pregnant and the baby is growing with rapid speed. It might end up killing Bella, because, as half vampire, it is feeding off her blood. They go home to get Edward's father to help solve the problem, which concludes the first part. The second part of the book is written from Jacob's perspective, so the reader now follows his thoughts and not Bella's. Jacob returned from his escape to see Bella on her wedding day. When Bella and Edward went on their honeymoon Jacob was sure that Bella
would come back a vampire. Now Bella and Edward have returned from their honeymoon Jacob is told that she is sick, but he does not believe that. He thinks she is in the process of becoming a vampire and wants the pack to attack the Cullens for making Bella a vampire. He storms the Cullens house alone only to find out that she is sick from the pregnancy and that the baby is killing her from the inside. Bella refuses to give up the baby and let the others save her. When this part of the story is seen from Jacob's eyes the scope of it becomes more defined. He sees Bella more clearly and can explain better how she looks and how the whole situation is played out. If this part was also seen from Bella's point of view it would probably have been filled with love for the creature inside her and a romanticisation of the self-sacrifice she was doing. This is not the case. When Jacob is telling the story he does not sugar-coat anything, and Bella is in a horrible state with bruises all over and is not able to move on her own. The reader gets an idea of how bad the whole situation, especially when Jacob confront Edward with what is going on. Edward wants Jacob to kill him if Bella dies. Seeing things from Jacob's point of view also allows the reader an inside look into the pack and what goes on there. This insight reveals the fact that Jacob is the true alpha-male of the pack and not Sam, who is currently acting leader. In Jacob's part of the book the pack decides to attack the Cullens and kill Bella's baby, because they are afraid of what it will mean to the safety of the people in Forks and La Push. Jacob goes against the pack, because he does not want to hurt Bella. He breaks his allegiance with the pack, claiming his own right to the alpha position. Leah, a female wolf, chooses to follow Jacob, as does her brother, Seth. Now they are a pack of three, protecting Bella. The original pack does not want to attack when their numbers are diminished. Jacob gets to experience Bella's pregnancy first hand and is with her when the baby is finally strong enough to break all Bella's bones in the attempt to get out. Bella goes into "labour" and actually dies in the process. Edward asks permission from the true alpha to break the treaty between the vampires and the werewolves, which says that none of the Cullens can bite or kill a human being, in order to save Bella. Jacob agrees and Edward starts saving Bella with morphine and vampire venom. The venom heals her body and turns her into a vampire. When Jacob sets eyes on Renesmee, Bella and Edward's daughter, he imprints on her. Imprinting is a werewolf thing, where they find their true mate. This concludes the second part of the book. In the third book the perspective is switched back to Bella. She is in process of becoming a vampire. She endures the pain, waking up to find herself a new reality. She proves to be a very strong and gifted vampire, with many of her human traits intact. Her love for Edward is even more intensified and they are now a happy family. Until the day the Volturi find out that they had a baby. It goes against the vampire "law" to create baby vampires
as they are wilder and cannot be reasoned with. However, Renesmee is not a vampire baby. She is part human, with a beating heart. The Cullens gather all their vampire friends and acquaintances to try to stop the Volturi, or at least to have witnesses if the Volturi decides to kill everyone without due cause. It comes to a strategic fight, where all the “good” vampires and all the wolves team up to defeat the Volturi. The Volturi see that they are outnumbered so they decide to leave again. Nobody dies and now all dangers that Bella was once faced with are gone and she and Edward can go on living their happy vampire lives.
4.2.5 Other Related Publications There has been heavy debate about a fifth book, where the storyline is the same as Twilight, but this time seen from Edward’s point of view (stepheniemeyer.com). However, due to the untimely and illegal leak of the story on the internet Meyer decided to put Midnight Sun, as the title will be, on hold indefinitely. However, the version that was illegally leaked on the internet is now available to anyone interested in reading it on Stephenie Meyer’s webpage. The story provides the reader with a detailed understanding of what kind of man Edward Cullen has been and is. It gives more insight into the vampire world, his feelings and love for Bella and helps intensify the drama further. On 5th June 2010 a short story about a character in Eclipse was released (stepheniemeyer.com). Bree Tanner was one of the people who was changed into a vampire as part of the vampire army Victoria was creating. The novella is simply about Bree and her short after-life as a vampire. The Twilight Saga is now also available in graphic form. At least the first book is. The graphic novel was released on 16th March, 2010. “Translating” the books into graphic novels is a good way to introduce the novels to an even bigger audience and the other books will also follow in due time (stepheniemeyer.com).
4.2.6 Movies On 12th December 2008 the movie, Twilight, premiered in America and was a great success. It had a domestic total gross of $192,769,854 (boxofficemojo.com). It premiered later in Denmark, on 6th February 2009. The movie is based on the novel, Twilight, but not everything in the movie corresponds exactly and precisely to what happens in the book. Initially, it was not a great success in Denmark, but still ended up selling 103,625 tickets (dfi.dk). The books were also still fairly unknown at this time. During an interview with publisher Randi Høfring she stated that the movie
did have a clear impact on the interest in the books in Denmark. According to her, the Danes were a bit slow to get caught up in the Twilight fever that was so crazy in the America, but the movie really helped that along, especially after the teenage girls finally got a new actor to adore and to associate the character from the books to. The movie did get a good amount of bad criticism, due to the “bad directing” done by Catherine Hardwicke and the “inexperienced actors” cast as the main characters (howstuffworks.com). However, critics must keep in mind that the budget for this movie was not huge, because it was still a chance to take. The movie might not be popular, and the production company, Summit Entertainment, was a small studio at the time and did not have a huge budget to spend on the movie. This meant that some things were cut and other things simply could not be afforded. However, Twilight turned out to be quite the success in America and the rest of the world. The second movie, The Twilight Saga: New Moon was an even greater success. In America it almost doubled the total gross of the first movie, amounting to $296,623,634 (boxofficemojo.com). In Denmark the tickets sold were more than doubled, selling 249,251 tickets (dfi.dk). The second movie received much very good criticism. Now, the producers were surer of success after that of the books and the first movie, so they were more willing to pour more money into the film-making of the sequel. A new director, Chris Weitz, was also hired for this second, bigger movie, and the actors, still the same as in the first movie, now had more experience with their roles and had maybe gotten more confident from the domestic success of the first movie. The graphics of this second movie was much better, and it needed to be, to accommodate fans’ expectations of things such as the shape shifting Quileute Wolf-boys and the terrifying Volturi Clan. The third movie, The Twilight Saga: Eclipse, premiered on 30th June 2010. The movie was much awaited and was a smash hit. The total ticket sale in America amounted to $300,531,751, just surpassing New Moon. A new director was also hired for this next chapter; David Slade, who is primarily known for making sinister and dark vampire movies. That was needed in Eclipse as well, because the story is much more intense and there is so much more action in the third one than in any of the other movies. The new direction style brought the sense of danger that should be associated with vampires and werewolves, which was actually quite refreshing. Breaking Dawn, the fourth book, will also be converted into a movie, but it will actually be divided in to two movies, so that everything that happens in the book can be in the movies as well. So many things happen in Breaking Dawn, and deciding to make two movies is a really good idea, which will also keep the hype going and be more profitable for the production company. The first part is
set to premiere late 2011, and the second part a year after that, which is actually quite unbearable!
4.2.7 Translations The books have been translated into 37 languages (wiki.answers.com) and the movies premiered in more than 60 countries. The Twilight-fever has indeed spread all over the world. In Denmark the Twilight Saga is also very popular. All of the four books have been translated. The first book was translated by Birgitte Brix and the last three were translated by Tina Sakura Bestle. The two Danish translations of the books, which I will be focussing on, were released for sale on 26th January 2009 and 20th March 2009, respectively. Tusmørke has sold 105.000 copies and Nymåne has sold 63.000 copies12. Tusmørke was actually already published in Denmark on 29th September 2005, but it was in a library edition, so it was not for sale. The demand for the book was not that great, but leading up to the movie premiering in Denmark on 6th February 2009 and after, the book got more popular. Taking into consideration that the book has sold 17 million copies worldwide (howstuffworks.com) the Danish sales number does not seem great, but according to Randi Høfring, the sales numbers are actually quite good.
4.3 Symbolism In this section I will comment on some of the symbolism present in the Twilight Saga. Though the series has been criticised widely for not being literary enough I have found that the story contains literary features that make the story interesting and original.
4.3.1 Literary References Throughout the series there are many literary references to popular and well-known literary works. Especially New Moon is filled with references to Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet, but the whole series can be compared to that particular work. Bella and Edward come from different “families” – in this case, different “species” – as Bella is human and Edward is a vampire. They live alongside each other, but can never live in complete harmony because of their conflicting ways of life. Bella and Edward connect in spite of their natural enmity, just like Romeo and Juliet. Their love skyrockets, and it almost plummets the same way Romeo and Juliet’s did. In New Moon Edward is 12
Sales numbers acquired on 16th July, 2010.
told that Bella is dead, and he wishes to die to, by making other vampires kill him. However, Bella is not dead, and she races to save Edward and tell him that she is alive. Juliet drinks the elixir that makes her body imitate death, Romeo thinks she is dead and kills himself too hastily only to see Juliet wake up right before he dies. It is the same scenario in New Moon, but it works out for Bella and Edward, both surviving. In Eclipse there are many references to Emily Brontë’s Wuthering Heights, the epic love story of Heathcliff and Catherine. In Eclipse Bella is torn between her best friend and the love of her life. She is in love with both Jacob and Edward, and does not want to leave or disappoint either of them. Although her choice is clear – she needs to be with Edward – she still feels a strong love towards Jacob, who would be so much better for her. As Jacob states in Eclipse, he would be healthier for Bella and could provide her with a real life, where she does not have to be frozen in time and state, which she will be when she becomes a vampire (Meyer, 2007: 599). He can provide her with children and a long, natural life, whereas Edward is like a drug to her, something she needs for her to live. He cannot provide her with children and they will be frozen in time, never changing or going forward. Bella chooses Edward, who can be compared to Heathcliff. It is also hinted in Wuthering Heights that Heathcliff has vampiric tendencies, making the comparison even better.
4.3.2 The Vampires The whole vampire element in the series is one of the greatest symbols. Throughout time vampires have been portrayed with a deep undertone of sex and lust, which is also depicted in the Twilight Saga. Edward and his family have chosen to only live off animal blood, so that they do not need to kill people to feed, though the human blood still appeals to them greatly. However, Bella bloods appeals to Edward more than he ever imagined human blood could, which creates the tension between them. Edward is drawn to Bella because of her blood and the fact that he cannot read her mind like everyone else’s, as well as her beauty. Bella is drawn to Edward because of his inhuman beauty and the mystery that surrounds him. After they decide to get involved in a relationship with each other the tension between them changes. Every time they touch Bella’s body quivers with lust and sex drive, without it ever being said out loud. Edward has to control every action because one wrong move could make him attack her to drink her blood, which could mean that he is lusts so intensely for her. Drinking the blood of an innocent girl has often been compared to taking the girl’s virginity or innocence away from her, which is also in thread with the rest of the symbolism as explained later in this section. But Edward never does. They never loose control and give in to their
lust and desire for each other. As one critic has out it: “It’s abstinence porn, sensational, erotic, and titillating.” (bitchmagazine.org).
4.3.3 The Titles Firstly, the titles of the series convey a great deal of symbolism. The titles are Twilight, New Moon, Eclipse and Breaking Dawn. Each of the books follows Bella in different cycles of her life, and of her relationship to Edward. Twilight is that time of day that is best for vampires. It is the safest time of day, because the sun has set and there is not chance that they will be seen for what they are. However, it is also a sad time, the end of another day in their condition frozen in time and the vampires have yet another sleepless night to pass (Meyer, 2005: 232-233). There is also another meaning of Twilight, based on the storyline on the novel. Twilight symbolises that time in Bella’s life, where she is neither child nor adult. She is faced with the temptations of sin in the form of Edward. Their relationship is not fully consummated, but it still reeks of sexual tension. Both Bella and Edward are faced with the difficulties of growing up and their hormones racing through their bodies. The tension between them is so sexual and every time Edward touches Bella her whole body quivers. It confuses both Bella and Edward, but they refrain from a sexual relationship. From the light of day, which could be equal to the innocence of children, Bella moves into the twilight, on her path to adulthood and knowledge of sin. Twilight is also the book with the greatest symbolic book cover. A pair of hands is holding an apple, which refers to the Fall from Grace Adam and Eve committed when they ate off the apple of the Tree Of Knowledge. If Bella gives herself to Edward she would have bitten off the apple; she would gain knowledge of sin and become an adult. New Moon is the darkest phase of the lunar cycle. The title denotes the darkest time of Bella’s life. Edward ends their relationship and he and his family leave Forks. This leaves Bella in a zombiestate, where she is unable to go on with her life. Her love of her life is gone. She goes through months without knowing or being aware what is happening around her. She cannot see the light. However, Edward returns to Bella and they reunite, just as the moon follows its cycle. Eclipse is when the moon covers the sun. In New Moon Bella has established a close friendship with Jacob, who is a werewolf. They have a higher body temperature than ordinary humans, which leads Bella to calling him her personal sun. To Jacob’s regret Edward returns and reunites with Bella, which means that Bella and Jacob’s relationship suffers, as vampires and werewolves are mortal enemies. Jacob remarks that even though he is or could be the sun in Bella’s life he cannot
compete against an Eclipse (Meyer, 2007: 599). Edward eclipses Bella’s heart and she does not have room for anyone else. He is everything to her. Breaking Dawn signals the end of Bella’s path. Now Bella has moved from the innocence of childhood and is waking up as a vampire; she has eaten from the Tree of Knowledge and is now ready to live her adult life. It signals Bella’s new life, not only as a married woman, but as a vampire and mother. After Edward and Bella got married they consummated their relationship on their honeymoon, where Bella gets pregnant. She is now an adult with adult responsibilities, and she has also achieved what she wanted the most; she is now a vampire and can stay with Edward forever. This entire cycle is about Bella evolving from child to adult, from light to dark only to resurface to the light, from twilight to breaking dawn. As discussed earlier, in order for literary works to be deemed as such they need convey the story artistically. This analysis will show that Meyer has attempted, and accomplished in my opinion, to tell one imaginary story, but actually tells another underlying story, just as Klitgård defines literature. The obvious story is the love story between Bella and Edward, while the underlying story is the story of the phases children go through from childhood, to adolescence and then adulthood. Meyer has used great literary works as inspiration and there is a great literary symbolism inherent in her stories.
5. Translation Analysis of the Twilight Saga In the following section I will analyse the Danish translations of The Twilight Saga with focus on the two first instalments Twilight and New Moon. These two books were translated by two different translators, and the second translator also translated the rest of the series. In the analysis I will identify the strategies each translator has used and compare then to determine the quality of either translation.
