6. Commonalities between Nazi Germany and USSR
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Two Most Influential Ideologies To REJECT Classical Liberalism • COMMUNISM • FASCISM
Both communism and fascism used totalitarian governments
On the USSR’s flag hammer = industrialization
scythe = collectivized agriculture
On the Nazi’s flag Swastika – ancient symbol denoting luck Since Hitler, to most Westerners it denotes evil
• Totalitarianism – use of government to exert complete control over EVERY aspect of people’s lives
Commonalities New technologies made totalitarianism possible and allowed rulers to maintain an extreme degree of control over their populations Turned away from the individual and away from limited democratic governments Both had one party rule (no other political parties allowed) Both favored a collective, all-powerful state
Both used a hierarchical structure Single charismatic party leader Obedience to and support for the party was notnegotiable
Top party members (national) Lower party members (regional & local)
Masses of people in the nation
Control of the Masses FEAR TERROR INTIMIDATION
INDOCTRINATION GESTAPO NKVD
PROPAGANDA COERCIVE POWER
was among the most brutal, repressive, and inhumane police organisations of human history. The NKVD's duties, while multifaceted, included the administration of the gulag's and prison system, the police, internal affairs for the police, and served as the main apparatus for carrying out the purges and mass executions of Communists and innocent Soviet civilians in the 1930s.
GULAGS – SOVIET FORCED LABOUR PRISONS
During the NKVD's reign of terror (1930-1953), 786,098 Soviet people were executed, 3.5 million were imprisoned, and 2 million people died in prison and exile. The vast majority of executions — 681,692, or 87% of the total — came in 1937 and 1938, corresponding to the years the Soviet Government required the NKVD to fulfill a predetermined quota of arrests and executions.
This quota indicated that each city in the country held several thousand "traitors" that must be found and executed. (Data from: The Road to Terror, Getty and Naumov, Yale University Press, 1999. Pages 587-594.)
At its height in January 1, 1941, the NKVD held 1,500,524 Soviet people in prisons and gulags.
Death rates while incarcerated (due to hunger, exhaustion, disease, and natural causes) varied from 5-10% of all new arrivals. The vast majority of those in prison were men (~ 93% from 1934 - 1941), with 50-70% (depending on the year in question) between the ages of 25 and 40. Those with a primary education or who were semi-literate were the most likely in prison, steadily representing around 80% of the total. (Data from: The History of the Gulag, Khlevniuk, Yale University Press, 2004, pages 307-319).
786,098 Soviet people were executed
Joseph Stalin Nicknames:
Man of Steel Ruler with an Iron Fist Koba
One of Koba’s most famous quotes lives on in infamy: “Death solves all problems - no man, no problem.”
Koba, it is conservatively estimated, had some 20 million problems, all of which he solved via collectivization, dekulakization, the famines, the Great Terror, the purges, the Gulag Archipelago, Vorkuta, Kolyma, Solovetsky, Suhanovka - on and on it went, decade after decade after decade. Twenty million senseless killings. Twenty million ‘problems’ solved. Over a quarter of a century of relentless, grinding evil.
Metaphor for Indoctrination
THINK AS YOU ARE TOLD – YOUR ARE PART OF THE COLLECTIVE
One sided information designed to persuade its audience
Fuehrer The Leader of the NAZI Party Nationalist Socialist German Worker’s Party
(Geheime Staatspolizei; Secret State Police), a police force, often including members of the SS, were responsible for state security and the consignment of people to concentration camps. The Gestapo's main tool was the protective custody procedure which allowed it to take actions against "enemies of the Reich."
By 1934, Heinrich Himmler became head of the Gestapo throughout Germany. In 1939 the Gestapo was consolidated with other police forces to form the RSHA (Reich Security Main Office). The RSHA, including the Gestapo and the SS, assumed the task of enslaving the "inferior races" and carried out a major role in the "Final Solution".
Hitler’s Final Solution
S C H W I T
Z Death Camps To kill Jews, Gypsies, Religious Leaders and other Dissenters, Homosexuals, Disabled People, and all non-whites
Those who will NEVER FORGET
INDOCTRINATION IS BRAINWASHING & THOUGHT CONTROL
One sided information designed to persuade an audience
Both the Communist Party and the Nazi Party demanded: • Support for the party (local, regional and national level) • Controlled participation (forced into or excluded from youth, professional, cultural or athletic groups) • Absolute loyalty to the leader and state ideology (secret police, terror, indoctrination via education and censorship of media used to achieve this)
Demonstration of support for the party, controlled participation and absolute loyalty
Loyalty Through Fear
“The ends justify the means.”
FASCISM VS. COMMUNISM FASCISM • Draws support from lower classes & business. • Makes decisions in the interest of the state. • Focuses activities on the state.(national) • Corporate state (private enterprise) • Elitism • Ultra-nationalism(ethnocentric) • racist
COMMUNISM • Draws support from working classes. • Makes decisions in the interest of the working class. • Desire to help working class around the world. (international) • State ownership of the means of production. • Nationalities unimportant (equally)