6.Continuity and Change. The Quebec question

January 5, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Social Science, Political Science
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Change and Continuity Some things change, some things stay the same

TC2: Continuity and Change

How does it work? 

Start with a chronology of related events    

Canada’s involvement in peace-keeping missions Education in Canada Stanley Cup championship series’ Roles of women

Look at the timeline - Are there patterns?  Remember - Continuity & Change can coexistor happen at the same time 

Let’s practice with our own timeline

ACTIVITYFrench English Relations In groups put the events described into chronological order.  Once finished get a worksheet from Ms H, look at every event – do you see common ideas or details that suggest “CONTINUITY”?  Then, do you see “CHANGE”?  Can you can break it into time periods? What are these “turning points” where the story changes? 

Periodization - think about how we group periods in time

1920’s vs 1930’s

Change is a process  It happens at different paces  You can identify turning points

Progress & Decline What may be progress for one group, can be decline for another

Progress & Decline The End of WW1- Paris 1919- Treaty of Versailles

Woodrow Wilson (US), David Lloyd George (GBR) & George Clemenceau (FRN) meet to wrap- up WW1 & ensure peace. Progress right?

Progress for one, decline for another Was the world a better place after the conference?

Germany – “There was anger throughout Germany when the terms were made public. The Treaty became known as a Diktat - as it was being forced on them and the Germans had no choice but to sign it.”

Japan- “in all this progress towards peace, can we include a racial equality clause in the League of Nations Charter?”

Progress for one, decline for another Was the world a better place after the conference? United States refused to join League of Nations  Punishment of Treaty of Versailles made Germany very weak economically, created huge crisis  Germany felt humiliated and wrongfully blamed  Britain was weakened and overshadowed by USA BUT – Canada was recognized on the world stage 

Go back to your French-English relations sheet – Part B 

Can you find examples of moments that signaled progress for some and decline for others?

How can we look at Continuity & Change & You? 1.

How were the recreational activities of teens in the 1970’s similar to teens today?


What impact has the proliferation of cell phones had on how young people communicate?

Your turn- generate 4 good historical questions - 2 on the theme of continuity (like #1) and 2 based on the idea of change (like #2) Lets look more at Continuity & Change in Quebec - the Quebec question

Today’s critical questions… What are the roots of Quebec’s concerns?  Are there patterns in the history of Quebec – Canada relations ?  What should we do? 

Have you heard of; •Bloc Québecois? •Parti Québecois? •Quebec referenda (that’s plural – meaning more than one) ? •Bill 101? •René Lévesque? •FLQ crisis? •Pauline Marois? •Daniel Paillé

Separatist victories 

FEDERAL Elections –  1993 – Bloc Québecois is official opposition  2011 – Bloc Québecois only wins 4 seats

But - Quebec Provincial Elections 2012  Parti Québecois wins and Pauline Marois is in

charge. 

So wait how does that make sense … do they want to separate or what?

2 provincial referenda 

1980 - Quebeckers vote  Separate? – Oui?

Non? 

40% 60%

1995 – Quebeckers vote  Separate? – Oui?


49.4% 50.6%

YIKES!! That was close!! What about contemporary Quebec? CBC News in Review- October 2012, ‘Quebec Votes’

Create a Venn in your notes – title “Quebec’s different parties”. As you watch the video identify the things that make each party distinct as well as anything they have in common.



Parti Québecois

Let’s travel back in time… Where does the tension come from ?

A battle for New France Between BR and French settlers  Seven Years War (1756-63)  Plains of Abraham, Wolfe vs. Montcalm  Treaty of Paris 1763 - Control of New France taken by Great Britain 

General Wolfe

French Assimilation & Confederation 

1791 New France divided into French-speaking Lower Canada (later Quebec) and English-speaking Upper Canada (later Ontario)

1840 Great Britain recommends French assimilation so merges Upper and Lower Canada into a ‘Province of Canada’ (a British colony)

1867 Canada starts to govern itself (Confederation)

Issues of regionalism emerge in new country

Other conflicts…  Manitoba Schools  Laurier’s compromises: ○ Boer War ○ Naval Crisis  WWI Conscription  WWII Conscription again!