5.2 Source Text Analysis - Twilight In the following I will analyse the first ST. I will analyse the first chapter of Twilight, First Sight. In Appendix 1 I have typed out the full chapter and divided it into segments.
5.2.1 First Sight - summary In the first chapter of Twilight the reader is introduced to Bella and her family. Bella leaves her mother, Renee, and her new husband in Phoenix, Arizona, to go live with her father, Charlie, in the small town of Forks, Washington. The reader is introduced to the awkward relationship between Bella and her father. When Bella begins in high school in the small town she sees the Cullen family and her new friends tell her about them. Bella and Edward Cullen meet for the first time in biology class, where Edward acts very strangely and Bella is frightened of him. Later, she overhears him trying to get out of biology class by switching to another class. Bella drives home very confused.
5.2.2 Extratextual Factors The sender is the author, Stephenie Meyer. She is an American and Twilight is her first published novel. She is lives in Phoenix with her family and was at the time of writing the novel a stay-athome-mom of three small children. She has a bachelor’s degree in English from Brigham Young University. Meyer has stated on her website, www.stepheniemeyer.com, that she wrote the story for her own enjoyment. She had no intention of having the story published, as she simply wanted to keep writing about the dream she had, as explained in section 4, for fun. The characters she had dreamed up kept evolving and Meyer kept writing. So, according to Meyer herself, there was no real intention behind the creation of Twilight, and had it not been for her older sister, Meyer would never have sent the book to a publisher. With this novel Meyer has given her take on how a vampire drama should be constructed. It seems that she has developed a new sub-genre. She could have had the intention of wanting to romanticise the vampire genre. She has made quite an effort to do so, at least. The Cullen family does not kill people to drink their blood; they kill animals and live forever without the complete satisfaction they would gain from human blood. They do not burst into flames in the sunlight; their skin shines like diamonds. They are not the pale, hideous creatures lurking in the dark; they are the most beautiful people in the world. The success of the novel has changed many people’s perception of vampires, indeed. The audience of this novel is, as mentioned earlier, a target group consisting of girls and women, primarily. There are boys or men who are fans of the novel, but the majority are girls. The target group has not been strictly defined to be from a certain region of America, to be a certain age nor
have a certain (cultural) background. The fact that the story of the novel is universal and easily understood also increases the actual target group. Based on the story and the language used in the novel, the intended target group consists of teenage girls from 12 years and up to 19 years. However, as also mentioned earlier, the actual target group looks different. The novel appeals to many ages and this has entailed that the actual target group consists of girls down to 9 years old and up to 25-30 year old women, some even older. Another interesting aspect is the geographical background of the target group. As the novel is written in American English it is understood throughout many parts of the world, with English being one of the dominating languages in the world. Pairing that with the fact that it has become more popular to read books in their original language, English books in particular, the potential target group has suddenly grown to huge proportions. In order for the target group to read the novel there is no specific background knowledge needed. They only need one specific linguistic proficiency, being able to read and understand English. The novel is anchored in a world that corresponds to that of the ST receivers, which means that they will be able to understand that world without difficulty. The audience has played a key role in the success of this novel. The American girls and young women have really embraced the story of Bella and Edward, and Meyer as an author. The Twilight Saga is one of the most popular teenage book series in present time. The medium in which the novel is presented is a book. This corresponds to the typical genre conventions of a novel. They are usually presented in some form of book layout. The novel has a colophone of the first page, a dedication on the next page, there is a preface, and there is a chapter index at the beginning. Each chapter has a title and a number, which all corresponds to the conventions of book layouts. The medium of books will also produce certain expectations from the receivers. They might be able to infer that the novel is fictional, as there is no evidence to provide the receiver with any clues as to the factual nature of the book. The copy of the book I have worked with also has the poster from the movie on the front, which further backs the notion of the novel being fictional. In the case of cultural differences when it comes to mediums there is no cultural distance here. The ST receivers are used to receiving novels in this form, as are the TT receivers of the Danish translation. The novel was produced in America in the home of author Stephenie Meyer. It was printed and published at the publishing company, Little, Brown and Company. This means that the novel is written in American English which is of importance to the translator, because s/he has to be aware of any specific uses of typical American English. Given that the novel is written in America and the
story takes place in an American society there will inevitably be references to American culture and way of life. The novel was written in 2005 and the story takes place in a contemporary society, so the language of the novel corresponds to that which the ST receivers speak today. The translator will not have to do excessive research into the type of language used. The receivers, including the translator, are excessively exposed to American English through television, news broadcasts, TV series, music and other forms of entertainment. With the text and the author being contemporary it means that the translator will make a synchronous translation, which is a translation of contemporary texts and contemporary authors. Based on what the intention of the novel was, Meyer’s motive for producing the ST was not one of economical gain or to entertain the masses. She had written the story for herself, and out of sheer luck she got published. However, there are many other speculations as to the motive of the novel. One of the reasons could be that she wants the world to see how love can flourish across boundaries and how that love conquers all. Some critics have interpreted her motives as being religious. Meyer is a Mormon, and the critics say that she is preaching abstinence and other religious virtues by writing about Bella and Edward not having a sexual relationship before they are married. However, this view is only relevant in an analysis on Breaking Dawn, because in Twilight there are not many sexual references or situations that would show Meyer’s own attitude towards sex. Another motive can be that Meyer wants to depict the life of a young teenage girl, who goes through life taking care of her mother13 just to move to Forks and live with her father, also taking care of him. She finally finds someone that takes care of her, allowing her to be the more vulnerable person she never got to be, and the story is about the power that love has in all aspects of life. Bella loves her mother and wants her to feel good as she does her father. Love will make people do many things, as Bella shows throughout the series. If Twilight is seen through other, more cynical eyes, the story might reveal how love can take over a life, and how the “love of your life” can take over your life and completely dominate it. Edward and Bella are both actually quite jealous, possessive and mean to each other later in the series, bearing a striking resemblance to Emily Brontë’s Wuthering Heights. The dominant text function of this text is that it is expressive. The text fulfils the function of Meyer stating her views on teenage love. It is also expressive in the sense that Meyer gives her take on what a vampire drama should consist of. Throughout the years we have been influenced by books 13
It is hinted in segments 18-20 that Bella was the caretaker in the relationship between her and her mother. This is confirmed later in the book. The description given of Renee is that she is rather flimsy and her life is run by impulse. Bella has often been forced to be the adult, if some of the ideas Renee has are too far-fetched.
and movies as to how we should perceive vampires, but this novel, and the series as a whole, has contributed to a change in opinion in this area. These functions correspond to the intentions of the sender and the motive of text production as well.
5.2.3 Intratextual Factors The novel is about Bella, first and foremost. She is the narrator in the novel, so the whole story is seen from her perspective. The novel is, as explained earlier, about how Bella moves to Forks to live with her father, where she meets Edward Cullen. It turns out that he is a vampire, and as their relationship gets closer, they fall madly in love with each other. One of the tensions in the story is that he desperately craves her blood, but cannot kill her as he loves her. The content is dominated by the main issue of the series, which is the love between Bella and Edward, which makes not only this novel, but the whole series, coherent. Originally, Twilight was a single text, but the three next books about Bella and Edward soon followed, making Twilight part of a series. The subject matter is actually verbalised on the first page of the book, where there is a short description of what the novel is about. The preface of the novel also provides clues as to what the novel is about. As the receivers read the novel the subject matter will also be clear to them. The subject matter is embedded in American culture, as the story takes place in an American city. Taking the target group and the main characters of the novel into consideration as well as the subject matter, some of the presuppositions that might be in the novel could based on knowledge of school systems, the size of the country and differences of the states in the country, the rituals surrounding the American proms, and the fact that Indian reservations exist. This is where the horizon of the receiver is of importance. Information about American culture in connection with American teenagers can be presumed to be part of the target group’s horizon, as they are, primarily, teenagers themselves. They will know all the cultural elements that are present in Twilight, because they are living them, so to speak. The language proficiency needed to read this novel is not of a high level. The subject matter is not complex and the sentences used are at a medium level of difficulty. The content of Twilight is primarily fictional. The story is fictional, as there are elements in the story that do not exist in real life. However, the internal situation is set in the factual world of reality. Bella leaves Phoenix, Arizona, and goes to live in Forks, Washington. Both cities exist in the real world. She is an average teenage girl with the thoughts of a teenage girl and she attends high school that completely corresponds to the high schools of the real world. However, when Edward enters the story, everything becomes fictional. He is a vampire, and there is no evidence to
suggest that vampires exist in the real world. It is an imaginary character and everything that surrounds this character is fiction. He can move incredibly fast, he is impossibly strong, he has not aged since he became a vampire in 1918, and his skin is rock hard and shines like diamonds in the sunlight. This is one of the traits of a fictional text. The author can make up anything and pass it off as reality in the novel. This trend is characteristic of fantasy novels, such as the Harry Potter and the Golden Compass series. At first the characters are part of the factual world as we know it, but then they enter into another dimension, so to speak, and all sorts of impossible things can happen. Harry Potter can fly a broom, Lyra Belaqua14 can read an alethiometer, and Edward Cullen can shine like a diamond. One of the presuppositions in the text is that the author expects that the receivers know a great deal about American culture. It is expected that the receivers know that it is not uncommon for parents of a child to be divorced, that it is not uncommon to travel across a country and experience a complete change in weather conditions, that the high school hosts proms, and that Indian reservations have their own schools and societies. However, as the ST receivers are part of the same culture which is the frame of Twilight they will understand the presuppositions made by the author. However, as stated earlier, the target group also comprises other nationalities that speak and read English, but do not live in the same culture as the ST receivers. It cannot be taken for granted that this part of the actual target group have a thorough knowledge of American culture. Though it can be assumed that the teenagers of the world all have an idea of what American culture is, or at least popular American culture. Through news broadcasts, TV series, movies and music the whole world has been witness to the American culture in some form. Especially the target group of the novel, who are primarily teenagers or young women, will have a firm idea of what American culture is. The text composition of the novel is not complex. The novel is an independent text, but also part of a series. The macro structure of the novel follows that of other novels, which all correspond to the genre of a novel. In this novel, there is a dedication on the first page, which some writers often do15. There is also a preface, which is also present in the rest of Meyer’s books. The preface provides some clues as to what is going to happen at some point in the book. The chapters of the book are also indicated by a title and a number, as most chapters are in novels. Bella’s thoughts make up a paragraph. When her thoughts change a bit, there is a new paragraph. The dialogue in the novel is
Lyra Belaqua is the main character of Philip Pullmann’s Dark Material Series. As an example I can mention Stephen King (Pet Cemetery), Dan Brown (The Da Vinci Code), and J.K. Rowling (Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone). These dedications can be for everyone from the author’s agent, their children, siblings or deceased family members. 14 15
also conventionally set up. Every time the there is a new speaker there is a new line. This makes it easier to follow the flow of the conversation and who is saying what. The novel can also be categorised as a narrative text, as we follow Bella and her thoughts, and she leads us through the story by expressing her views and ideas. In the beginning of some of the other chapters in the novel there is a special chronological order, or maybe non-chronological order. An example of this is unfortunately not in the first chapter, but there is an example in the opening of chapter 2. Bella starts by saying why the new day is better and worse. She briefly lists why the day was better and what she did, then why the day was worse. After these two paragraphs Bella jumps back to the beginning of the morning and explains the events of the day in detail. This is an interesting way of writing. The receiver already knows the basics of what happened that day, so they see the detailed events in the light of what they already know will happen. There are several examples of this throughout the novel. In this particular novel there are not many non-verbal elements. In some novels there are illustrations or maybe even graphs, but that is not the case here. As this is a written text there are not many non-verbal elements to be conveyed. With spoken texts there is the full range of body language to decode along side the message of the text, but in written texts non-verbal elements are harder to define. One non-verbal element present is the book cover. There are two different covers of the original Twilight16. The first cover is picture of a pair of hands holding an apple. According to Meyer the apple represents many things. She starts with explaining the apple as the “forbidden fruit” as we know it from the bible, which she then links to the scripture she has quoted on one of the first pages of the book (Genesis 2:17). She also links it to the story of Snow White, where one bite of the apple has locked her in a state of beauty and not-quite dead, which is the situation a vampire is faced with (stepheniemeyer.com). I, too, see the apple on the cover as the forbidden fruit. Once Bella bites the apple and follows Edward there is no way back for her. He offers her temptation and she accepts; fall from grace. The second cover of the book is the poster from the movie, depicting Kristen Stewart and Robert Pattinson, who plays Bella and Edward, respectively. This is actually a rather useful non-verbal element. It allows the receiver to put faces on the characters they – presumably – imagine when they read the story. Also, the medium in which the novel is presented does accompany the text. It heightens the reading experience for the receiver to sit and hold a book in front of them, rather than reading on the computer screen or a set of loose paper printouts. 16
Please see Appendix 3
The lexis used in the novel is not complex. The novel follows Bella and it is written in a first person narrative. This means that the language of the novel is that of a 17 year-old American teenage girl, who lives in a contemporary society. Segment no. 100 shows how Bella is against moving to Forks, and how teenage girls often see problems as the end of the world. Segments no. 140-145 also shows how a teenage girl can think about herself and her appearance, mixed with the conflict of not living up to the expectations the girl thinks other people have of them.
Example 5.1 Segment 100: No need to add that my being happy in Forks is an impossibility. Segment 143: I should be tan, sport, blond – a volleyball player, or a cheerleader perhaps – all the things that go with living in the Valley of the Sun.
During the story of Twilight it is hinted that Bella is of an average mind when it comes to school. She does well in classes, but does not seem to be extremely intelligent nor is she stupid. This also means that “her” language is very average without the use of big technical terms or complicated sentences. This chapter of the book is very descriptive and there is not that much dialogue. The receiver listens to her thoughts, which tells them that she is rather observant. There is one word class that is used with a high frequency; adjectives. The use of adjectives is very useful when it comes to describing surroundings and objects. So instead of just seeing a house, seeing a red, brickwalled house is much more detailed and generates a more specific image in the imagination of the receiver. Segments 205, 311-313 are perfect examples of this:
Example 5.2 205: The office was small; a little waiting area with padded folding chairs, orangeflecked commercial carpet, notices and awards cluttering the walls, a big clock ticking loudly. 311-313: Of the three boys, one was big- muscled like a serious weight lifter, with dark, curly hair. Another was taller, leaner, but still muscular, and honey blond. The last was lanky, less bulky, with untidy, bronze-colored hair.
