A Portrait Of The Artist As A Young Man- Chapter 3
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A Portrait Of The Artist As A Young Man- Chapter 3 Haya Barakat, Carly Deetman, Grace Halvorson, Sarah Sieber, Jamie Drawbridge, Lauren Siegel, Breanna Isley, Hailey Johnson
Specific Examples of Stephen’s Violation of Each of the Seven Deadly Sins Lust is the first of the Seven Deadly Sins that Stephen commits. His first sexual experience brings him a lot of sexual feelings and creates a new outlet for Stephen’s emotions and sinful actions. Stephen’s actions of sloth are that he has difficulty praying and is apathetic in the beginning of the chapter. The other deadly sins; pride, gluttony, envy, wrath, and greed all stem from Stephen’s “violent sin”, lust.
Methods that Stephen Uses to Try to Avoid Guilt and/or Punishment Stephen avoids guilt by writing his sins on paper and taking disposing of them in public places where they have the potential to be discovered (102). This is Stephen’s first attempt at confession. After hearing the sermons about Hell at the retreat, Stephen hides in his room to “be alone with [his] soul” (119). Later, he prays and asks for help from God (121). And finally, disregarding his fear of punishment, Stephen goes to confession. This is the action that relieves him of his guilt and simultaneously does not get him into trouble.
Sensory Images •Silence, cold, smell, light, and dark all serve to amplify the descriptions in chapter three. Silence is often used to describe Stephen’s mindset, contemplating his sin. •The cold can be seen as an outward expression of his guilt, as its images often coincide with his tangent wondering of what will happen to his soul because of the religious atrocity committed. •Smell is most often used to describe hell and Stephen’s vision of it. •Light and darkness both serve to either alter or enhance the mood of the scene, with dark being used in situations seen as evil or bad. Silence“He knelt in the silent gloom and raised his eyes” (125). “The sacristan aiding them with quiet gestures and words” (123). “As he walked home with silent companions a thick fog seemed to compass his mind” (98). Cold“At the washstand a convulsion seized him within; and, clasping his cold forehead wildly, he vomited profusely in agony” (121). “His hands were cold and damp” (119). “They were quenched, and the cold darkness filled chaos” (91). “A cold sweat broke out upon his forehead as the foul memories condensed within his brain” (102).
Sensory Images Smell“The horror of this strait and dark prison is increased by its awful stench” (105). “The horror of this strait and dark prison is increased by its awful stench” (105). “But this stench is not, horrible though it is, the greatest physical torment which the damned are subjected” (107). “An evil smell, faint and foul as the light, curled upwards sluggishly” (120).Light and Dark•“Stars now brighter and now dimmer, sustained and failing” (123). “And, cowering in darkness and abject, he prayed mutely to his angel guardian to drive away with his sword the demon that was whispering to his brain” (122). “They were quenched in the cold darkness filled chaos.” (91). “In the silence their dark fire kindled the dusk into a tawny glow” (95). “The horror of this strait and dark prison is increased by its awful stench” (105).
Religious Motifs The devil, sin, and hell all serve as ongoing motifs in chapter three. This is largely due to Stephen’s growing guilt for having relations with a prostitute at the end of chapter two. His recent actions lie in stark contrast to the Catholic environment in which he lives and is taught in. His resulting guilt is only amplified by the Priest’s sermon in church on the retreat. In the final section, he is convinced he is destined for hell for his behavior, and this feeling grows until he repents in confession, to which he finally feels unburdened after. The Devil- “Lucifer, we are told, was a son of the morning, a radiant and mighty angel; yet he fell; he fell and there fell with him a third party of the host of heaven” (103). •“The devil has led you astray. Drive him back to hell when he tempts you t dishonor your body in that way- the foul spirit who hates Our Lord” (126).
•“A sin, an instant of rebellious pride of the intellect, made Lucifer and a third party of the cohorts of angels fall from their glory” (117).
Religious Motifs Sin- “He knew then clearly that his own soul had sinned in thought and word and deed willfully through his own body. Confess. He had to confess every sin. How could he utter in words to the priest what he had done?” (122) “God will impart them to his own knowledge of sin so that sin will appear to
them in all its hideous malice as it appears to the eye of god himself” (113)
Hell- “His flesh shrank together as it felt the approach of the ravenous tongues of flames, dried up as it felt about it the swirl of stifling air. He had died. Yes. He was judged. A wave of fire swept through his body” (109). “But in hell the torments cannot be overcome by habit, for while they are of terrible intensity they are at the same time of continual variety, each pain, so to speak, taking fire from another and re-endowing that which has enkindled it with a still fiercer flame” (115). “Consider finally that the torment of this infernal prison is increased by the company of the damned themselves… In hell all laws are overturned” (107).
