9. Annexes

January 5, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Social Science, Political Science
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The handle http://hdl.handle.net/1887/28777 holds various files of this Leiden University dissertation. Author: Alexandrova Petrova, Petya Title: Agenda setting in the European Council Issue Date: 2014-09-18



Annex 1: The European Council in the EC/ EU Treaties Treaty Year signed/ in force Single European Act (SEA) 1986/ 1987

Main provisions related to the European Council and changes in them

Title I Common Provisions, Article 2 The European Council shall bring together the Heads of State or of Government of the Member States and the President of the Commission of the European Communities. They shall be assisted by the Ministers for Foreign Affairs and by a Member of the Commission. The European Council shall meet at least twice a year. Maastricht Title I Common Provisions, Article D Treaty The European Council shall provide the Union with the necessary 1992/ 1993 impetus for its development and shall define the general political guidelines thereof. The European Council shall bring together the Heads of State or of Government of the Member States and the President of the Commission. They shall be assisted by the Ministers for Foreign Affairs of the Member States and by a Member of the Commission. The European Council shall meet at least twice a year, under the chairmanship of the Head of State or of Government of the Member State which holds the Presidency of the Council. The European Council shall submit to the European Parliament a report after each of its meetings and a yearly written report on the progress achieved by the Union. Amsterdam Title I Common Provisions, Article 4 – the same as Article D, TEU Treaty 1997/ 1999 Treaty of No changes to Art. 4, Treaty of Amsterdam Nice Declaration on the venue for European Councils 2001/ 2003 As from 2002, one European Council meeting per Presidency will be held in Brussels. When the Union comprises 18 members, all European Council meetings will be held in Brussels. Lisbon Article 9 – The European Council listed among the EU institutions Treaty Title III Provisions on the Institutions, Article 9B (replaces Art. 4, 183

2007/ 2009


Treaty of Amsterdam) 1. The European Council shall provide the Union with the necessary impetus for its development and shall define the general political directions and priorities thereof. It shall not exercise legislative functions. 2. The European Council shall consist of the Heads of State or Government of the Member States, together with its President and the President of the Commission. The High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy shall take part in its work. 3. The European Council shall meet twice every six months, convened by its President. When the agenda so requires, the members of the European Council may decide each to be assisted by a minister and, in the case of the President of the Commission, by a member of the Commission. When the situation so requires, the President shall convene a special meeting of the European Council. 4. Except where the Treaties provide otherwise, decisions of the European Council shall be taken by consensus. 5. The European Council shall elect its President, by a qualified majority, for a term of two and a half years, renewable once. In the event of an impediment or serious misconduct, the European Council can end the President's term of office in accordance with the same procedure. 6. The President of the European Council: (a) shall chair it and drive forward its work; (b) shall ensure the preparation and continuity of the work of the European Council in cooperation with the President of the Commission, and on the basis of the work of the General Affairs Council; (c) shall endeavour to facilitate cohesion and consensus within the European Council; (d) shall present a report to the European Parliament after each of the meetings of the European Council. The President of the European Council shall, at his level and in that capacity, ensure the external representation of the Union on issues concerning its common foreign and security policy, without prejudice to the powers of the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy. The President of the European Council shall not hold a national office.

Year Nr Meeting Meeting (term) Meetings Date 1 Date 2 1975 (1) 1 11-3-1975 1975 (2) 2 17-7-1975 2-12-1975 1976 (1) 1 2-4-1976 1976 (2) 2 13-7-1976 30-11-1976 1977 (1) 2 26-3-1977 30-6-1977 1977 (2) 1 6-12-1977 1978 (1) 1 8-4-1978 1978 (2) 2 7-7-1978 5-12-1978 1979 (1) 2 13-3-1979 22-6-1979 1979 (2) 1 30-11-1979 1980 (1) 2 28-4-1980 12-6-1980 1980 (2) 1 2-12-1980 1981 (1) 2 24-3-1981 30-6-1981 1981 (2) 1 27-11-1981 1982 (1) 2 30-3-1982 29-6-1982 1982 (2) 1 4-12-1982