In connection with lexis the title of the book is also of interest. Twilight is a time of day that is not very nice for Edward. It is explained on page 232-233 in the book. It signals the arrival of yet
another night he has to spend alone and awake while the world sleeps and his family goes off to themselves. However, with Bella he is beginning to enjoy that time of day. He spends most night lying next to her, watching her sleep, protecting her. Twilight can also signify another meaning, as twilight is the time of day when it changes from day to night. It can signal the fact that Bella has started her journey from child to adult. She is leaving the bright path of innocence to pursue the temptations of first love, adulthood and inner development. She goes from the light of innocence to the darkness of sin, which can also be connected to the image on the cover of the book; the apple, which, according to Meyer, bears reference to the Fall from Grace that Adam and Eve experience when they sin and eat from the Tree of Knowledge.
5.3 Target Text Analysis - Tusmørke In the following section I will analyse the TT, which is the Danish version of Twilight, (Tusmørke).
5.3.1 Extratextual Factors The sender of the TT is still Stephenie Meyer. However, as the TT is a translation the text producer is of more importance, and she is Birgitte Brix17. The initiator of the translation was the former editor at Forlaget Carlsen. The current editor of the series is Randi Høfring. Unfortunately, as I have not been able to get in contact with the first editor I cannot be sure how the translator’s brief was formulated. However, after interviewing Høfring18, it is clear that the publishing company has categorised the novel as youth/young adult novel, a so-called cross-over novel, and that will presumably have been part of the translator’s brief. Høfring also deemed the intended target group to be young people from 12 years and up, while the actual target group might be as young as 9 years and up. I could imagine that the intended function of the translation was to create the similar effect with the TT receivers as with the ST receivers. Tusmørke was translated briefly after Twilight was published in America, and the editor might have hoped that it would be a great success here in Denmark as well. This information cannot be fully assessed as I have not had contact with the first editor of the book. However, in my opinion the book was translated because it had been a great success in America, but also because it was a new Birgitte Brix is an experienced literary translator of the older generation. She has primarily translated children’s literature, but she has also translated a range of educational books (www.statsbiblioteket.dk). According to Randi Høfring, she was not the one to hire Birgitte Brix to do the translation of the first book. 18 On 8th July 2010 I had a telephone interview with Randi Bjerre Høfring. 17
format in which to present a love story. The world has been introduced to vampires and love stories before, but not in this way, where the vampire is essentially good and the “victim” is so in love and so intent on becoming a vampire simply to be with her love forever that she would sacrifice her life as she knows it. The editor saw the potential of the story, and she proved to be right. The TT receivers basically fit the same description as the ST receivers. They are primarily girls from age 12 and up, with the upper limit not fixed on a certain age, as the story appeals to women of all ages. However, there will always be a discrepancy between the two target groups as they will be a part of two different cultural systems. Thus the TT receivers will never be able to understand the ST in completely the same way, as they will perceive the text depending on their own literary background, which differs from culture to culture. The TT receivers will not have had any great expectations to the author as Meyer at this point was unknown in Denmark, as she also was in America at the time of the release of the ST. The TT is presented in the same medium as the ST. The requirements for novels tend to be the same in America and in Denmark. Novels from both countries include colophone, a list of contents, and chapter indications by numbers. The TT is produced and received in Denmark. It was produced in 2005 and was published on 29th September 2005 in a library edition19. When a book is printed in a library edition it means that it is printed using the best products and sold to the libraries at the book’s full price. The book’s popularity in the libraries will then determine how big the first print run for the retail edition is going to be. This retail edition will then be printed using cheaper products and sold to the stores who demands up to 40 % discount compared to the price of the library edition20. The retail edition of Tusmørke was published on 26th January 2009, so it was quite a while later than the library edition. The retail publishing date also shortly preceded the Danish premiere of the movie based on the book, which premiered on 6th February 2009. The motive with the translation will resemble that of the intention of the initiator as discussed earlier in this section. The initiator could have thought that the book deserved international attention and initiated the translation process on that belief. The motive behind the translation can also be 19
As explained by Randi Bjerre Høfring in a phone interview on 8th July 2010. She explained the typical approach the publishing company follows when they wish to introduce a new book or series in Denmark. The publishing company clearly prefers to sell the library edition as that guarantees them a sustainable profit. 20 This also illustrates how much money the publishing company makes on the books in reality. The retail editions are printed cheaper and sold at almost half of the full price. That does not leave much for the publishing company, which then leads to smaller wages for the translators. The fact that supermarkets have taken over a big deal of market shares in book sales also affects the prices, because the supermarkets can sell the books really cheap the book stores have to compete with those prices and thus want to pay even less when they buy the books from the publishing company.
compared to the motive of the original production of the ST. The function of the TT will also be similar to that of the ST. The TT is still expressive in the sense that Meyer’s opinions are the ones that form the ST which is, inevitably, the starting point for the TT. Meyer’s views and her story are still coming across, so the TT conserves the ST function, which was of an expressive function. This would mean that the TT has been produced based on an equifunctional translation, as that entails that the TT attempt fulfil the same function as the ST.
5.3.2 Intratextual Factors The subject matter of the TT is identical to that of the ST. The TT is about Bella, first and foremost, but also about Bella and Edward, how they meet and how their relationship evolves. The translator has not changed anything in the basic subject matter and has stayed loyal to the ST story line. However, the subject matter is not verbalised in the same way in the TT as in the ST, where there was a very short summary on the title page. That is not present in the copy I have. The content has not changed, either. It remains fictional in the TT situation, as Denmark does not house any vampire families. The TT does take on another aspect of the fictional nature as the story takes place in another country, which remains obvious in the story. Brix has not changed the location of the story to a rainy area in Denmark and let Bella live in a small suburb, she remains in America. Even though the intended target group is sure to know about America, they might not be able to relate to it as a “real” world, if they have only seen the “movie” versions of it. It could, ultimately, mean that the TT receivers perceive the American setting as purely fictional just as they would with the wizard world in Harry Potter. However, it will be more than likely that the intended target group will know that the American world that is used as setting in the story is in fact real, and only becomes fictional when Edward is present in it, as discussed earlier. As stated in the ST analysis the only non-verbal element present in connection with the book is the cover. In the TT copy I have the movie poster is the cover, so that depicts Kristen Stewart and Robert Pattinson, who portray Bella and Edward, respectively. It provides the reader with faces for the characters in the book. The original TT cover is the same as the original ST cover; a pair of hangs holding an apple. As also stated in the ST analysis Meyer links the apple-cover to a quote from the Book of Genesis (2:17), and there is an obvious connection between the red apple and the Fall from Grace, which Adam and Eve commit when they eat of the Tree of Knowledge that is forbidden for them by God in Genesis 2:17. However, there is no clear connection between the red apple and the quote Brix has chosen to replace the original: “Han ved, hvad mørket gemmer, og
lyset bor hos ham21”. This quote infers some of the same meaning as the ST quote. It is implied that someone knows of the dark and its secrets, but he still keeps the light. Edward is the one with the secrets and knowledge of the sinful life and Bella is tempted to follow him. However, Edward does not want Bella to experience the sinful life if they are not rightfully married, nor does he want her to become what he is; a sinful creature who is driven by his primal instincts and urges. The change in quote does change the significance and impact of the original cover. With the original cover and quote in the ST Meyer must have intended to lead the receiver on the path of discovery of knowledge, sin and desire, which can then be expected to be a part of the story. However, in the TT that intention is does not come across as strong as Meyer must have intended due to the change in the non-verbal element. The lexis used in the TT is different to that of the ST to some extent. Brix is of an older generation and the translation does bear signs of that fact. At times there is a very old-fashioned feel in the TT. It is important to keep in mind that the narrator is supposed to be a 17 year-old American girl, who is not brilliantly clever or from another era. The story takes place in present day America, which means that the ST language is corresponding to that of American teenagers today. Thus, the language of the TT should, ideally, correspond to that of the Danish teenagers today, in order for the story to appeal to them and to have the same function, as already established as equifunctional, as the ST. The level of formality is higher in the TT than in the ST because of some of the lexis choices Brix has made. The following examples can illustrate my point. They all contain Danish words, which are not used often by teenagers. All the Danish translations are correct, by all means. However, when it comes to a novel where the TT receivers are teenagers or young adults the language has to appeal to them so they can relate themselves with the characters of the story.
Example 5.3 56a:“I found a good car for you, really cheap,” he announced when we were strapped in. 56b: ”Jeg har fundet en god bil til dig, virkelig billig,” forkyndte han, da vi havde spændt selerne. 56c: [“I have found a good car for you, really cheap,” he announced, when we had buckled the seatbelts.] 21
[He knoweth what is in the darkness, and the light dwelleth with him] (www.bibelwheel.com).
In segment 56 announced could simply have been translated into fortalte [told], as forkyndte is not a Danish word often used, much less by teenagers. The Danish word forkynde is more commonly used in legal language or in religious relations. Teenagers might not even know what the word means, bearing in mind that the target group is also quite young, so Brix should have chosen a more common word which teenagers are sure to understand, like fortalte [told] or simply sagde [said]. If either of these possibilities were used it would mean that the translator would stray a bit from the ST, by not choosing the word-to-word translation, but choosing a word that would create a more fluent and fitting Danish version. To translate announced with forkyndte is not wrong. It is, however, not fitting for the receivers of the TT. As mentioned, they can still be rather young, and might not be aware that the word forkyndte means to say something.
Example 5.4 97a: That’s really nice, Dad. 97b: Det var vel nok pænt af dig, far. 97c: [That was really kind of you, dad.] Again, this translation is not wrong, but in Danish it gives the impression that Bella is submissive to her father, as children were depicted in old Danish movies. As sentences like these are generally considered old-fashioned they now have other connotations. Nowadays sentences like this tend to be used by teenagers and adults with heavy sarcasm. Granted, the meaning does come across, but when I read it I could have easily misunderstood if the previous and following sentences did not indicate that Bella was sincere. A better and contemporary translation would have been Det var rigtig sødt af dig, far. [That was really nice of you, dad].
Example 5.5 103a: “Well, now, you’re welcome,” he mumbled, embarrassed by my thanks. 103b: ”Øh, selv tak,” mumlede han forlegent over mine taksigelser. 103c: [Uhm, you are welcome, he mumbled, embarrassed by my thanksgivings.] The unit consisting of my thanks is a clumsy wording to begin with. It could have remained implicit that Charlie would be embarrassed because of Bella thanking for her gift. The sentence could have been fully functional without Bella explicating that is was because of her thanks that Charlie is embarrassed. The Danish word Brix has chosen, taksigelser [thanksgivings], has the connotation of excessive thanking. The word is in plural, implying that she has said thanks many times, when it
was only one time. The whole concept of saying thanks is actually difficult to deal with in Danish. In this case Brix has bound herself too strictly to the ST. It could have been a good idea to use the implicitation strategy by making what Charlie is embarrassed by implicit or the deletion strategy and simply leave out the unit my thanks, thereby avoiding the clumsy and formal formulation which Brix has produced here (both strategies will be explained later in this section).
Example 5.6 180a: It made me uncomfortable. 180b: Det gjorde mig ilde til mode. 180c: [It made me ill at ease.] Again, the translation of uncomfortable into ilde til mode is not wrong, but it does not sound like something a teenager would say, or think, as is the case here. A better strategy would again be to choose the word-to-word translation into utilpas, which means that same as ilde til mode. Ilde til mode belongs to a higher level of formality, more fitting as an adult utterance, where utilpas is of a lower level of formality and more fitting for the language of a teenager.
As I have commented on the title of the ST in the ST analysis, I will briefly state that the TT title is a direct translation and is fully functional. The TT title serves the same function as the ST title as it refers to exactly the same time of day and is very likely to have the same connotation as explained in the ST analysis of the journey from the bright innocence of childhood and on to the darker path of adolescent temptation.
5.4 Macro Strategy A translator will usually choose an overall macro translation strategy to work with, which will often be dependent on the function the translation will fulfil. A novel with themes like romance, fictional worlds and teenage problems is rather universal. As mentioned, the novel does not contain any elements that are very ST oriented and that are difficult for the receiver to understand. However, there are still cultural references that have a specific meaning in the SC and they will need an explanation or an idiomatic translation in order for the TT receivers to fully understand. It is important to consider the facts of the current situation. American culture has been introduced to the Europeans through many years, and the knowledge of this culture is becoming more and more common. Many Danes know something about the American political system as it is heavily debated
in our news broadcast programmes. Teenagers and young adults watch one American sit-com or drama series after the other, where the culture is an implicit part of the programme. Many people go to the cinema to watch the newest action movie or romantic drama with the hottest American actors. Basically, the Danes know a great deal about the American culture. However, it cannot be expected by the translator that the receivers know something about everything in the American culture depicted in Twilight. The receivers are of an age where they might not even have been acquainted with the American culture, or more specifically the American teenage-culture. This aspect can influence the translator’s choice of macro strategy. As explained earlier, the macro strategy is the overall strategy the translator will work with to make the TT achieve the intended function as set forth by the initiator. Birgitte Brix seems to have worked with a source-text oriented macro strategy. In general, the TT is very close to the ST. It does not seem like she has had the TT receivers in mind when she translated the book, which can also be one of the signs of a ST oriented macro strategy. The translator will stay loyal to the form and content of the ST, not necessarily taking the TT receivers into consideration. The TT does not appear to produce the exact same effect with the TT receivers as the ST did with the ST receivers. The general language of the ST is that of Bella’s, who is an American teenager. However, the language used in the TT is rather old-fashioned and does not necessarily signify the language used by the corresponding Danish teenager. The following examples are found throughout the book, specified by page number and line, as I will use the examples from Chapter 1 in the micro strategy analysis. This will also provide an overall view of the consistency in the choice of old-fashioned words or very ST oriented translations. The first example, though, is from Chapter 1 and can be found in Appendix 1.
Example 5.7 84a: After all, that was the part I couldn’t compromise on. 84b: Det var trods alt noget, jeg ikke kunne gå på akkord med. 84c: [That was after all something I couldn’t compromise on]. The term to compromise on is also correctly translated into gå på akkord med, according to the dictionary. However, the term akkord strikes another connotation in the present time here in Denmark. Akkord is a condition under which carpenters and other workers can work, where they get a set amount of money for a job, no matter how long it takes them, meaning that the faster you work, the higher the hourly rate is. In this case, it would have been a good idea to choose the idiomatic translation: gå på kompromis med. This is a translation that does not have any other
connotation and also means that exact same thing as in the ST, while bringing the TT to a contemporary level of language.