Fall from Grace, Repentance, and Redemption The chapter begins with Stephen already being far apart from God. He explains that “a cold lucid indifference reigned in his soul” and admits that “his soul lusted after its own destruction” (91). He explains that the sin that has consumed his life “had covered him from the sight of God” and has “led him nearer to the refuge of sinners” (92). However, he still finds himself being drawn into the temptations of the sins. He becomes scornful of all the people that attend church and, at one point, refers to himself as becoming like a “beast that licks his chaps after meat” (98).
During the sermons given by Father Arnall, Stephen starts analyzing his own life and starts thinking about death and God’s judgment of him. Scared of what awaits him after death, he realizes that he has fallen from the grace of God and needs to repent for his sins. “He had to confess, to speak out in words what he had done and thought, sin after sin” (111). Before he has the chance to repent he becomes paranoid that God will take his life away before he is able to confess his sins, “he halted on the landing before the door...he waited in fear…praying silently that death might not touch his brow as he passed over the threshold…” (119). That night he has a nightmare about what he imagines hell to be like, terrified, he prays to God to save his soul, “his eyes were dimmed with tears and, looking humbly up to heaven, he wept for the innocence he had lost” (121). Stephen immediately finds a church and repents all of his sins to the priest, “...he had done it...he had confessed and God had pardoned him. His soul was made fair and holy once more, holy and happy” (127). As soon as his confession is out, Stephen feels renewed; like he has been born again. The next morning, he feels the love of God enter his body in the form of communion. “He knelt there sinless and timid: and he would hold upon his tongue the host and God would enter his purified body” (127).
Indications of a Turning-Point or Climax For Stephen The climax occurs slowly throughout the whole chapter. However, it is seen most prominently during the second sermon when Stephen is told about the horrors of hell in vivid detail. Because of this he becomes paranoid that he is already dead and is doomed because of his lack of confession. However, he realizes that he still has time left to repent, “There was still time...he would still be spared; he would repent in his heart and be forgiven…” (110). That night, he has a nightmare of what he thinks hell is like and rushes to the closest church to confess his sins. As soon as he arrives, Stephen “bowed his head upon his hands, bidding his heart be meek and humble that he might be like those who knelt beside him and his prayer as acceptable as theirs” (123). After he confesses all his sins and admits to being only 16, the priest grants him his forgiveness. “Blinded by his tears and by the light of God’s mercifulness he bent his head and heard the grave words of absolution spoken and saw the priest’s hand raised above him in token of forgiveness” (126). After Stephen has confessed his sins, he feels as if he has been reborn. His old life, full of sin, is a distant memory and completely cut off from his new life. Ultimately, in a way, he again obtains the innocence he once had as a child.
The Pacing of Chapter Three The overall pacing of chapter three is pretty slow mostly because of the large role repetition plays throughout the chapter (which will be discussed in the next slide). Also, this chapter, unlike some of the other chapters, does not have that much activity going on but instead reveals more about Stephen’s mental state of mind. It also has a lot to do with the overall structure of the book. Chapter 3
The reason why the Chapter feeling and different 1 tone of this chapter are so much Chapter 5 from that of the other two chapters is because of Joyce’s use of chiasmus structure.
The Pacing of Chapter Three (Continued) Unlike the other two chapters which had more relaxed tones, the tone of this chapter was much harsher and created a feeling of disgust and hate. Although God is usually described as loving and forgiving, in this chapter he is depicted as a ill-tempered and vengeful god. Examples: ❖ “And then the voice of God was heard in that garden, calling His creature man to account: and Michael, prince of the heavenly host, with a sword of flame in his hand appeared before the guilty pair and drove them forth from Eden into the world, the world of sickness and striving, of cruelty and disappointment, of labour and hardship, to earn their bread in the sweat of their brow.(125). ❖ “They lie in exterior darkness. For, remember, the fire of hell gives forth no light. As, at the command of God, the fire of the Babylonian furnace lost its heat but not its light so, at the command of God, the fire of hell, while retaining the intensity of heat, burns eternally in darkness.” (127). Although the majority of this chapter has a very negative tone, the tone drastically changes once Stephen confesses his sins. After he confesses, Stephen feels completely burden-free and the last few pages of the chapter take on a joyous and thankful tone.