French Canadians are really feeling like an ignored minority

Leaping ahead…

The Quiet Revolution  

1959, Maurice Duplessis dies The “Great Darkness” ends

Modernizing reforms under Premier Jean Lesage     

Government run health care & education More control over industries Develop science and technology “Secularization” “Maitres Chez Nous” or “Masters in our own house”. New QC Premier Jean Lesage- 1960

 Pierre

Trudeau leaves Lesage’s team and the Quiet Revolution for federal politics

He is a FEDERALIST and does not believe in Quebec separation

Trudeau’s Just Society We are all deserving of equality under Canadian law but we should not receive special treatment 

The Official languages Act (1969)

Multicultarism Act (1971)

It all erupts in 1970 

The terrorist FLQ kidnaps Pierre Laporte and James Cross Their demands – a free and separate Quebec (among other things) Pierre Trudeau – “the Government does not negotiate with terrorists”. Laporte is assassinated but FLQ is captured.

About the FLQ crisis Trudeau: Yes, well there are a lot of bleeding hearts around who just don't like to see people with helmets and guns. All I can say is, go on and bleed, but it is more important to keep law and order in the society than to be worried about weak-kneed people who don't like the looks of … Reporter: At any cost? How far would you go with that? How far would you extend that? Trudeau: Well, just watch me.

Are you René for this? Committed Francophone  “common man”  Creator and leader of the PQ, an official separatist party in Quebec  Becomes QC Premier (1976) 

René Lévesque

Bill 101 Bill 101 (1977): 

No English on outdoor signs.

Restricted access to English schools.

Quebec: A “Distinct” Society? Parti Quebecois: Canadian federalism could not address and protect the unique French language and culture. To consider: What defines Québecoise culture? "My Quebec is ..." - All Quebecers don’t even agree! Are a “Distinct” society and a “Just “ society compatible?

The Parti Quebecois • 1980 referendum on Quebec Independence

Trudeau vs Levesque

The Result? The Referendum was held on May 20th, 1980: The Result? 60% for the Non 40% for the Oui

“Enough already!” – the Constitutional debate, 1981-2 •Canada gets its own constitution and Charter of Rights. •All provinces had to sign but didn’t like the suggested special status for Quebec •It was removed so … Quebec refused to sign •Trudeau went ahead anyway Two perspectives on what happened… “Night of the Long Knives”

vs. “The Kitchen Compromise”

The Constitution Act (1982)

Out with Trudeau in with Mulroney “I’ll get that signature” 

New Que. Premier Robert Bourassa: “We will only sign the constitution if it is amended with a ‘distinct society’ clause so that Quebec will have the powers to ‘protect and promote its distinct language and culture’

Read ‘The Constitution Debate’ pg. 358-59- what do you think?

Brian Mulroney and Robert Bourassa

Provinces meet at Meech to get it done (1987) 

They agree!

They all have 3 years for their provincal parliaments to ratify the deal (commit)…

Are Aboriginal Canadians not “distinct”?

Read ‘The Meech Lake Accord’ on pg.360-363

The Meech Lake Accord

Meech Lake Accord 

Manitoba MLA Elijah Harper

Nfld Premier Clyde Wells

The Accord died in June 1990

Manitoba MLA Elijah Harper

Nfld Premier Clyde Wells

Growth in Quebec Separatism Support for Quebec Separatism grew  Lucien Bouchard resigns from Mulroney’s cabinet and starts federal separatist party, the Bloc Quebecois 

St Jean Baptiste Parade

If at first you don’t succeed try, try, try again

Charlottetown Accord 

Read pg 364-366 up to ‘The Quebec Referendum’

This is getting complicated!!!  End result- Mulroney quits!!! 

Red = No, we don’t like it Blue = Yes, adopt it

1993 Federal Election Official Opposition’s primary goal – break up the country.

Referendum again- 1995 

Read ‘The Quebec Referendum, 1995’ pg. 366-69

2011 Federal Election


2012 Provincial Separatist victory

Article – Quebec Language Wars

2013Minority PQ government suggests some changes

What have you decided? What are the roots of Quebec’s concerns?  Are there patterns in the history of Quebec – Canada relations ?  What should we do? 

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