Example 5.8 ST: 286, 12: “You like fifties music?” I asked. TT: 292, 13: “Du kan godt lide halvtredsermusik?” spurgte jeg. Retranslation: [”You like fifties music?” I asked.] This item is directly translated and the structure of the question in the ST is transferred to the TT item. The ST item is a declarative question, where Bella expresses her surprise of finding out Edward knows all the lyrics to an old song. The question can also be interpreted as a confirmation, depending on which word is stressed. However, in Danish it is still common to comply with the conventional question structure, with the auxiliary verb first followed by the subject, then verb, and, in this case, the object. The TT item is not wrong, but it provides a clumsy Danish structure that seems to be bound by the ST item. There are several examples of this translation problem throughout the TT:
Example 5.9 ST: 321, 20: “You like it?” He smiled. TT: 328, 26: “Du synes godt om det?” Han smilede. Retranslation: [“You like it?” he smiled.] This example also illustrates the higher level of formality in the TT. An alternative could have been to translate the sentence into Kan du lide det? [Do you like it?]. That keeps the lexis on a lower level of formality.
Example 5.10 ST: 326, 8: “You wrote this?” I gasped, understanding. TT: 333, 20: “Du skrev det selv?” gispede jeg, da meningen gik op for mig. Retranslation: [”You wrote this yourself?” I gasped, when it dawned on me.] Again, the same problem is present. Brix is too bound by the structure of the ST in these examples, and the result could have been better had she translated using an idiomatically direct translation strategy, instead of a word-to-word direct translation while also transferring the structure.
In general, it is clear that Brix has primarily worked with an ST oriented translation strategy. It is often a translator’s default choice to work with ST oriented strategy, and often it works really well. It helps the translator stay loyal and close to the original meaning of the ST, which is always important to do, unless anything else is stated in the translator’s brief. However, it can have the disadvantage that the translator chooses to stay too close to the form of the ST and refrain from being creative when producing the TT. When a translator begins a translation s/he decides which macro strategy to work with and will choose the relevant micro strategies that will accompany the overall strategy and help achieve the intended function of the translation. However, as I am analysing an already completed translation and have to identify what the translator has done, I will have to go about this the other way around. Identifying the micro strategies Brix has used will thus help to further determine with which macro strategy she has worked.
5.5 Micro strategies In this section I will follow the dichotomy of micro strategies as explained in chapter 3. Based on this I will identify which strategies Brix has used is her translation and provide examples of typical passages that prove the use of the strategies. In Appendix 1 I have typed in the full first chapter of the English and Danish version of Twilight. I have given each segment a number, and will identify the strategies used in each segment. Some segments will comprise more than one strategy, but I will focus on the ones that provide interesting aspects for the analysis.
5.5.1 Dominant Micro Strategies As stated above it seems that Brix has utilised a source-text oriented macro strategy when she translated the book. The two most dominating micro strategies which I have identified comply with that assessment.
Direct Translation Direct translation seems to be the default choice for most translators (Schjoldager, 2008: 96). The translator will translate word-for-word, often by use of linguistic equivalents (Schjoldager, 2008: 95), which means that this micro strategy will attempt at covering all the potential meaning of the
ST element (Schjoldager, 2008: 97). If a translator uses a direct translation micro strategy the result can be either a word-for-word translation or a sentence in the TT that is idiomatically correct and conveys the same message as the sentence in the ST. If possible, the TT unit will follow the same structure and use the corresponding words, if that allows an idiomatically correct unit in the TT. The micro strategy is one of the strategies that Brix has used often in her translation. The strategy is most often used in shorter sentences, where there are no long complex English structures. The following examples will show how Brix has used this strategy.
Example 5.11 11-12a: I detested Forks. I loved Phoenix. 11-12b: Jeg hadede Forks. Jeg elskede Phoenix. 11-12c: [I hated Forks. I loved Phoenix.] 20a: Of course she had Phil now, so the bills would probably get paid, there would be food in the refrigerator, gas in her car, and someone to call when she got lost, but still… 20b: Selvfølgelig havde hun nu Phil, så regningerne ville nok blive betalt, der ville være mad i køleskabet, benzin på hendes bil og en at ringe til, når hun for vild, men alligevel… 20c: [Of course she now had Phil, so the bills would probably get paid, there would be food in the fridge, gas in her car, and someone to call, when she got lost, but still…] These were perfect examples of how direct translation is very good and easy to use in short sentences, but also in longer, uncomplicated sentences, e.g. lists. Each of the words in the English sentences has an equivalent in Danish, making direct translation the easy and obvious choice of strategy to ensure loyalty to the sender and to convey the same message. As mentioned, direct translation can also provide an idiomatically correct sentence in the TT, as these examples will show.
Example 5.12 23a: “Tell Charlie I said hi.” 23b: “Hils Charlie,” sagde hun resigneret. 23c: [“Say hi to Charlie”, she said resigned.] This example shows how an element can be translated idiomatically correct. In American it is
normal to say Tell him I said hi or something like this. The correct idiomatic translation would be hils ham!, as Brix has done here. It is not a completely direct translation, but it renders the ST element in idiomatically correct Danish.
Example 5.13 399a: One of my new acquaintances, who considerately reminded me that her name was Angela, had Biology II with me the next hour. 399b: En af mine nye bekendtskaber, der var så hensynsfuld at minde mig om, at hun hed Angela, skulle have biologi II sammen med mig i næste time. 399c: [One of my new acquaintances, who was so considerate to remind me that her name was Angela, was having biology II with me the next hour.] This sentence has not been translated in a word-for-word procedure. However, the same meaning and sense is still present in the Danish sentence. The adverbial, considerately, that post modifies the verb, reminded, is changed into an adjective used to signify the way in which Angela reminded Bella of her name. It could have remained an adverbial in Danish, but the solution here is actually quite good. The ST sentence has been adapted to the Danish sentence structure and fulfils the grammatical requirements of the verb needing an object and comma punctuation.
Example 5.14 446a: I began gathering up my things slowly, trying to block the anger that filled me, for fear my eyes would tear up. 446b: Jeg begyndte langsomt at samle mine ting sammen og prøvede at bremse den vrede, der fyldte mig, af skræk for, at jeg skulle give mig til at tude. 446c: [I slowly began to gather my things together and tried to stop the anger that was filling me in fear of I would start crying.] This sentence also shows how the ST sentence has been changed idiomatically to fulfil the grammatical requirements of Danish in the TT. It is not a word-for-word translation, but it provides the same meaning as well as being correctly done in Danish. Tear up does not have an equivalent in Danish, so it has to be written in another way. ..at jeg skulle give mig til at tude is a very good translation of the term, and especially tude as it is a more negative word for crying and it denotes the embarrassing and awful feeling of crying because of how a boy treated you or crying in public for something that is not obvious to others. There are, however, some elements of this sentence that
are not that good. For fear (of) does have an equivalent in Danish, which is af frygt for, and not af skræk for. Skræk seems to be a more terrifying form of fear, and is often used in connection with horror movies or scare campaigns, where the element of fear is so much more horrific.
Oblique Translation One of the other micro strategies that have proved to be one of the more dominant is oblique translation. When a translator uses the oblique micro strategy s/he will translate in a sense-for-sense procedure. This means that the translator will attempt at covering the contextual meaning of the ST element. A simple example of how Brix has covered the contextual meaning in some passages in the book is found here:
Example 5.15 118a: “Wow, Dad, I love it!” 118b: “Wau, far, den er vildt fed!” 118c: [“Wow, Dad, it is really cool!”] Americans, teenager in particular, use the word love quite a lot. They use it very loosely and not according to the linguistic meaning of the word. When a teenage girl says I just love my shoes! it does not mean that she feels “a very strong emotional and sexual feeling for22” her shoes. It simply means that she likes them very much and thinks they are really cool. In Danish we are somewhat more conservative when it comes to the term elske, the older generation in particular. The Danish young adults and teenagers have all adopted many aspects of the American culture and the language is one of them, so we tend to use elske more often and more carelessly. However, this translation is very good in the way Brix changes it to idiomatical Danish. It is more likely that a Danish teenager will say that the car is really cool rather than claiming their love for it. Thus, the use of the oblique micro strategy is clear. It covers the contextual meaning, and this situation in a Danish context would very likely generate the answer Brix has written.
Example 5.16 250a: It was fairly basic: Brontë, Shakespeare, Chaucer, Faulkner. 22
Macmillan, 2005, 851: Love. 1. .. a very strong emotional and sexual feeling for someone (…)
250b: Der var klassikerne: Brontë, Shakespeare, Chaucer, Faulkner. 250c: [It was the classics: Brontë, Shakespeare, Chaucer, Faulkner.] This example also conveys some of the cultural differences present in the book. The ST claims that these authors are basic education material in English classes. However, they are not basic in Danish Danish classes, but they are considered classics in Denmark. To have these authors on the curriculum would not be basic, but it would be classics which the Danish students will have to learn more about. So, the context in which these authors would have been mentioned in a Danish gymnasieklasse would have been if they were referred to as classics of English literature, and not as basic reading material.
For examples of how Brix has utilised the other micro strategies please see Appendix 5.
5.6 Other Translation Issues The previous examples show good translations by Brix and how she has utilised the micro strategies. The TT is also, generally good. There are no big mistakes or mistranslations. However, there is a feel of something that has proved difficult to define or determine. Throughout my analysis I had hoped that the feeling I had after reading the TT for the first time would prove to be down to wrong translation strategies or wrong choice of words. As the previous analysis of micro strategies has shown, Brix has not made any wrong translations, as such. After re-reading the TT after the analysis I have determined that the generally very ST oriented translation strategy combined with the elevation of the level of formality are the factors that signal that the translation is not as good as it could have been. The TT does not read as an original, which is often considered a criterion in translation quality assessment. It could even be argued that the TT bears signs of translationese, which is when a translation lacks the original smoothness of the ST or has a special awkwardness to it, as explained in section 2.4. An important aspect to consider in translation is that of idiomatic language. A TT should be loyal to the ST, but still function as an original text in the TC. By use of a few examples I will attempt to show why the TT does not seem to have the same effect as the ST. These examples will be from the entire book, so they will be identified by page and line number.
Future Tense Brix has consistently translated the future tense structures in the ST into structures which do not necessarily fit the Danish way of expressing future, as exemplified below:
Example 5.17 ST: 42, 22: I would have to hide in the gym until the parking lot cleared. TT: 45, 1: Jeg kom til at gemme mig i sportshallen, til parkeringspladsen blev tom. Retranslation: [I accidently hid in the gym until the parking lot was empty.] This TT structure is not wrongly translated, but it can be understood in many ways, and does not necessarily denote the Danish future tense. The term kom til in Danish is used to express future, but it is not the most used term. The same term has another colloquial meaning: Jeg kom til at gøre det – I accidently did it. It is this use of the term that is most commonly used in Danish, so the TT unit does change the meaning of the ST. A better translation would have been as follows: Jeg ville blive nødt til at gemme mig i sportshallen indtil parkeringspladsen var tom. In Danish one of the most commonly used auxiliary verbs used to express future is vil, the equivalent of the English auxiliary verb used to express future, will, which makes it more correct to produce a structure containing the Danish auxiliary verb, so there can be no mistaking of the meaning of the TT unit. Brix has made this error several times in the TT. Another version of this problem is found in this example:
Example 5.18 ST: 280, 22: “I think I need to lie down,” I gasped. TT: 287, 1: “Jeg tror, jeg kommer til at ligge lidt ned,” gispede jeg. Retranslation: [“I think I am going to lie down for a bit,” I gasped.] In Danish it is very common to use present tense to also express future. The aspect of future in the given sentence is then derived from the circumstances or situation in the sentence. In this case Brix could have used the present tense to express the future aspect of the ST unit, so that her translation was: Jeg tror, jeg har brug for at ligge lidt ned, or Jeg tror, jeg skal ligge lidt ned. As mentioned earlier, kommer til is not the colloquial way to express future in Danish.
Wrong Words Throughout the TT Brix has also chosen to use words that are not equivalent to those in the ST. That is not a wrong thing to do, per se, but when a better equivalent word in Danish exists, why not
use that instead in order to ensure that the TT receivers understand the TT fully and are not distracted by the weird, and some times old-fashioned, choice of words. The following examples will show what I mean.
Example 5.19 ST: 36, 3: In some ways, we were well suited for living together. TT: 38, 14: I nogle retninger passede vi godt til at bo sammen. Retranslation: [In some directions we were well suited for living together.] This translation problem occurs several times throughout the TT in different variations. Brix has chosen the rather literal or direct way of translating ways into retninger [directions, respects]. However, the translation she has made here is not idiomatic or colloquial. The correct, or at least a better, translation would have been; På nogle måder passede vi godt til at bo sammen. Variations of the same problem, like In a lot of ways, in one way, in no way, are all translated into a variation of retninger throughout the TT.
Brix has also chosen to translate many words wrongly or with a very old-fashioned word. The following examples will show what Brix has done.
Example 5.20 ST: 55, 22: ... struggling to fight back the sudden wave of emotion the snow chains had brought on… TT: 57, 16: … og prøvede at bekæmpe en pludselig rørelse på grund af snekæderne… Retranslation: [… and tried to fight the sudden emotion because of the snow chains.] Here emotion is translated into rørelse, which is correctly done. However, rørelse is not the Danish colloquial equivalent of emotion, følelse is. Both words mean roughly the same, but følelse is more common.
Example 5.21 ST: 61, 10: He kept up a remorseful mumbling. TT: 63, 13: Han blev ved at mumle angergivent. Retranslation: [He kept mumbling remorsefully.] Here it is clear that Brix has stayed very close to the ST on the expense of an idiomatic TT.
Angergivent is indeed the right translation of remorseful, but the word it not often used in Danish and it is highly unlikely the TT receivers will even understand the meaning of the word. In this case a more dynamic and TT oriented strategy could have been used to achieve a more idiomatic TT, like this; Han blev ved med at mumle undskyldende, [He kept mumbling apologetically]. With this suggestion some of the meaning could be lost. To apologise is done often and does not necessarily bear the same serious meaning as remorse does. However, the core meaning does come across, which is that he keeps mumbling about how sorry he is for his actions. Meyer has used remorseful many times in the ST and every time Brix has translated it into angergivent. In every of those sentences Brix could have been more creative and changed the structure of it to make it work better in Danish than she has done.
Example 5.22 ST: 114, 10: “You can have shotgun” … TT: 116, 29: “Du kan komme i skudlinjen” … Retranslation: [”You can get in the line of fire”…] This TT unit is not correct. To have shotgun in American means that someone sits on the front seat of the car. It is an American thing, and it is often shown in movies and series starring children or teenagers. Based on the direct retranslations it seems obvious that this is not what Mike means. This is a perfect example of how Brix misunderstands the original meaning of the ST and then does not succeed in conveying the meaning to the TT. The right translation would be this; Du må gerne sidde forrest or Du må få forsædet, [You can ride in front (shotgun)].