Meeting Date 3

Meeting Date 4


Nr ConMeeting Presidency/ clusions Place President 1 Dublin Ireland 2 Brussels/ Rome Italy 1 Luxembourg Luxembourg 2 Brussels/ The Hague Netherlands 2 Rome/ London United Kingdom 1 Brussels Belgium 1 Copenhagen Denmark 2 Bremen/ Brussels Germany 2 Paris/ Strasbourg France 1 Dublin Ireland 2 Luxembourg/ Venice Italy 1 Luxembourg Luxembourg 2 Maastricht/ Luxembourg Netherlands 1 London United Kingdom 2 Brussels/ Brussels Belgium 1 Copenhagen Denmark

Annex 2: European Council Meetings and Conclusions, 1975–2012





1983 (1) 1983 (2) 1984 (1) 1984 (2) 1985 (1) 1985 (2) 1986 (1) 1986 (2) 1987 (1) 1987 (2) 1988 (1) 1988 (2) 1989 (1) 1989 (2) 1990 (1) 1990 (2) 1991 (1) 1991 (2)


2 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 2

22-3-1983 6-12-1983 20-3-1984 4-12-1984 30-3-1985 3-12-1985 26-6-1986 6-12-1986 30-6-1987 5-12-1987 13-2-1988 3-12-1988 27-6-1989 18-11-1989 28-4-1990 28-10-1990 8-4-1991 11-12-1991 9-12-1989 26-6-1990 15-12-1990 29-6-1991





2 0 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 0 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 1

Brussels/ Stuttgart Athens Brussels/ Fontainebleau Dublin Brussels/ Milan Luxembourg The Hague London Brussels Copenhagen Brussels/ Hanover Rhodes Madrid Paris/ Strasbourg Dublin/ Dublin Rome/ Rome Luxembourg Maastricht

Germany Greece France Ireland Italy Luxembourg Netherlands United Kingdom Belgium Denmark Germany Greece Spain France Ireland Italy Luxembourg Netherlands

1 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2


2 2


2 2 2

1992 (1) 1992 (2) 1993 (1) 1993 (2) 1994 (1) 1994 (2) 1995 (1) 1995 (2) 1996 (1) 1996 (2) 1997 (1)

1997 (2)

1998 (1) 1998 (2)

1999 (1)

1999 (2) 2000 (1) 2000 (2)

10-12-1994 27-6-1995 16-12-1995 22-6-1996 14-12-1996 17-6-1997




16-10-1999 11-12-1999 24-3-2000 20-6-2000 14-10-2000 9-12-2000


3-5-1998 16-6-1998 25-10-1998 12-12-1998

21-11-1997 13-12-1997

27-6-1992 16-10-1992 22-6-1993 29-10-1993 25-6-1994 15-7-1994 9-6-1995 23-9-1995 29-3-1996 5-10-1996 23-5-1997



2 2 1


1 1


1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1


Lisbon Portugal Birmingham/ Edinburgh United Kingdom Copenhagen Denmark Brussels/ Brussels Belgium Corfu Greece Brussels/ Essen Germany Paris/ Cannes France Mallorca/ Madrid Spain Turin/ Florence Italy Dublin/ Dublin Ireland Noordwijk/ Amsterdam Netherlands Luxembourg/ Luxembourg Luxembourg Brussels/ Cardiff United Kingdom Pörtschach/ Vienna Austria Petersberg/ Berlin/ Germany Brussels/ Cologne Tampere/ Helsinki Finland Lisbon/ Feira (Porto) Portugal Biarritz/ Nice France





2 2




3 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 3

2001 (2)

2002 (1) 2002 (2)

2003 (1)

2003 (2)

2004 (1)

2004 (2) 2005 (1) 2005 (2) 2006 (1) 2006 (2) 2007 (1) 2007 (2) 2008 (1) 2008 (2)



2001 (1)



29-10-2004 23-3-2005 27-10-2005 24-3-2006 20-10-2006 9-3-2007 19-10-2007 14-3-2008 1-9-2008



5-11-2004 17-12-2004 17-6-2005 16-12-2005 16-6-2006 15-12-2006 25-3-2007 22-6-2007 14-12-2007 20-6-2008 16-10-2008 12-12-2008