The Function of Repetition This chapter was very repetitive which mirrors the repetitiousness of Stephen’s sinful actions. Much like the continuous description of hell that seemed like it would go on for an eternity (just like hell does) and the “slow circles” of the creatures in Stephen’s vision, Stephen’s immoral actions appear to be a cycle which he cannot break. Examples:
❖ Symbols are repeated a lot such as eyes, stars, flowers, light, kisses, ect. (explained in the religious image/symbols slide) ❖ Opening and Closing/Appearing and disappearing: reflects Stephen’s awareness or ignorance of his actions and the guilt or lack of guilt he experiences. ➢ “...appearing and disappearing were eyes opening and closing;the eyes opening and closing were stars being born…”(111). ❖ Ideas of judgement, death, and weakness: used to show Stephen’s fear of his future and how helpless he felt about the situation ➢ “Stephen’s heart had withered up like a flower…”(116). ➢ “The next day brought death and judgement”(119).
➢ “....the breath, the poor breath, the poor helpless human spirit, sobbing and sighing, gurgling and rattling in the throat. No help! No Help!”(119). ➢ “And this day will come, shall come, must come; the day of death and the day of judgement. It is appointed unto man to die and after death the judgement. Death is certain...Death is the end of us all. Death and judgement…”(122).
The Function of Repetition (Continued) ❖ The phrase “In the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost. Amen”: not only shows prayer which is a form of escaping guilt Stephen uses throughout the chapter, but also symbolizes that everything you do is in the name of God. This idea scares Stephen because he fears that his actions have angered God. ❖ Images of birds and the idea of falling: alludes to the story of Icarus who didn’t listen to his father and fell to his death. Similarly, Stephen refuses to listen to his Father, God, and commits sin which leads to his fall from grace and potentially his fall towards Hell as well. ➢ “...beasts and birds were their willing servants…”(125) ➢ “...yet he fell: he fell and there fell with him a third part of the host of heaven. He fell and was hurled with his rebellious angels into hell…”(125) ❖ Idea of eternity: when the preacher elaborates on just how long eternity is, Stephen fears that he will live in hell for all eternity which causes his turning point. ➢ “Last and crowning torture of all the tortures of that awful place is the eternity of hell. Eternity!...Eternity!...And, remember, it is an eternity of pain...they are destined to last for ever...for all eternity...What must it be, then, to bear the manifold tortures of hell for ever? For Ever! For all eternity! Not for a year or an age but for ever.”(138) ➢ “...that sound of ticking was the ceaseless repetition of the words: ever, never; ever, never. Ever to be in hell, never to be in heaven; ever to be shut off from the presence of God, never to enjoy the beatific vision…”(139). Repetition much like the last quote shows, creates a constant ticking like that of a clock. This is important because it symbolizes Stephen’s race to repent and be redeemed before time runs out and he is forced to live a life in hell for all eternity.
Stephen’s Epiphany While Stephen was at the retreat with his school, the Priest was explaining to the boys the importance of religion and preserving their faith. He discusses death and judgement. “It is appointed unto man to die and after death the judgement. Death is certain. The time and manner are uncertain…”(130) He especially elaborates on the consequences of committing sins. He alludes to the story of Lucifer and Adam and Eve and how they sinned due to pride and envy. When the Priest goes into sharp detail about the torment of hell and all that one will suffer and go through, Stephen sees the reality of his sins. The Priest repeats, “Time is, time was, but time shall be no more”(130)! Stephen is now aware that if he runs out of time he will be among those who will face the torture of the fires of hell. Stephen realized that he needs to repent and confess his sins. The only thing standing in his way is his self-consciousness of others judging him and because he is unable to forgive himself he is having a hard time going to the church and confessing.
Moment of Stasis (Equilibrium) There were many moments of stasis in this chapter. Most of them occurred when the Priest would pause during his speech and when we see the thoughts of Stephen. When the time to repent was stressed and Stephen “...feared that he had already died, and his soul had been wrenched forth of the sheath of his body”(131), and was being judged by God. When he awoke from this trance to being in the, “...still familiar world of the school”(132), he felt tranquil and comfortable with his surroundings. At this point he wanted to “...repent in his heart and be forgiven...He had to confess, to speak out in words what he had done and thought, sin after sin”(133). Even though he came to this conclusion in the middle of the chapter, he still hasn’t truly convinced himself of the urgency of his repentance. Another moment of stasis was when Stephen was in the chapel and ready to confess. While he was knelt down bench and waiting for space to open at the box he thought about how, “He would be at one with others and with God. He would love his neighbor. He would love God Who had made and loved him. He would kneel and pray with others and be happy”(149). This was the first part in the chapter where Stephen is actually at peace with his decision to confess. Despite his nervousness and fear of the judgment he may receive, he just thinks about the forgiveness he will receive from God. He finally freed heart from the guilt he held over himself when deciding to confess and then actually going through with it.