Example 5.23 ST: 208, 1: “Something you said to Jessica … well, it bothers me.” TT: 212, 7: “Noget af det, du sagde til Jessica … okay, det generer mig.” Retranslation: [“One of the things you said to Jessica … okay, it bothers me.”] Throughout the TT Brix has translated well into okay. In a few cases it works fine, but mostly it does not. Well is often used a “filler”, but it can also be used to soften an utterance, or used to gain time for the speaker (Swan, 2003: 156-157). In the ST unit it is used as a softening of the utterance, as Edward might think it would upset Bella. In Danish we do not necessarily use “fillers” in the same way as well is used. Possible translations, depending on the context, could be: Ja, altså, jamen, or nå. One strategy could simply be to omit the word from the TT, when we do not use a
word similar to well in the same way, exactly. However, that might change the mood of the sentence. So in this case I would suggest that the translation should have been like this; Noget af det, du sagde til Jessica … det bekymrer mig. I would omit the word from the TT, because here it does not serve any purpose. The dots are there to signal thinking time for the speaker, so it is not necessary to have a word to signal the same thing.
Example 5.24 ST: 277, 14: I traced the shape of his perfect nose, and then, so carefully, his flawless lips. TT: 283, 16: Jeg lod fingrene følge formen på hans perfekte næse og derpå, ganske forsigtigt, hans lydefri læber. Retranslation: [I let the fingers follow the shape of his perfect nose and then, very carefully, his flawless lips.] In the TT unit lydefri could produce wrong connotations in the reader’s mind. When I first read it, I thought it meant soundless or silent, because I had never seen the word before and then made the connection from the two words found in the one word: Lyde and fri, [Sound and free]. However, a quick look-up in the dictionary revealed that the Danish word is actually a correct translation of the English word. Since I did not know the word or had ever seen it before, it might be safe to assume that the members of the target group do not know it either, leading me to my translation suggestion; … hans fejlfri læber. This leaves no room for misunderstanding and keeps the language plain and simple.
5.7 Source Text Analysis – New Moon In the following I will analyse the second ST. I will make an analysis of first chapter of New Moon, Party. I have typed out the full chapter in Appendix 2 and divided it into segments.
5.7.1 Party - Summary The first chapter of New Moon is about Bella’s birthday. She wakes up from a dream where she looks very old and Edward is standing next to her, without having changed at all, and wishes her a happy birthday. Bella keeps reminding Edward that she wants to become a vampire. Alice, Edward’s sister, throws Bella a great birthday party, but as Bella is unwrapping one of the
gifts, she gets a paper cut and a drop of blood drops from her finger. The smell of her blood makes Edward’s brother, Jasper, attack Bella, so Edward protects her, unintentionally pushing her into a table, where Bella gets even more hurt and starts bleeding even more in a room filled with vampires.
5.7.2 Extratextual Factors The extratextual factors of New Moon are basically the same as the ones of Twilight. However, there are, naturally, some factors that are not the same. Meyer is still the sender, but her intentions for writing the sequel is not the exact same as the intention for writing the story to begin with. Twilight was supposed to be a single novel with no sequels, but Meyer wanted to continue the story of Bella and Edward (www.stepheniemeyer.com). She still felt she had so much more to tell about her star struck lovers. In Twilight Meyer established how love can conquer everything and goes across “race”. In New Moon she wanted to tell a story of how love can destroy everything, and how close friendship can help you through the darkest times in life (www.stepheniemeyer.com). The audience of the story remains the same as with Twilight, as does the medium and place of text production and reception. The time of text production and reception is different. New Moon was released on 21st August 2006, almost a year after the release of the first instalment in the series. The motive as to why the text was produced is comparable to the intention of text production. The motive for Meyer to keep writing is that she felt her fans and the general audience of Twilight deserved to learn more about Bella and Edward. As she carried on with the writing it became clear that the story would be about loss and getting through the darkest period in one’s life; Meyer wanted to show what can happen when true love leaves (stepheniemeyer.com). The function of the ST remains expressive. Meyer has stated on her website that she wanted to express one view of how people deal with loss. Bella loses the love of her life, as Edwards moves, and there are many ways a teenage girl can cope with said loss. For Bella it means the total destruction of her life as she knew it. During the story it becomes clear for Bella that Edward is indeed meant for her and that she cannot exist without him. Luckily, he realises the same thing, so after Bella has saved Edward’s life in Italy, they return home to continue their relationship, now stronger than ever.
5.7.3 Intratextual Factors The subject matter of the ST is still of Bella and Edward. However, in New Moon Edward plays a minor part, as he decides to leave Forks and Bella, in an attempt to keep her life safe from vampires. His absence means that the ST is focused more on Bella and her experience of loss. It also leaves room for a new character and a new crucial element in Bella’s life. Her childhood friend, Jacob Black, becomes Bella’s very close friend and helps her through her sorrow, without really planning to do so. New Moon is about how Bella and Jacob’s relationship evolves, how he begins to fall in love with her, and how she cannot love anyone but Edward, even though she still wants Jacob to be part of her life. New Moon provides another twist in the fantasy-department of the story. Jacob is a member of the Quileute Indian tribe, living near Forks. They hail from an enemy clan of the vampires, and in order to protect their tribe from the vampires the young men develop the skill to turn into werewolves; the only natural and capable enemy of vampires. Bella finds out about Jacob’s heritage and now has to deal with yet another, what she thought to be a, fantasy-creature in her life. So, New Moon is about loss and new friendship. However, this does not become the subject matter for another couple of chapters. The first chapter, which is the basis of this analysis, is about Bella’s birthday, and what happens to cause Edward to leave Forks and Bella behind. As was the case in Twilight the subject matter of New Moon is also verbalised on the first page in the book, as well as a preface providing clues to the subject matter. New Moon is the second instalment of the series, so it carries on the story from Twilight, establishing coherence between the two books. They are both about the same subject matter and the same characters appear in the second book. The content is also very similar to that of Twilight. The content is still fictional, but in New Moon the primary fictional source is Jacob, though Edward is still part of the story. When Bella and Jacob are together the novel could just as easily have been a normal teenage, coming-of-age novel about two friends where one develops feelings for the other. This is a very realistic scenario, which makes New Moon have a more realistic feel than Twilight, where the love is centred on a vampire. In New Moon the focus is on the “human” aspect of a relationship. However, when Jacob turns into a werewolf, the fictional factor steps in and makes the story even more interesting. The presuppositions made in the ST by the author are all similar to those presupposed in Twilight. There is still a great deal of culture evident throughout the story, but for the ST receivers the information will all be known and relatable. However, as stated earlier, the target group also comprises other nationalities that speak and read English, but do not live in the same culture as the
ST receivers. It can be expected that if the ST receivers understood Twilight to a satisfactory level they will also be able to understand New Moon. The text composition of New Moon is identical to that of Twilight. The macro structure of the novel follows that of other novels, which all correspond to the genre of a novel. There is also a dedication on one of the first pages of the book, as well as a preface, which provides some clues as to what is going to happen at some point in the book. The chapters of the book are also indicated by a title and a number. As described above in the analysis of Twilight the text composition follows that of conventional novels, and the aspects mentioned there are also relevant here. The structure of the text is governed by Bella’s thoughts, which usually make up one section. The dialogue is also shown in the conventional way, with one line for each sentence, and a change in line when there is a change in speaker. The only non-verbal element present in New Moon is the book cover. With Twilight the cover proved to be very symbolic to the story and it drew great parallels to religious elements. The original book cover of New Moon is a red and white ruffled tulip, which appears to be falling. According to Meyer, as stated on her website, she has had nothing to do with this book cover. She states that the Twilight book cover was her idea and that it was very important to her, but that she has had no influence on this cover. However, if one does wish to analyse and read symbolism into the red and white tulip on the cover, it provides interesting results. Firstly, the little bit of red flower leaf falling from the flower can symbolise the drop of Bella’s blood that starts the whole conflict in the book. The red on the white of the tulip can also symbol Bella’s blood bleeding on the whiteness of her innocence; she is changing from child to adult, she has tasted lust and desire, and is ready to sacrifice her life to get it back. Secondly, research into the symbolism of flowers, on the website www.livingartsoriginals.com, also revealed interesting meanings. The tulip symbolises perfect love, which is what Bella thought her and Edward’s love was until he left her. A red tulip, though this tulip is only partly red, symbolises a declaration of love, which is what Edward was really giving Bella when he left. He thought, as explained on page 512, that he was keeping her from having a normal life. He loved her so much that he would not stand in the way of her having a happy and normal life, not a life full of danger and risks. A white tulip symbols “I will love you forever”. This is a sentence Bella and Edward has said to each other a couple of times in the two first books. It also symbolises that even though they are apart their love does not perish and they will continue to love each other forever. There is also a movie-poster book cover for New Moon. As seen in Appendix 4, there are two different movie-poster covers for the English and the Danish version. However, both
of these covers were available in the English version. The primary English cover, as depicted in Appendix 4, features Bella and Jacob embracing, with Edward in the background as the face of the moon that is missing from Bella’s life. Kristen Stewart plays Bella and Taylor Lautner plays Jacob in the movie. As mentioned earlier, the movie-poster book covers provide the reader with a face to put on their characters. It also signals that the books are very popular because of the movies and vice versa. To have the two versions – book and movie – connected like that is a good thing as it signals that the two versions resemble each other to a great extent. The lexis used in the ST is still not complex. However, there is definitely a different tone and feel to New Moon than was the case in Twilight. As the story is much more sad and tragic the language also becomes more melancholy. The lexis used in New Moon seems to be very characteristic for a teenage girl, who loses the love of her life. As mentioned in the analysis of Twilight teenagers tend to be somewhat more dramatic in their utterances when something does not go as they wanted. Bella’s language is much more dramatic and melancholic, especially when she talks about Edward. However, in the chapter I am analysing the lexis is very similar to that used in Twilight. In the first chapter of New Moon Edward has not yet left Forks, and everything is still at it was left in Twilight. The love of Bella and Edward has been intensified over the summer they have spent together and the words Bella uses to express her feelings towards Edward are more romantic and dramatic. Segments 14-16 exemplify that.
Example 5.25 14-16a: I didn’t have to look to know who is was; this was a voice I would know anywhere – know and respond to, whether I was awake or asleep … or even dead, I’d bet. The voice I’d walk trough fire for – or, less dramatically, slosh every day trough the cold and endless rain for. Edward. These segments signal the intensification of their relationship, as Bella states that she would die or walk through fire for Edward. To signify the melancholic lexis used throughout the book I have to draw on examples from later in the book, identified by page and line number in the ST.
Example 5.26 ST: 73, 13: There were no footprints, the leaves were still again, but I walked forward without thinking. I could not do anything else. I had to keep moving. If I stopped
looking for him, it was over. Love, life, meaning, … over. ST: 83, 3: Agony ripped through me with the memory of his face. Especially the last sentence of the first example shows how the dramatic melancholic tones of the book. There is also another change in the level of formality as Jacob speaks in a very informal manor. Edward’s language was of a higher formality level, while Jacob is younger and his statements are not necessarily as eloquently put as Edward’s. The title of the book is also important and symbolic. The new moon phase in the lunar cycle is the darkest period, which resembles the period in Bella’s life without Edward. She cannot see herself clearly in the darkness of night, and she loses the will to move on in life. Edward also describes his life without Bella as a moonless night, on page 514 in the book, which is also very fitting to the title of the book.
5.8 Target Text Analysis - Nymåne In the following I will analyse the TT, which is the Danish version of New Moon (Nymåne). This book was translated by another translator, so it will be interesting to see if there are any noticeable changes in translation style.
5.8.1 Extratextual Factors The sender of the TT is still Stephenie Meyer. She is the author and it is her name that is accredited for the book. The text producer and translator of Nymåne is Tina Sakura Bestle23. The initiator of the translation was Randi Høfring, the Danish editor of the series. She was handed the responsibility for the series after the Tusmørke had already been published. Høfring thought that the series needed a new translator, so she chose to use one from her own network of translators; Bestle. During my telephone interview with Høfring on 8th July 2010, she seemed to agree that the series could use a younger translator who maybe understood the language of the narrative and the target group better, though she never said so. I got the perception that the translator’s brief was formulated in a way to emphasise the need for a more contemporary tone in the TT. As Nymåne is the second instalment in a series, the genre has not changed, nor has the target group. Nymåne picks up right where Twilight stops, which means that the characters have not changed 23
Her name at the time of translating Nymåne was Tina Schmidt. She is a literary translator of a younger generation, and she also works as an author of children’s literature and mostly translates children’s literature as well. She has cowritten many children’s books.
much in age, which could change both the target group and the classification of the novel and the genre to which it belongs. Nymåne was translated at a much later time than the ST was published in America. New Moon was released on the 2nd August 2006, but the Danish translation was not published until the 20th March 2009. According to Høfring, the libraries were a bit hesitant in ordering Tusmørke, but that changed after the movie was announced. The publishing company, Carlsen, re-released Tusmørke right before the movie of same name premiered in Denmark (berlingske.dk). The movie really started the series off in Denmark and soon the demand for the second instalment was big, making the publishing company move the release date up. The TT was published directly in a retail edition and was also very successful. The target group remains the same as for Tusmørke, consisting of girls from 12 years and up to a still indefinable age, resembling the ST target group. As also mentioned in the TT analysis of Tusmørke, there will always be a discrepancy between the two target groups, as they do not originate from the same culture. As Nymåne is the second instalment there will have been great expectations of Meyer for her to fulfil the burden of keeping the story interesting. With the devastating twist of Edward leaving Meyer could have been in danger of losing all her fans at once, but once they found that he did return it became clear that Meyer had indeed lived up to expectations of another exciting and interesting book for her fans. The TT is presented in the same medium as the ST, and the requirements for novels tend to be the same in America and Denmark, so there was no great adaptation process for the translator. As already mentioned the book was published on 20th March, 2009, and was produced and received in Denmark. It was released directly in a retail edition as the publishing company was sure of the success of the book. The motive with the translation can be compared to the intention of the initiator, which has already been discussed. Nymåne is the sequel to a popular book and it is only natural to translate the next book in the series as well as the first. The function of the TT is also very similar to that of the ST. The TT is still expressive in the sense that Meyer’s opinions are still the ones which comes across in the TT, as the ST is the base starting point for the production of the TT. The ST function was an expressive function. While the TT has the same function as the ST that signals that the TT is based on an equifunctional translation, which entails that the TT has the same function as the ST.