17-10-2003 12-12-2003



19-10-2001 15-12-2001


16-3-2002 22-6-2002 25-10-2002 13-12-2002





2 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 3




2 2



Stockholm/ Göteborg Sweden Brussels/ Ghent/ Laeken Belgium (Brussels) Barcelona/ Seville Spain Brussels/ Copenhagen Denmark Brussels/ Brussels/ Greece Athens/ Thessaloniki Rome/ Brussels Italy Brussels/ Dublin/ Ireland Brussels/ Brussels Rome/ Brussels/ Brussels Netherlands Brussels/ Brussels Luxembourg Hampton Court/ Brussels United Kingdom Brussels/ Brussels Austria Lahti/ Brussels Finland Brussels/ Berlin/ Brussels Germany Brussels/ Lisbon/ Brussels Portugal Brussels/ Brussels Slovenia Brussels/ Brussels/ Brussels France








2009 (2)

2010 (1)

2010 (2)

2011 (1)

2011 (2)

2012 (1)

2012 (2)









19-10-2012 23-11-2012 14-12-2012


23-10-2011 26-10-2011


16-9-2010 29-10-2010 17-12-2010




17-9-2009 30-10-2009 19-11-2009 11-12-2009










Brussels/ Brussels Brussels/ Brussels/ Brussels/ Brussels Brussels/ Brussels/ Brussels/ Brussels Brussels/ Brussels/ Brussels Brussels/ Brussels/ Brussels/ Brussels Brussels/ Brussels/ Brussels Brussels/ Brussels/ Brussels/ Brussels Brussels/ Brussels/ Brussels


Herman van Pompuy (semipermanent President since 1st December 2009)


Czech Republic

Notes: Box in grey = no Conclusions issued; Underlined date = informal meeting; Date in italics = extraordinary meeting.


2009 (1)




Annex 3: Dataset of Policy-Content-Coded European Council Conclusions The European Council Conclusions dataset was developed within the framework of the Comparative Agendas Project. This project started in the early 1990s with the work of Frank Baumgartner and Bryan Jones on the US (cf. also Baumgartner, Jones, & MacLeod, 1998; Baumgartner & Jones, 2005). The international collaboration network built over the years90 is united around a shared notion about the way policy venues process issues and uses a common instrument for detecting attention patterns in such venues. In particular, the approach consists of measuring attention to policy issues via classifying the occurrence of these issues in texts on the basis of a detailed typology of policy fields. This process is conducted via a common codebook with most features of it shared by the Policy Agendas community, but also adjusted to national differences in each of the individual projects, including the EU. Over the course of 2010-2011 (with an update in 2013) two teams of researchers and student assistants at Catania and The Hague conducted content coding of the European Council Conclusions. The work stated by collecting all issued Conclusions (some of which were then not publicly available) and recording some basic data about them and their context. In particular, the following elements were traced: the date of the meeting, the year, the location, the member state holding the Presidency (relevant until the introduction of a permanent president in December 2009), the consecutive number of the Presidency (again, until 2009), and the type of meeting (three separate variables indicate whether the summit was informal, extraordinary, and Council meeting at the level of Heads of State and Government). Then, the coding could begin. It involved two steps – identifying measurement units and applying policy agendas codes. The measurement unit chosen for the project was quasi-sentence – the lowest possible entity with policy content. This labour-intensive approach was necessary in order to reflect as closely as possible the true allocation of attention, since the Conclusions cover a multiplicity of issues and even single paragraphs usually 90

See www.comparativeagendas.info for an overview of the various projects within the network.



