6-4 slavery Imperialism and Apartheid

January 5, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: History, World History
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Africa – Slavery/Imperialism/Apartheid CH 6-4

African Slave trade…  Low estimates state 12 million Africans were shipped to the

Americas from 1500’s – 1800’s to work as slaves.  Leaders of some indigenous African states participated in the

trade earning $$ and firearms;  Millions of young African were forced to abandon the continent of

their birth; many died in transit or were worked to death; few who survived returned thus depriving the continent of a generation of the vital resource of young, energetic men & women.  When slavery was abolished (first in Europe then in the US) it left

the east & west coasts of the continent with a great loss of people (diaspora) – but also helped spread African ideas, customs & beliefs around the world.

European Imperialism in Africa…  European industrialization replaced their need for human

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labor with a need for raw materials so once again Africa with its rich resource base became a focus. By the mid to late 1800’s economic, political & religious motives led European nations to an all out scramble for control of Africa. At the Berlin Conference in 1884 13 European leaders gathered to carve up sub-Saharan Africa into colonies – no African leaders were present. After this surveyors, soldiers, missionaries, officials & settlers flocked from Europe to Africa to enforce their claims. There were wars of resistance however in many cases European weapons & military technology were superior. Liberia & Ethiopia were the only 2 African states that retained autonomy throughout the colonial period of the continent.

Control of Southern Africa…  3 groups engaged in a bitter power struggle

for this region: local African groups (like the Zulu); Dutch settlers (called “Boers”); and the British.  Local African groups battled to control the desirable farmland of Southern Africa. Of these groups the Zulu – under the leadership of Shaka – created the largest African kingdom due to their innovative & fierce military skill.

Southern Africa continued…  Dutch settlers came to southern tip of the continent in

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1652 & set up a colony at Cape Town. They enslaved the local Africans they encountered & tried pushed north where they discovered diamonds, gold & the Zulu. With the help of British troops, the Boers were able to defeat the Zulu & control the region …until… The British decided they wanted it for themselves! The British & Boers go to war with the British eventually winning ; however… 8 yrs. Later the British grant self-government to the area creating the “union of South Africa” & set up a constitution that gave the right to vote to white men only.

South Africa…  Because the Boers made up a majority of the

white population of South Africa they gained control of the government.  This gov’t. introduced the policy of “separateness” known as Apartheid & enacted laws that were prejudicial to nonwhites.  Laws were passed to separate races in all aspects of life (work/school/relationships/settlement areas, etc.) Ultimately black homelands were established – to be occupied by blacks on the worst land. This formal system of discrimination & racism led to total political & social control by the white minority.

Life under Apartheid…  3 million blacks lived in these homelands &

were forced to carry “passes” which limited their movement outside of the homelands as well. Blacks were denied formal citizenship as they were considered citizens of the homelands & not of the nation.  Some non-whites were allowed to live in “townships”, segregated neighborhoods on the outskirts of cities, where their labor was needed.

Opposition to Apartheid…  Opposition to Apartheid began in 1960’s &

was led by blacks, but “coloureds” & Asians also were involved.  International pressure, including trade restrictions & banning from international athletic competitions also helped end Apartheid;  “Pass Laws” were eliminated in the 1980’s;

End of Apartheid…  1989 S. A. President F.W. DeClerk lifted the

ban on the African National Congress (ANC) & other groups that opposed Apartheid;  in 1990 Nelson Mandela – the ANC’s best known leader, was freed after 27 years in prison & the gov’t. begins to hold talks with black leaders;  Early 1990’s a new constitution is written to guarantee black South African’s rights;

S. Africa after Apartheid…  1994 – free elections are held & Nelson Mandela is elected as    

the new President. Homelands were finally eliminated from maps of South Africa; Racial & residential segregation is officially made illegal, but South Africa remained sharply divided along race lines; 1999 – a peaceful exchange of power sees Thabo Mbeki replace Mandela as the new leader; Jacob Zuma replaced Mbeki & started his 2nd term in 2009; he was a member of the S. Af. Communist party & has faced charges of rape, corruption & fraud – all of which have been dropped. Racial & economic problems persist in South Africa up to the present. HIV/AIDS numbers are high as is the crime rate.

South Africa since Apartheid…  http://abcnews.go.com/GMA/video/nelson-

mandelas-final-act-10886089  http://topics.nytimes.com/top/news/internati

onal/countriesandterritories/southafrica/inde x.html  http://www.anc.org.za/

Significant leaders for African Independence…

 W.E.B. Dubois

 Jomo Kenyatta  Julius Nyerere  Kwame Nkrumah  How was each man significant in the history

of Africa’s independence movements? STAND & DELIVER…

Enduring Political Conflict…  Lack of readiness to participate in and run

democratic governments (“institutional framework”);  Political & geographic structure of newly

independent states ignored indigenous cultural and political differences & instead placed groups together that had no desire to be together.

TRIBALISM…  Defined: Loyalty to the ethnic group rather

than to the state.  Tribal identities take precedence over national identities;  Most sub-Saharan nations have had a difficult time forging a “national identity” that appeals to all groups within the nation.  Virtually all African borders were “inherited” through colonialism.

Refugees…  Definition: People who flee their state

because of a well-founded fear of persecution based on race, ethnicity, religion, or politics.  Internally displaced refugees – people who have fled from conflict but not left their country.  Over 3 million in Africa had “refugee” status in 2000.  http://www.unhcr.org/do1thing/index.php

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