5.8.2 Intratextual Factors The subject matter is identical to that of the ST. Nymåne is about how Edward leaves Bella, and Bella has to face life alone without the love of her life. It is also about how close friendship can help someone through the darkest period of their life, but also how close friendship can generate stronger feelings for your best friend. Bestle has stayed close to the story line as set forth in the ST. Bestle has also chosen to omit the short summary that verbalises the subject matter in the ST, just as Brix did in Tusmørke. The content has not changed, either. The content is still fictional, even though as mentioned, there is more of a realistic feel to Nymåne because Edward is missing and the truth about Jacob is not revealed until later in the book. The relationship between Bella and Jacob is not fictional to a certain extent in the beginning. They are just two normal teenagers, hanging out and having fun. As stated in the ST analysis the only non-verbal element in the book is the book cover. The same book cover has been used for the Danish version, so the same symbolism can read into it, as done in the ST analysis, with the tulip symbolising perfect love and the colours being statements of love. The lexis used in the TT is very similar to the lexis used in the ST. Bestle’s translation is successful because it appeals to the receivers. She has succeeded in using the same language a Danish 18 year old teenage girl would. The lexis she has used is very target group oriented and is written on a level that depicts the same level of the ST. At times in the ST the fact that an adult wrote the novel seeps through the lines, as some formulations seems more adult than an 18 year old girl could have formulated it. The following example will show how Bestle succeeds in recreating the teenage language.
Example 5.27 22a: What was he doing? 22b: Hvad var det, han havde gang i? 22c: [What was it he was doing?] This TT unit is an idiomatic translation of the ST unit. The TT unit is a term often used by Danish teenagers. The phrase is often used to point out the ridiculousness, when someone is doing something stupid or wrong. Most often the phrase is used and said out loud even though the speaker can clearly see what the other person is doing. Of course, it can also be used in the normal, literal non-ironic meaning. The ST unit could have been translated directly, word-for-word, into Hvad laver han?, but that would not bear any signs of the speaker’s attitude in the same way the TT unit
Example 5.28 115a: I could never quite mimic the flow of his perfect, formal articulation. 115b: Jeg ville aldrig kunne efterligne hans perfekte, formelle måde at tale på. 115c: [I would never be able to imitate his perfect, formal way of speaking.] This example shows how the ST can sometimes bear signs of the fact that it is an adult who wrote it. It does not necessarily seem like a natural word for Bella to use, which is why Bestle’s solution is good. With this translation solution Bestle keeps the language informal and on the level of an 18 year old teenage girl.
Example 5.29 139a: What was so great about mortality? 139b: Hvad var det lige, der var så fedt ved at være dødelig måske? 139c: [What was it exactly that was so cool about being mortal?] In this last example the acid tone of a wronged teenage girl almost seeps right through the page. The Danish adverbials bare [just, simply, only], så [so, then], måske [maybe, perhaps], and lige [just, exactly, right] are often used by teenagers to stress something important or obvious in a statement. The adverbs can also be used as tone markers. In this case it is obvious that Bella cannot understand Edward’s reasons for keeping her a mere mortal, and that she really feels unfairly treated. The use of the Danish måske only works in Danish, not in an English translation, so that was omitted in the retranslation for the sake of the example. Bestle could have translated the ST unit in a more neutral way, like this; Hvad var der så godt ved at være dødelig? [What was so good about being mortal?].
5.9 Macro Strategy As mentioned in the TT analysis of Twilight there are cultural elements in the series that will need consideration from the translator. The same SC elements are also of interest in Nymåne, as the setting of the story has not changed. In the TT analysis I also commented on the knowledge Danes might have about the American culture in general, and that fact is also important to keep in mind in this analysis. Based on an overall first impression, Tina Sakura Bestle seems to have chosen to work with a target
text-oriented macro strategy, but not in the conventional sense. The TT seems to be close to the ST, but in an idiomatic way. The segments have rarely been translated word-for-word, but in a way which leaves the ST meaning intact in the TT unit while the TT unit does not bear many signs of the ST restrictions. Bestle has also used the direct translation micro strategy in its literal sense, but the result seems to be very good and idiomatic. Examples in this section will be taken from throughout the book.
Example 5.30 ST: 121, 6: “I’ve seen grizzlies pretty close up in Yellowstone, but they had nothing on this brute.” TT: 137, 21: “Jeg har set gråbjørne virkelig tæt på i Yellowstone Nationalpark, men det var ingenting i sammenligning med denne fyr.” Retranslation: [”I’ve seen grizzlies really close up in Yellowstone Nationalpark, but it was nothing in comparison with this one.”] In this example Bestle shows how a ST unit can be translated directly and with the subtle use of addition the TT unit works really well. Bestle has explicated that Yellowstone is a national park in America, which is a good strategy, as the target group might not have been aware of that fact. The idiomatic translation of they had nothing on this brute is also really good; men det var ingenting i sammenligning med denne fyr [but it was nothing in comparison to this one]. Bestle could have translated it directly into this ; Jeg har set gråbjørne ret tæt på i Yellowstone, men de havde ingenting på denne fyr, but that would not have worked well in Danish.
Example 5.31 ST: 371, 27: And not just the cliff, but the motorcycles and the whole irresponsible Evel Knievel bit. TT: 403, 10: Og ikke bare at springe ud fra klippen, men også motorcyklerne og hele det hjernelamme “Jeg tror jeg er Supermans kusine”-show. Retranslation: [And not just jumping off the cliff, but also the motorcycles and the whole brain-dead “I think I am Superman’s cousin”-show]. Evil Knievel is a well-known daredevil in America, known for performing hazardous motorcycle jumps over a long line of cars. His name bears the connotation of being reckless and irresponsible, not taking the risks of one’s action fully into account before doing them. Here Bestle has used a
paraphrase micro strategy, and she does not succeed in achieving the same meaning and function of the unit. Bestle must have assessed that the target group would not be able understand the reference of Evel Knievel the same way Americans would. Instead she has come up with a reference most people can relate to; Superman. Why she has decided that Bella is trying to be Superman’s cousin I cannot determine. It is in relation to motorcycle riding, and as far as I am aware, Superman flies, so he would not need a motorcycle, and he would not get hurt if he crashed with one. I can only assume that the same would go for his cousin. A better reference in the superhero world, if the should be needed, could be Batman. We know he drives cars and motorcycles and he can get hurt when he crashes, because he has no actual superpowers. So Bella could be Batman’s cousin instead, which would have a better connotation than Superman’s cousin. Nonetheless, the whole superhero reference is out of place. A better alternative would be to simply paraphrase, as Bestle has tried to do, but leave out the specific reference to other characters. My suggestion is this: Og ikke bare det med at springe ud fra klippen, men også motorcyklerne og hele den dumme ”jeg tror jeg er usårlig” attitude. [And not just the part of jumping off the cliff, but also the motorcycles and the whole stupid “I think I am invulnerable” attitude]. Granted, Bestle’s translation is very creative and might appeal to the younger part of the target group, but it seems she somehow misunderstood the true meaning of the ST unit.
It is clear that Bestle has worked with a more creative macro strategy. She has been less bound by the restrictions of the ST and that leads to a dynamic translation which appeals to the target group. She has worked with an interesting and well-balanced mix of source-text and a target-text oriented macro strategy and in the following I will identify the micro strategies she has used to support the macro strategy mix.
5.10 Micro Strategies In this section I will follow the dichotomy of micro strategies as explained in chapter 3. Based on this I will identify which strategies Bestle has used is her translation and provide examples of typical passages that prove the use of the strategies. In Appendix 2 I have typed out the full first chapter of the English and Danish version of New Moon. I have given each segment a number, and will identify the strategies used in each segment. Some segments will comprise more than one strategy, but I will focus on the ones that provide interesting aspects for the analysis.
5.10.1 Dominant Micro Strategies As stated above, Bestle has worked with a mix of both macro strategies, which means that the micro strategies should also comprise of mix of strategies that comply with either macro strategy. The most dominating micro strategy was the direct translation micro strategy. In Bestle’s case it is not the dominating micro strategies that are the most interesting. It is the fact that she has made use of the deletion and paraphrase micro strategies. So I will comment further on the use of these three strategies in the following section.
Direct Translation Direct translation seems to be the default choice for translators. However, there are two different ways of using this strategy. The first is to translate in a word-for-word procedure, where the exact wording and structure is transferred to the TT unit. The second is to translate the ST unit in an idiomatic way, where the same meaning is conveyed, but the TT unit is not bound by the exact wording of the ST unit. This provides a dynamic TT unit that will comply with the relevant grammar of the TT language and still convey the ST meaning and intention. Bestle has primarily made use of the latter approach.
Example 5.32 8a: Apparently, she hadn’t been expecting to see me, either. 8b: Hun havde tilsyneladende heller ikke regnet med at se mig. 8c: [She had apparently not expected to see me, either.] This translation is direct. The same meaning is conveyed in the TT unit as in the ST unit. The ST unit cannot be translated in a word-for-word procedure as the result would not make any sense. Instead Bestle has translated the ST unit into to an idiomatically correct Danish sentence that still conveys the same meaning without being bound by the restrictions of the ST unit.
Example 5.33 31a: Instead of looking horrified, she was staring at me sheepishly, as if waiting for a scolding. 31b: I stedet for at være rædselsslagen stirrede hun på mig med et fjoget udtryk, som
om hun ventede på at få skældud. 31c: [Instead of being terrified she stared at me with a goofy look, as if she was waiting to get a scolding.] Here, the ST unit is also translated in an idiomatic way. The ST unit could have been translated more directly, but the result would not have been as good. The current result is very good and complies with the grammar and correct use of the Danish words, making the sentence easily understood by the TT receivers, while bearing no signs of the fact that it was originally another language.
Example 5.34 134a: And I supposed… if I could be sure of the future I wanted, sure that I would get to spend forever with Edward, and Alice and the rest of the Cullens (preferably not as a wrinkled old lady)… then a year or two in one direction or the other wouldn’t matter to me so much. 134b: Og måske … hvis jeg kunne være sikker på fremtiden, sikker på at tilbringe den sammen med Edward og Alice og resten af familien Cullen (men helst ikke som en gammel rynket dame) … ville et år fra eller til ikke betyde så meget for mig. 134c: [And maybe … if I could be sure of the future, sure to spend it with Edward and Alice and the rest of the Cullens (but preferably not as a wrinkled old lady) … a year more or less wouldn’t matter that much to me.] Also in longer sentences the direct translation micro strategy can be used. In this case Bestle has translated in a more word-for-word oriented procedure. The structure follows the ST unit. Bestle could have used another micro strategy, like paraphrasing, and set up a new structure for the ST unit, which can seem long and badly organised, though it should be noted that the ST unit does represent a thought and they are not always well organised.
Example 5.35 284a: “Probably,” I admitted, “if I’m paying attention.” 284b: ”Sandsynligvis,” indrømmede jeg, ”hvis jeg følger med.” 284c: [“Probably,” I admitted, “if I’m paying attention.”] As shown here Bestle also uses the direct micro strategy in a word-for-word procedure. However,
this procedure is normally only used in shorter and simpler sentences. When the sentences get longer, there is a higher probability that the grammatical structure of the ST will be more complex, making it difficult to translate word-for-word while ensuring that the TT unit makes sense.
Deletion The deletion micro strategy can be used if there are elements in the ST that simply do not need to be present in the TT and its context. So the ST element is deleted from the TT altogether (Schjoldager, 2008: 108). Surprisingly, Bestle has used this strategy rather often. Deletion will often be made on the basis of relevance. If a unit is of no relevance at all to the TT receivers or if the unit would not make sense to the TT receivers then it would be correct to delete it. There can be many reasons for using this strategy and the following examples will illustrate how the strategy can be used:
Example 5.36 34a: Only then, as I looked at the bigger picture, did I notice the huge gilt frame that enclosed my grandmother’s form. 34b: Først da fik jeg øje på den store, gyldne firkant, der indrammede bedste. 34c: [Only then did I see the big, golden square that framed Gran.] In this example Bestle has deleted elements, which are not necessary in the TT unit and which would not make any sense to translate. As I looked at the bigger picture would not work well translated into Danish as there is not a similar colloquial expression in Danish that can fit into this sentence and still make it work. The TT unit also works quite well without the element, showing that the element is not crucial for the understanding of the sentence. Bestle has also deleted ‘s form, which is also a good strategy. When the frame encloses Gran is it implicit that it is the form of Gran that is enclosed.
Example 5.37 56a: All through the perfect summer – the happiest summer I had ever had, the happiest summer anyone anywhere had ever had, and the rainiest summer in the history of the Olympic Peninsula – this bleak date had lurked in ambush, waiting to spring. This unit is not translated in the TT, deleted altogether. In my opinion I do not see any valid reasons for deleting this item. There is not a complex cultural element present, nor is there a reference to
something that makes no sense to the TT receivers. The unit simply expresses how wonderful a summer Bella and Edward have had together, and that is a part of the story. This unit also conveys meaning about the development of Bella and Edward’s relationship. It shows how they have spent the summer together, happier than ever. It conveys the teenage girl feel that is inherent in the story, and which is important in establishing the tone of the text. Furthermore, this unit also emphasises how Bella has dreaded her birthday and that even through her wonderful summer she has thought about the day with misery.
Example 5.38 213a: Now that the “older” and somewhat scarier (in Emmett’s case, certainly) Cullen siblings had graduated, Alice and Edward did not seem quite so intimidating, and we did not sit here alone. In the context of this unit the TT receiver is left wondering where Rosalie, Emmett and Jasper have gone. Especially the attentive TT receiver will have noticed the deletion. In Twilight the Cullen family always sat together at the same table at lunch, until Bella and Edward started sitting together. In New Moon the new sitting arrangements are explained, with Bella, Edward and Alice sitting with Bella’s other friends. The deleted unit could answer some of the questions a fan would have after reading the Danish version. The “older” Cullen siblings have graduated, thus are not attending the school, and that means that Alice and Edward now seem more friendly and non-intimidating. Without this explanation is appears a bit odd that Alice and Edward would suddenly be sitting with Bella’s friends instead of their own family.
Example 5.39 392-398a: Hey, say hi to Alice for me. She hasn’t been over in a while.” Charlie’s mouth pulled down at one corner. “It’s been three days, Dad,” I reminded him. Charlie was crazy about Alice. He’d become attached last spring when she’d helped me through my awkward convalescence; Charlie would be forever grateful to her for saving him from the horror of an almost-adult daughter who needed help for showering. “I’ll tell her.” “Okay. (…). This whole section was deleted from the TT. The unit does not contain any vital information for the story at this time. However, later in the book this information is important for the TT receivers to be able to decode why Charlie is so happy with Alice returning, but is very reluctant to accept that
Edward is back in Bella’s life after their long separation. Still, there seems to be no reason for Bestle to delete these units from the TT. However, it is interesting how the TT works quite well without this rather long entry.
Paraphrase When a translator uses the paraphrasing micro strategy the ST meaning is rendered rather freely, but it is rendered, nonetheless. It can be difficult to define exactly how the meaning is rendered (Scjoldager, 2008: 100). The TT unit will typically be different from the ST unit, but somehow still contain the same meaning and render it intact. The paraphrasing strategy will often resemble the condensation micro strategy (Schjoldager, 2008: 101). Bestle has used this strategy a few times in her translation and the results are the following examples.