contain several topics. The method is similar to the approach taken in the Comparative Manifestos Project (Budge et al., 2001; Klingemann et al., 1994). The second step in the coding processes consisted of assigning codes from the EU policy agendas codebook. The main variable in the dataset records policy content. The policy agendas topic codes consist of two levels: major topics, which cover broad policy areas, and subtopics, which indicate specific issues within those areas. The EU codebook (version 3.2 of October 2013) contains 21 major topics and 250 subtopics.91 Within each major topic the first subtopic covers general matters in that category and all the remaining ones correspond to specific matters. For example, the topic environment has as a first subtopic ‘environment – general’ followed by other subtopics as waste disposal, land and water conservation, air and noise pollution, etc. This two-level coding offers a standard aggregation of policy issues within broader themes but also allows for specific aggregations depending on the research question. Three additional dummy variables trace cross-cutting policy issues, namely foreign policy, cohesion and structural policy, and enlargement. For example, administrative reform and good governance in Afghanistan would be coded with the respective issue code for bureaucratic oversight and government efficiency under the major topic governance but it will also be assigned the foreign policy dummy. This allows for further restructuring of the dataset for specific purposes. Furthermore, the coding also identifies references to countries within and outside of the EU with two variables – an international country code (which also includes international organisations) and an EU Member State code. In the above mentioned example the respective code for Afghanistan would be assigned. Last but not least, the full text of the Conclusions is preserved, easily allowing extensions of the dataset in the future. A variable indicates which quasi-sentences belong to the main text and which are part of the annexes to the Conclusions. After extensive checking, in December 2013 the full dataset was released for noncommercial public use. It consists of 44755 quasi-sentences, in 43561 of which policy 91

Available at: www.policyagendas.eu/codebook


content has been identified. The most frequently occurring subtopics are some of the general categories – foreign policy, macroeconomics, employment, defence, and governance, whereas 47 topics have been used less than 10 times each. Among the most often coded specific issues are government budget and debt, monetary policy, international economic development, treaty reform, and Common Market. This diversity becomes even more pronounced when differences in attention over time are considered. All five chapters in this dissertation make use of the dataset in substantial terms. It is either the only data source (chapters 2 and 3) or one of the main databases (chapters 4, 5 and 6). A general overview of the relative size of the main topics on the agenda is presented in the second chapter of this dissertation.92 This study covers the period 1975-2010 only as the last two years of coding were still under development at the time of writing (and article publication). The chapter relies exclusively on the compiled dataset and applies the measures of kurtosis and entropy to on the major topic level. It aggregates the Conclusions annually in order to make comparisons with existing studies in different contexts easier. The third chapter also focuses on the major topic level but proposes a half-annual aggregation, as this was the most appropriate planning structure for the European Council until the Treaty of Lisbon. The full dataset is subjected to data reduction techniques (multidimensional scaling) with the aim to disentangle the main dimensions of the agenda and explore their development over time. In the last stage additional data sources are included in order to predict the temporal evolution of one of the discovered dimensions. The remaining three chapters use the Conclusions in combination with other data. They also extract only a part of the European Council dataset. Chapter four analyses the role of the Presidency in agenda setting by focusing on the domestic agendas of five EU member states. For this purpose the Conclusions are integrated with data on executive speeches content-coded within the Comparative Agendas Project. Hence, 92

Other general representations are published in Alexandrova, Carammia, and Timmermans (2014) and Alexandrova et al. (2014).



only 25 half-annual terms are considered in the analysis – those in which one of the selected five countries was in charge of the EU Presidency. Chapter five connects the Conclusions to data on EU-level public opinion in terms of the so-called ‘most important problem' question. This question offers respondents a list of issues out of which they can indicate up to two matters as the most important for them at the moment of the survey. The list is limited, and 10 matches of questionnaire issues could be made to those in the codebook (singe codes or a combination of a few codes). The data for relative attention on these 10 policy areas was extracted from the Conclusions dataset. The aggregation was again half-annual and the period used was 2003–2012 due to the shorter existence of the public opinion measure. Chapter six combines the European Council attention with data on potential focusing events from three different sources. The study does not use the compiled dataset to its full scope, but only a basis for further development. In particular, after a review of the text of all Conclusions, focusing events on the agenda were identified. The presence or absence of these occurrences was then coded in the new dataset of potential focusing events. Furthermore, the attention spent to each occurrence was recorded in relative terms to the other issues on the agenda. This calculation was possible because of the quasi-sentences level division of the European Council dataset. The policy topic codes allowed drawing a short descriptive overview of the policy areas with which the effective focusing were associated.



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