Dante Alighieri’s Divine Comedy (The Inferno) ❖ Divine Comedy was Dante’s trip through Hell and his journey to Heaven. The specific circles of incontinence have specific punishments. ➢ First Circle (Limbo) - there is an atmosphere of sorrow and sadness ➢ Second Circle (Lust) - sinners are blown around endlessly by unforgiving winds of punishment ➢ Third Circle (Gluttony) - sinners lie here in the filthy mixtures of shadows and water ➢ Fourth Circle (Greed) - sinners roll weights back and forth on each other ➢ Fifth Circle (Anger) - the wrathful and the gloomy are punished, and you meet the Styx, who makes this level miserable for its sinners.
Thomas Aquinas and the Seven Deadly Sins ❖ Thomas Aquinas was a medieval church leader who had a wider view on gluttony, arguing that it also could include an obsessive anticipation for meals. Stephen goes into great detail in the beginning of the chapter about what he is having for dinner that night and goes into a daydream in the middle of class. ❖ Also, Thomas Aquinas was a theologian who created the three universal qualities of beauty that Stephen references while explaining his own theories: wholeness, harmony, and radiance. These three theories are what artists think about while analyzing their own work, which can be a symbol for the title A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man because this is how Joyce saw himself, and while he was writing he analyzed his life by looking at the wholeness, harmony, and radiance of each aspect.
Milton’s Paradise Lost ❖ Paradise Lost is about Adam and Eve - how they were created and how they lost their place in the Garden of Eden, also called Paradise. It also includes a story on the origin of Satan, originally called Lucifer, an angel in heaven who led an army against God, eventually bringing them all down to hell with him. His thirst for revenge led him to cause man’s downfall by turning into a serpent and tempting Eve to eat the forbidden fruit.
The Biblical Story of Jonah ❖ God commands Jonah to preach repentance to his city. Jonah did not take this commandment very well, so he did the opposite of what he was told. He went down to the seaport of Joppa and booked a ship away from his city of Ninevah. The Bible tells us that Jonah “ran away from the Lord.” Because of this, he got stuck in a whale for three days and was not freed until he repented. ❖ Before Stephen confesses, he begins to doubt himself and thinks about escaping his confession. He is trapped in “Hell” for three days until he repents of his sins and confessions, and through confessions he begins to be free from condemnation. ➢ “He could still leave the chapel. He could stand up, put one foot before the other and walk out softly and then run, run, run swiftly through the dark streets. He could still escape from the shame.” (pg. 148)
The Descent of Christ into Hell ❖ After Stephen confesses his sins, he feels a sense of rebirth and suddenly the tone changes from negative to positive. ➢ “Another life! A life of graces and virtue and happiness! It was true. It was not a dream from which he would wake. The past was past.” (pg. 152) ❖ In The Bible, when Christ was crucified, he took on the sins of the people and went to Hell for them. After three days he was resurrected and reborn. Similar to Christ, Stephen was in his own mental state of Hell for three days and was suddenly rebirthed and felt a sense of renewal and happiness.
The Function of Chapter Three in Joyce’s Chiasmic Structure ❖ “There was still time. O Mary, refuge of sinners, intercede him! O Virgin Undefiled, save him from the gulf of death!” (pg 132) ❖ Leading up to this the priest talked about the physical tortures of hell, like the smell, the amount of fire, and the intensity, and the bodies all piled on top of each other leaving no room to move which prompted the epiphany. ❖ Leading up to the epiphany Stephen felt increasingly hopeless and damned to eternal hellfire, but after, he began to decline in that feeling as he realized that confession could be the key to salvation.
Discussion Questions ❖ What is the big turning point for Stephen and how does the tone of the story change after this?
❖ What/who brings about Stephen’s epiphany?
❖ At what point in the chapter does the story begin to reflect itself and what sparks that transition?
❖ What ultimately leads Stephen to confess?
❖ What role does time play in the story?