Example 5.40 38a: With a dizzying jolt, my dream abruptly became a nightmare. 38b: Et stød ramte mig. Svimmel. Jeg blev svimmel. Min drøm var blevet til et mareridt. 38c: [A shock hit me. Dizzy. I was dizzy. My dream had turned into a nightmare.] This paraphrase seems to have a different effect in the TT unit than in the ST unit. The TT unit seems more dramatic. The repetition of the word svimmel [dizzy] emphasises the feeling for the reader. The ST unit could have been translated in a direct procedure, conveying the meaning better. The meaning of the TT unit is that Bella was hit by a jolt and then became dizzy, while in the ST unit it is a dizzying jolt hitting her. The difference in meaning is minor, but it still creates another meaning, somehow. The TT unit describes a longer process, where Bella is aware first that a jolt hits her, she becomes dizzy and then the dream changes. However, in the ST unit the dream is suddenly changes into a nightmare by a dizzying jolt, which seems to signify a very fast process, where Bella is not quite sure what has happened. The end did not justify the means in this case. There was no apparent reason to use the paraphrase strategy and the result was not as good, as it could have been with a direct translation strategy.
Example 5.41 41-42a: Me in a mirror. Me – ancient, creased, and withered. 41b: Jeg så mig i et spejl: oldgammel, rynket og bleg.
41c: [I saw myself in a mirror: anciet, wrinkled and pale.] This example shows how a paraphrase strategy can be used to produce a good, idiomatic TT unit. The two ST units are combined in one sentence, which works really well. However, the drama of the two ST units has been minimised, when there is only one combined sentence. In the ST units the repetition of me signifies a longer process, where Bella first realises that she is seeing herself in the mirror, then realising that she looks very old. The result of the paraphrase is acceptable, though it does remove some of the drama in the ST, but the same meaning does come across.
Example 5.42 74a: I couldn’t feel anything but despair until I pulled into the familiar parking lot behind Forks High School and spotted Edward leaning motionlessly against his polished silver Volvo, like a marble tribute to some forgotten pagan god of beauty. 74b: Jeg følte ikke andet end fortvivlelse, indtil jeg kørte ind på den velkendte parkeringsplads bag skolen i Forks og fik øje på Edward, der stod, ubevægelig, og lænede sig op af sin skinnende, sølvfarvede Volvo. Han lignede en statue: Skønhedens gud. 74c: [I didn’t feel anything but despair, until I drove into the familiar parking lot behind the school in Forks and spotted Edward, who stood, motionless, and leaned against his shiny, silver-colored Volvo. He looked like a statue: the God of Beauty.] There are a few interesting translation issues in this example, but I will focus on the example of paraphrase at the end of the sentence. Firstly, Bestle has changed the structure of the ST unit in the TT unit. The ST unit is also rather long and it does not interfere with the meaning or the perception of the unit that it has been divided into two sentences rather than one in the TT. In the highlighted part of the units the same meaning come across, roughly, in both the ST and the TT. It was a very good strategy to choose a paraphrase, as a direct translation strategy would not have worked in the TT. A marble tribute would refer to a statue, which is what Bestle has interpreted it as. Forgotten pagan god of beauty is rather difficult to translate in a way that makes sense in the TT. The short and simple translation into Skønhedens gud is very good, as it conveys the meaning of the ST, but in a simple way that is easy to understand. These simple words are easier to understand for the TT receivers, keeping them in mind.
To see examples of how Bestle has utilised the other micro strategies please see Appendix 6.
5.11 Other Translation Issues The previous examples show how Bestle has made some very creative choices in her translation, by utilising the different micro strategies. The TT is very good as a result of her creativity. Bestle has produced a natural and idiomatically correct translation, but there are still some elements, that need looking into. The other translation issues that are interesting to look at in Bestle’s translation are more centred on stylistic choices and an attempt at adapting an American trend to Danish.
Last names In English it is very common to refer to a family by using the definite article and the last name (Andersen, 2002: 84), like Meyer does when she refers to the Cullen family; The Cullens. However there is not an equivalent approach in Danish. In Danish it would normally be necessary to rephrase the unit into a structure like familien Cullen or Cullen-familien. These are some of Bestle’s suggestions:
Example 5.43 134a: And I supposed… if I could be sure of the future I wanted, sure that I would get to spend forever with Edward, and Alice and the rest of the Cullens (preferably not as a wrinkled old lady)… then a year or two in one direction or the other wouldn’t matter to me so much. 134b: Og måske … hvis jeg kunne være sikker på fremtiden, sikker på at tilbringe den sammen med Edward og Alice og resten af familien Cullen (men helst ikke som en gammel rynket dame) … ville et år fra eller til ikke betyde så meget for mig. 134c: [And maybe … if I could be sure of the future, sure to spend it with Edward and Alice and the rest of the Cullens (but preferably not as a wrinkled old lady) … a year more or less wouldn’t matter that much to me.] Here Bestle has tried to rephrase the ST unit to one of the Danish ways of referring to the collective family. Bestle has not used this solution in all occurrences, as this next example will show.
Example 5.44 202a: Money meant next to nothing to Edward or the rest of the Cullens.
202b: Penge betød ingenting for Edward eller resten af Cullen-familien. 202c: [Money meant nothing to Edward or the rest of the Cullen family.] In this example Bestle has chosen to rephrase the ST unit into the Danish construction. This solution also seems to be the most common way to translate the English way of referring to a collective family. Both ways are correct, it is a matter of taste which one is preferred. However the unit could have been translated more naturally into Penge betød ingenting for Edward eller resten af hans familie [Money meant nothing to Edward or the rest of his family]. This translation would have made the TT unit sound more natural in Danish. There are more examples of this translation problem on page 143 in the TT, where Bestle switches from one solution to the other. As mentioned, there is no specific way transfer this English element to Danish, but it would be a better strategy to simply translate it, so that the TT unit follows Danish conventions in the particular area.
American Structures It seems to be a trend in America for teenagers to make these new kinds of construction, where many words pre-modify the subject or verb to signify a very specific situation or circumstance. The concept or construction does not have a grammatical term, as far as I could find. It is often used to describe certain qualities in people or to create new, more specific compound verbs that signify a very specific action. The trend is also slowly gaining way in Danish, due to the influence from American TV-shows.
Example 5.45 214a: My other friends, Mike and Jessica (who were in the awkward post-breakup friendship phase), Angela and Ben (whose relationship had survived the summer), Eric, Conner, Tyler, and Lauren (though that last one didn’t really count in the friend category) all sat at the same table, on the other side of an invisible line. 214b: Mine andre venner, Mike og Jessica (der befandt sig i den svære ”vi har lige slået op, og nu skal vi være gode venner” – fase), Angela og Ben (deres forhold havde overlevet sommerferien), Eric, Conner, Tyler og Lauren (selvom hun ikke rigtig hørte til vennekategorien), sad alle sammen ved det samme bord i den anden ende, på den anden side af en usynlig grænse. 214c: [My other friends, Mike and Jessica `(who were in the difficult ”we have just
broken up and now we are going to be good friends” – phase), Angela and Ben (their relationship has survived the summer), Eric, Conner, Tyler and Lauren (even though she didn’t really belong in the friend category) were all sitting at the same table at the other end, on the other side of the invisible line.] Bestle has tried to recreate that in Danish and she has made this kind of structure a few places in the TT, e.g page 255 and 403. The unit in this example could also have been translated into …(der lige havde slået op og nu prøvede at være venner)…. There is no apparent reason for transferring the American structure to the Danish structure. This is one case, where Bestle could have been more creative and not be too bound by the ST unit.
Example 5.46 ST: 232, 5: It only took me about two minutes of staring at the silent kitchen phone to decide that I wasn’t staying home today. TT: 255, 15: Det tog mig til gengæld kun to minutters stirren-på-telefonen-der-ikkeringer at beslutte, at jeg ikke skulle være hjemme i dag. Retranslation: [On the other hand, it only took me two minutes staring-at-the-phonethat-doesn’t-ring to decide that I wasn’t going to stay home today.] This example shows how Bestle has used this kind of structure without being urged to do so by the ST. In this case it does not make much sense why Bestle would choose this strategy. Bestle has created a compound verb to signify a very specific action; staring at the silent phone. A better translation in this case would also mean that the TT unit strays a bit from the ST unit; Jeg brugte kun to minutter til at stirre på den tavse telefon, før jeg besluttede, at jeg ikke ville blive hjemme i dag [I only spent two minutes staring at the silent phone before I decided that I wasn’t going to stay at home today].
6. Results In the previous sections I have analysed the translations of the first and second instalment in the Twilight Saga; Twilight and New Moon. Twilight was translated by Birgitte Brix, a literary translator of an older generation, who has translated many children’s books. New Moon was translated by Tina Sakura Bestle, a literary translator of a younger generation, who has written as well as translated children’s books. Before I began the analysis of the translations I already had an idea of what I would find out. Based
on my own first assumption upon reading the Danish versions I was sure that I would be able to pick Tusmørke apart in the analysis, and that Nymåne would prove to be a really good translation. In the following I will provide the results of my analysis and compare the two translations to each other.
6.1 Extra- and Intratextual Factors The extratextual factors are not of great interest to compare. The ST’s were written by the same author, but at different times and the motive and intention of text production will be different. Twilight was written first, in 2005, and then Meyer’s intention was to tell the world about the great love between Bella and Edward, and the inevitable conflict of the two races falling in love with each other. New Moon was written in 2006 and at that time Meyer’s intention was to keep writing about Bella and Edward, but also to portray her views on how devastating true love can be, when it has taken over your entire world and existence. When it comes to intratextual factors, the most interesting to comparison is the lexis each of the translators has used in their translation. As stated in section 5.2.3 the lexis Brix has used in Tusmørke is old-fashioned, as seen in examples 5.3-4, e.g.. There are many words throughout the TT that the TT receivers does not know what means. Brix’ use of the rather old-fashioned language is different to the language of the ST. Meyer has attempted, and mostly succeeded, in writing as a teenager, but Brix has not succeeded in translating as a teenager. In some cases Brix has also transferred the English sentence structure to the TT, which does not work well in the TT, as seen in examples 5.8-9-10. It often seems that Brix misunderstands the ST units or does not understand the connotation of a given word. Based on the micro analysis of her translation she has done quite well. There are no wrong translations, per se, but she has not succeeded in translating idiomatically and in appealing to the TT receivers. Bestle, on the other hand, proved to be successful in using lexis that appeal to the TT receivers. The TT receivers are a very important role in the translation process and if the translator does not know how to appeal to them, then much of the meaning in the ST can get lost in translation. Bestle has done a very job at aiming the text at its teenage TT receivers, and as explained in section 5.7.2, by way of the three examples 5.27-29, Bestle has been able to spice up the TT units with simple, small words that are used by teenagers today, and which makes the text colloquial and idiomatic.
6.2 Macro Strategy The two macro strategies, ST oriented and TT oriented, have been used by both translators as stated in sections 5.4 and 5.8. However, their use of the two strategies differs. Brix has translated according to a ST oriented strategy. She has stayed very close to the ST, and in some cases she even transferred the structure of the ST to the TT, which is not necessarily a good idea to do. Brix has been very direct in her translation, as the micro analysis also shows. She has also made good use of the TT oriented strategy, where she has adapted many cultural elements into elements that would make more sense in the TT culture. This is a good way to use the TT oriented strategy in a subtle way. It does not become too clear that the translator has changed the ST unit in order for the TT receivers to understand. It just seems like a natural element. Bestle has worked with a mix of strategies where both strategies become more evident in the translation. Generally, she has worked with the ST oriented strategy, which almost always works as the translator’s default choice of translation strategy. She has stayed close to the ST when she has used the ST oriented translation strategy, but when it was needed, or she saw it fit, she switched to a TT oriented translation strategy and worked creatively with the translation. Bestle has succeeded in translating the ST idiomatically, so that the TT appeals to the TT receivers. Bestle’s macro strategy, or mix thereof, has proven to be very successful, because she appeals to the TT receivers. In my opinion Bestle’s macro strategy and translation approach is the better of the two, because Brix has failed in appealing to the TT receivers. She has not translated the ST into a colloquial and idiomatic TT, which appeals to the target group of the book. Bestle, on the other hand, has distanced herself from the ST just far enough in order to determine when an ST unit needs changing to make it work in the TT. She has been very creative in her translation as well, which makes the TT more dynamic and prevents, to a certain extent, that the TT bears signs of being a translation. The more creative the translator is in adapting the ST to the TT receivers the less the TT should read as a translation. Another important aspect in translation is the TT receivers. As mentioned earlier, the TT receivers play a very important role in the translation process. They are the ones who will receive the book and determine whether or not the translator has made the book fulfil its intended function as set forth by the initiator. It should also be noted, though, that Bestle, in my opinion, has been too creative in certain cases. To delete whole sections from the ST is not a good strategy in my view. Even though some of the sections that were deleted were superfluous, the author still intended them to be there for a reason. A ST is the starting point of any translation and I think it is important to stay as loyal to the ST as possible. Other than that, I am definitely in favour
of Bestle’s translation, as it consists of a good mix of ST oriented and TT oriented strategies, which provides the receiver with a dynamic and idiomatic translation.
