7- Communism

January 5, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: History, US History, The Cold War And Beyond (After 1945), Cold War
Share Embed Donate

Short Description

Download 7- Communism...


Soviet Union and Satellite Nations

Timeline of Communism in the 20th Century Communism in the USSR (1917 – 1989) Communism in China (1949 – present) 1910 1920

Communist Revolution in Russia (1917)




Communist Revolution in China (1949) 1950: Korean War

“Cold War” 1960 1970 Vietnam War 1966: China’s “Cultural Revolution”



1989: Fall of Communism in the USSR 1989: Tiananmen Square in China

Origins of Communism • Karl Marx: Father of Communism  wrote Communist Manifesto • Asked workers (proletariat) of the world to revolt and take control of the “means of production”

Communism • Socialism: a type of economic system in which gov’t runs the economy for the entire society • Communism: socialism with totalitarian dictatorship • Marxism: communism with violent radical revolution – CLASS STRUGGLE

Communism comes to Russia • • • •

Life under the Czar: Too many poor peasants Not enough land or food Hate being involved in WW1

• Russia remained unindustrialized No supplies for the troops (not enough railroads or factories)

• By 1915, many soldiers do not have

weapons or ammunition




Group of nobles


Prince Felix Yusupov

moika palace











HELP !!!




The Provisional Government • Czar Nicholas II abdicated (gave up the throne) • A moderate temporary gov’t was created

The Bolsheviks • • • •

Name of the Communist Party in Russia Began the Communist Revolution Led by Vladimir Lenin - RADICAL Offered the poor “Bread, land, and peace”

1917 Revolution • Bolsheviks overthrew provisional gov’t • Created new Communist nation  USSR

Russian Civil War • Red Army (communists) vs. White Army (supporters of Czar) • Red Army won! Killed millions

Cheka (secret police)

Assassination of Czar & family

Lenin’s U.S.S.R. • The U.S.S.R. • Union of Soviet Socialist Republics – aka “Soviet Union” “The most striking thing was the utter unexpectedness of it, like a train crash in the night, like a bridge crumbling beneath your feet, like a house falling down”


Russia lost: • Most of its land in Europe •32% of its farmland

•34% of its population •54% of its industry 89% of its coalmines

• The Russian banks were all nationalized. • Control of the factories was given to the soviets. • Private bank accounts were confiscated. • The Church's properties (including bank accounts) were seized. • Wages were fixed at higher rates than during the war and a shorter, eight-hour working day was introduced.

Decree on Land

Private Property

Treatment of the Wealthy

Princess Golitsyn sold homemade pies on the street

Baroness Wrangel sold knitwear

One baroness sold a diamond broach for 5,000 rubles (the cost of a bag of flour)


New Economic Policy • Lenin’s plan to help the economy • The gov’t would control only major businesses • People could control small businesses and earn profit (limited capitalism)

Stalin’s U.S.S.R. • Joseph Stalin: Took over after Lenin’s death • Became a brutal dictator

Totalitarian State: • Only one political party allowed → the Communist Party • Controlled all aspects of life • Put state concerns ahead of your own

Collectivization • Stalin’s plan to improve farming • Eliminated small farms – they were “collected” onto large, state-run farms • If you refused, you DIED

5-Year Plan • Stalin’s plan to industrialize • Focused on heavy industry (military, steel, mining, farm machines) • Not on consumer goods (things for people’s lives)

Purges • Stalin’s attempt to eliminate anyone that could threaten his control • Many government officials were imprisoned or executed

Ex. Trotsky exiled and killed



World War II • Stalin signed a nonaggression pact with Hitler

• Germany attacked the USSR → the USSR joined the “Allies”

The Cold War


I’ll help fight Japan and I’ll totally allow free elections in Eastern European countries soon.

The Cold War Roots of the Cold War: • There was a war of ideas between two sides (U.S. and U.S.S.R.) • There was a great deal of mistrust after World War II • The way Europe was divided up after WW II caused an uneasy tension

Cold War Terms: • Iron Curtain: name for the imaginary dividing line between the Democratic Western European nations and the Communist East European nations From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an "iron curtain" has descended across the Continent.

Cold War Terms: • Eastern Bloc: the group of nations – that were communist – in Eastern Europe (behind the “Iron Curtain”)

• “satellites”: Another name for the “Eastern Bloc” nations • Countries that were “controlled” by and near the USSR

The 2 Sides Alliance

Leading Nation Foreign Policy Economic System Type of Government

Command Economy • “Central Planning” • State-control of production, quotas, distribution All economic decisions made by gov’t • NO private business  only GOV’T ownership


Events of the Cold War • Marshall Plan / Truman Doctrine: • U.S. offered billions of $ to help rebuild European nations after WW2 as long as they were NOT communist

Berlin Airlift You can go, But I’m not leaving!

Germany should stay weak!

• Communists tried a blockade to force the allies out of Berlin (in East Germany) No road travel in or out of West Berlin

Help! We need food! We’re starving!

Eventually, I Hope that Allies will just give up West Berlin to the USSR

Operation Little Vittles


Forcing Stalin to give up the blockade


Arms Race: • a race between 2 “super powers” (U.S. vs. U.S.S.R.) to gather bigger, better and more weapons

MAD – Mutually Assured Destruction

Space Race • A race for national pride mostly • It began when the Soviets put the first satellite, “Sputnik” into orbit

Berlin Wall • The wall became the symbol of the Cold War • The Communists put up a wall to keep East Berliners from escaping to West Berlin

Cuban Missile Crisis 

The Soviets put nuclear missiles in Cuba

U.S. President JFK ordered a blockade of Cuba and told the USSR to remove the missiles

The closest the world ever came to nuclear destruction

The Soviet Union backed down and pulled the missiles out

Brinksmanship replaced

By détente • Détente: French noun – (a) relaxation of a person; – release of a spring, – slackening of a rope, – easing of relations

A “warming” of tensions between the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. (1970’s – 1980’s) Relieves Cold War tension!

President Nixon met with the leaders of

USSR and China

USSR and China

SALT I (Strategic Arms Limitation Talks)

reduce # of ICBMs and submarine missiles

reduce # of ICBMs and submarine missiles

Helsinki Accords

Treaties were signed that limited nuclear weapons in each nation (ex. SALT)

Fall of the USSR - CAUSES • Changing of the Guard • A new, younger generation leader was chosen – Mikhail Gorbechev

FALL OF THE USSR • Fall of the Berlin Wall (1989) symbol of the end of the Cold War

Fall of the USSR - CAUSES • Glasnost: “openness” examples: some freedom of religion and press

• Perestroika: “restructuring” examples: allow some capitalism

Failure of the economy: • Too much sacrificing “butter for guns” (too much military spending-not consumer!) • Perestroika weakened an already poor economy

Challenges to the Soviet control of satellite nations • Began with workers in Poland • Other “Eastern Bloc” nations did the same

It’s time to break free!

Break-up of the USSR • After seeing Warsaw Pact nations end communism, Soviet citizens wanted the same thing • Protests were not stopped and the Republics turned into separate independent nations

Results of the fall of the USSR • New nations formed: • Russia became the largest most important • Some of the Republics formed an economic alliance called the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)

Results of the fall of the USSR • Effects on world communism: other Communist nations suffered (no more support from the U.S.S.R.) • Ending of the Cold War: no more U.S.S.R., no more cold war



Lithuania Belarus Ukraine

Georgia Armenia


Azerbaijan Kyrgyzstan Tajikistan

View more...


Copyright � 2017 NANOPDF Inc.