6.3 Micro Strategies Brix has primarily used the direct translation and the oblique translation micro strategies. She has utilised the strategies quite well in examples 5.11-14. The direct translation micro strategy tends to be the default choice of strategy for translators. It is also a very good strategy to use when the intended function of the translation is to stay close to the ST. By way of this strategy Brix has accomplished to stay close to the ST. However, it has also entailed some rather unfortunate formulations, where the TT unit has been too bound by the restrictions of the ST unit. In some cases, as discussed under section 5.4 in examples 5.8-10, Brix has transferred the structure of the ST unit, which means that the TT unit does not comply with the conventional Danish grammar in that case. The direct translation has worked well for Brix in short, simple sentences, where each ST word has a direct equivalent in Danish. Furthermore, Brix has also accomplished to translate some of the ST units into idiomatic and colloquial Danish, while still staying very close to the meaning of the ST. Brix also used the oblique translation micro strategy, which is used to translate the sense of the ST unit. With this strategy Brix has achieved to be creative within the frames of a smaller scope, meaning that she has been creative while she still seems to be under the restrictions of the ST. She has not made any elaborate creative changes or translations, which would also mean, had she done so, that she would be moving towards a paraphrase strategy. Brix has captured the essence of examples 5.15-16, and has translated them quite well into units that will provide the TT readers with the same sense as the ST receivers. The dominant micro strategies Bestle has worked with are direct translation, deletion and paraphrasing. It is important to note in this case, that the two latter strategies are not dominant because they have been used the most times, but because the use of them is so clear in the TT compared to the ST that it makes them dominant in the analysis. Bestle has used direct translation the most times in chapter 1 of Nymåne. The way she has used direct translation is especially clear in the longer sentences, as in example 5.34. The majority of the segments Bestle has translated with the direct translation strategy are idiomatically translated, which means that they have been translated into natural and colloquial Danish sentences. Bestle has also used the word-for-word direct translation strategy, which has also worked quite well in most cases. One of the more radical micro strategies she has worked with is the deletion micro strategy. It will, naturally, not be obvious
for the TT receivers that the translator has used the deletion strategy, as they will probably never know that a sentence or section is missing, compared to the ST. However, when a translation is analysed as I have done in the previous chapter it is evident, and in my opinion, the deleted units should not have been deleted. Granted, the units do not comprise any huge information loads or elements that will be very important for the rest of the story, but the units are still present in the ST. Meyer must have intended for them to be there, which should mean that it is not up to the translator to decide what the content of the story should be. As stated, the deleted units did not bear any crucial meaning to the story, but there was no obvious reasons for the units to be deleted either. The units would have made sense to the TT receivers if they had been translated, they did not contain any heavy cultural references nor would they have been inappropriate in the TT cultural context. The final dominant micro strategy Bestle worked with was paraphrase. Paraphrase is very similar to condensation, but also to the idiomatic use of the direct translation strategy. However, as I see it, many of the segments in chapter 1 have been translated via a paraphrase strategy. Bestle has translated rather freely, but the core meaning of the ST unit is usually transferred to the TT unit without any problems. It does show that the translator is capable of being creative with the ST units. Bestle has used the paraphrase strategy to produce TT units which are not restricted by the content of the ST units, but that still convey the same meaning in most cases, which then entails a more dynamic and natural translation, as seen in example 5.43. It also minimises the risks of the TT bearing signs of translationese, which there is none of in Nymåne. The other translation issues I have addressed in the analysis are very different for the two translations. The translation issues that was found in Brix’ translation were basic grammatical mistakes. Brix did not translate the future tense correctly, as seen in examples 5.17 and 5.18, or at least idiomatically, nor had she been able to use a lexis that would be more appropriate for the teenage target group. Brix has also made some peculiar choices of words throughout the translation, which is obvious in examples 5.21-22 and 5.24 in particular. The other translation issues identified in Bestle’s translation were concentrated on stylistic choices; how to translate specific English ways of referring to a family by the last name, as seen in examples 5.44-45, and how to construct explicitation phrases, which are very typical in teenage language nowadays, as seen in examples 5.46-47. Bestle did not make any grave grammatical errors to the same extent Brix did.
6.4 The Best Translation Brix’ use of micro strategies has entailed a TT which is very directly translated and bound by the ST. She has stayed very close to the ST, which is basically a good strategy, and she has made a good overall translation, when her strategies and translation choices are analysed in their own right. In spite of this, based on an overall assessment Brix has not accomplished in producing a natural and idiomatically correct translation that appeals to the TT receivers, if the translation is analysed as a whole. The TT receivers are very important to keep in mind, when translating. If the TT receivers do not like the book or if they cannot identify with the characters in the story, the book will not be successful. Brix has not produced a translation of Twilight that is appropriate for and written for the TT receivers. Bestle’s use of micro strategies has entailed a more creative translation. She has still remained fairly close to the ST, and the same meaning does come across to the TT. The overall translation is very good, and she had utilised many of the micro strategies, which has entailed a dynamic translation, as well. At times Bestle has been too creative in deleting sections and in paraphrasing others, but that is also what signifies a good translator; the courage to change units so that it, in her opinion, would appeal more to the TT receivers and to change the ST meaning into something that would make more sense in the TT situation. Even though Bestle has been very creative, she has still managed to produce a natural and idiomatically correct translation that appeals to the TT receivers. But which strategy is better? It is a good strategy to stay close to the ST while not appealing to the TT receivers, or straying from the ST, being very creative, but appealing so much more to the TT receivers? In my opinion Bestle’s choices of strategies and her translation solutions makes up the best translation out of the two. Brix did not succeed in capturing the youthful spirit of first love, teenage-life and mystery, but Bestle did with her creative translation. Bestle has been able to capture the spirit of the ST and convey it to the TT, which is what a translator has to do. The ideal situation would be a mix of the two translation approaches set forth by Brix and Bestle. In my opinion staying close to the ST while being creative in appealing to the TT receivers is the best and most ideal translation strategy.
6.5 The Change in Translator Unfortunately, I am in no position to disclose the real reason behind the change in translator. Randi Høfring did not wish to share that information with me, which I completely understand. However, it
leaves me with only one possibility; guessing. Based on the analysis in section 5, it has become clear that there are differences between the two translations, which can be expected. Two translators will never be able to translate along the same lines with the same strategies or with the same function intended for the TT. As the translators are human beings their train of thought will never correspond fully to that of the other. What is even more important to consider here is the age of the translators. Bestle is a young literary translator, born in 197524. Randi Høfring was reluctant to give information about Brix, who I never got in contact with, but Høfring did tell me that there was at least a 20-year difference, if not 30, between the two translators. This means that the two translators are actually from different generations, which is interesting in relation to the translations they have made. The big age-gap would make it even harder for the two translators to produce translations that would be similar to each other, not that they would need to, though. It explains many of the translations issues found in their translations. Brix is of an older generation, and that will explain why she has used many oldfashioned words. Furthermore, she has primarily worked with translating children’s books from English into Danish. Here the lexis tends to be very old-fashioned or of a higher formality level, which suits Brix’ way of writing. Children’s books are often filled with fantasy and are reminiscent of older times, but the Twilight series is contemporary and portrays life in the present time. Bestle, on the other hand, is of a younger generation and it can be assumed that she will be better at appealing to the TT receivers. She is young enough to be able to adapt her language to the TT receiver, but old enough to do so responsibly and well. Randi Høfring claims that the reason there was a change in translator was that Høfring took over responsibility for the series after the first translation had already been translated, and that she preferred to work with a translator from her own network. To me, it does seem that Brix did not do a good job in appealing to the TT receivers, writing in a language they would understand, and Høfring decided that a younger translator, who would hopefully be able to appeal to the TT receivers, should take over.
During my research I was in contact with Tina Sakura Bestle, and I got this information from her.
7. Conclusion This thesis has been devoted to the elusive craft; literary translation. I wanted to write about literary translation, because it was a field of translation I did not know much about, nor did I know what it actually meant to translate literature. The definition of what literature actually is caused me some problems to begin with. I have always viewed literature as being printed books in all shapes and sizes. However, research lead me to believe that literature was not as easily defined as such. It proved that there was a cultural element present in the definitions of literature I had come across. The English definition of literature seemed to define literature as being such, if the there was an artistic quality to the literary work. That definition did not seem fulfilling, as that would not necessarily include scholarly or non-fiction literature. The Danish encyclopaedic definition was more accommodating. Literature comprises all printed books and publications. These two definitions made me aware of how ones cultural background can be pivotal in defining objects of the world. For the sake of this thesis, the definition of literature was in line with the Danish one; literature comprises all books and publications. As Stephenie Meyer’s novels have not been highly praised by the literary community the novels would not have been deemed literature according to the English definition. Literary translation is the process of translating literature, strictly speaking. To translate literature is to transfer a work that is deemed literary in the source culture to the target culture. A very interesting aspect here is the cultural differences of the source and target cultures. A work that is deemed literary in one culture cannot necessarily be deemed literary in another culture, based on the new culture’s literary requirements. In fact, the process of adapting the ST to the TT culture and the requirements of literature in the TT culture is the core of literary translation. The ST will fulfil TT requirements by way of the translator’s process and strategies, even though the translator will be disregarding some of the elements that defined the work as being literature in the ST culture. It can be concluded that literature in one culture is not necessarily considered as literature in another culture, which is why the translator’s role and process is of great importance. This is also why literary translation is so challenging to work with. Not only must the translator translate the content, but s/he must also bear in mind the literary requirements of the TT culture and ensure that the TT fulfils these requirements. In order for the translator to perform a literary translation there are many theories that will aid and abet the translator. There seems to be a never-ending line of theorists and practitioners, who all claim that their theory or approach is the best one. During my research I came across the same
names a few times, and chose to focus on their theories. The theories discussed in section 2 were those of Eugene A. Nida, Lawrence Venuti and Christiane Nord. All of these theorists have each their own take on what is important to consider in the process of literary translation. Nida’s notions of equivalence can be used to achieve an effective literary translation. A translation made with the formal equivalence strategy will be focussed on the effect that ST had on its ST receiver, not necessarily taking the TT receivers into consideration. A translation made with the dynamic equivalence will be focussed on the effect it generates with the TT receivers, disregarding the letter of the ST, but capturing the spirit and making it comprehensible to the TT receivers. Venuti’s notions of domesticating and foreignizing methods put focus on the cultural elements inherent in every publication. His two methods will aid the translator in either reducing or emphasising the cultural elements, which to Venuti is the most important aspect in literature. Nord’s notions of documentary and instrumental translation focus on the function of the text. The documentary translation strategy will provide the translator with a method to documenting the original ST to the TT receivers, while also documenting the original function of the text. The instrumental translation strategy will enable the translator to choose from three different functions which the translation can fulfil. These three theorists have provided the literary translator with theories regarding effect, culture and function, and these factors are all important in the text production, reception and translation. Birgitte Brix and Tina Sakura Bestle have translated the two first instalments of the Twilight Saga. Brix has chosen to work with a ST oriented translation strategy. She has used the correct micro strategies to support her choice of macro strategy; direct and oblique translation. Brix’ translation has indeed been very ST oriented, and at times it has been too ST oriented. Prior to the analysis of Tusmørke I had been certain that I could pick the translation apart and prove how badly Brix did because of the strategies she had used. However, it turned out that the translation was not wrong, per se. She had just not succeeded in translating in an idiomatic, colloquial and natural fashion, which would appeal to the TT receivers. Had the target group been teenagers in the 50’s Brix’ translation would have appealed to them, but the target group is teenagers in a contemporary society, and Brix has not succeeded in speaking their language. Bestle has chosen to work with a creative TT oriented strategy, which she has also combined with a ST oriented strategy. She has primarily used micro strategies that support the TT oriented approach, but in the segments where a direct translation was sufficient she has used that. However, Bestle has used the direct translation micro strategy in a natural and idiomatic fashion that renders the meaning of the ST unit in a way
that appeals to the TT receivers. The other micro strategies that were dominant in her translation were the deletion and the paraphrasing strategy, the use of which have entailed a very creative translation. However, at some points the TT units are too creative, and whole ST units have been deleted entirely from the TT. There is definitely room for improvement in the first translation, which was made by Birgitte Brix. Brix could have been much more aware of the TT receivers. She could have done more research into the language used by teenagers, if she did not find she had the sufficient knowledge. This is where one of Thomas Harder’s points of views in connection with the challenges of literary translation is very relevant. It is not what you, it is what you think you know. Brix seems to have assumed that she was capable of translating a text that would appeal to teenagers from 12 years and up, when it turned out that she was not. Brix has not achieved in capturing the spirit, but she has adhered to the letter, killing the spirit, according to Nida’s theory. Brix has domesticated the ST by adapting many cultural elements into elements that are natural in the Danish culture. Furthermore, it does not seem that Brix has made the TT fulfil its function, which I cannot fully determine as I am not aware of the exact function the TT was intended by the initiator to have. The function I imagine the TT would have had was to generate the same effect with the TT receivers as with the ST receivers, which the TT does not. In the second translation there is also room for improvement, but not in the scope of the first translation. Bestle has proven that she is not afraid to be creative in her translations. She has proven that a creative macro strategy will entail a dynamic and functional TT. However, at times it would be prudent for the translator to step back, and not get carried away with the creativity. The only valid reason for deleting ST units is if there is absolutely no reason for the units to be present in the TT. If the units consisted of heavy cultural content or content that is inappropriate or somehow unfitting for the function set forth by the initiator or for the target group. The deleted items in Nymåne did not contain any of the mentioned factors, which make it difficult to understand the reason behind the deletion. Generally, Bestle’s translation was the better of the two. She accomplished in appealing to the TT receivers with her creative and dynamic translation. Brix’ translation was correct, by all means, but she did not accomplish in appealing to the TT receivers. Unfortunately I can only guess as to why the publisher changed translator, but I think that the analysis in this thesis can provide a part of the answer to that mysterious question.
8. Data List Meyer, Stephenie (2005) Twilight. New York. Little, Brown and Company. Meyer, Stephenie (2006) New Moon. New York. Little, Brown and Company. Meyer, Stephenie (2007) Eclipse. New York. Little, Brown and Company. Meyer, Stephenie (2008) Breaking Dawn. New York. Little, Brown and Company. Meyer, Stephenie (2005) Twilight – Tusmørke. På dansk ved Birgitte Brix. 4. udgave, 1. oplag, 2009. Forlaget Carlsen. Meyer, Stephenie (2006) Nymåne. På dansk ved Tina Schmidt. 1. udgave, 4. oplag, 2009. Forlaget Carlsen. Meyer, Stephenie (2007) Formørkelse. På dansk ved Tina Schmidt. 1 udgave, 2. oplag, 2009. Forlaget Carlsen. Meyer, Stephenie (2008). Daggry. På dansk ved Tina Sakura Bestle. 1. udgave, 2. oplag 2009. Forlaget Carlsen.
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Webpages www.stepheniemeyer.com http://www.stepheniemeyer.com/index.html http://www.stepheniemeyer.com/bio.html http://www.stepheniemeyer.com/twilight.html http://www.stepheniemeyer.com/newmoon.html http://www.stepheniemeyer.com/eclipse.html http://www.stepheniemeyer.com/breakingdawn.html http://www.stepheniemeyer.com/midnightsun.html http://www.stepheniemeyer.com/breetanner.html http://www.stepheniemeyer.com/graphicnovels.html
www.berlingske.dk http://www.berlingske.dk/boeger/den-religioese-husmor-og-vampyren http://www.berlingske.dk/film/kaerlighed-med-taender http://www.berlingske.dk/film/new-moon-overgaar-forventningerne http://www.berlingske.dk/kultur/droemmen-om-den-perfekte-fyr-med-hugtaender http://www.berlingske.dk/film/hyperromantisk-drama-teenagere http://www.berlingske.dk/kultur/piger-er-vilde-med-vampyrer http://www.berlingske.dk/kultur/filmede-boeger-ligger-helt-i-top http://www.berlingske.dk/boeger/bogserie-med-potter-potentiale
www.boxofficemojo.com http://boxofficemojo.com/movies/?id=twilight08.htm http://www.boxofficemojo.com/movies/?page=intl&id=eclipse.htm
www.wiki.answers.com http://wiki.answers.com/Q/How_many_languages_Twilight_has_been_translated_into www.thegarageblog.com http://thegarageblog.com/garage/chevy-vs-chevrolet/