Academic Libraries in the Era of Globalization

January 30, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Social Science, Sociology, Globalization
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學術圖書館在全球 化時代的趨勢

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Outline of Today’s Discussion 今天討論的大綱 1. Globalization Overview 2. Globalization and Academic Libraries. 3. Academic Library Global Trends 4. Implications for Asia Pacific Academic Libraries 5. Conclusions

1. 概觀全球化 2. 全球化與學術圖書館 3. 學術圖書館的全球化 趨勢 4. 對亞太區學術圖書館 的影響 5. 總結 2

Globalization Overview 概觀全球化 1. Basic Definition 2. Globalization Background 3. Basic Arguments in Favor 4. Arguments Against

1. 基本定義 2. 全球化的背景 3. 贊成的論點 4. 反對的論點

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Basic Definition 基本定義 • The process by which the experience of everyday life, marked by the diffusion of commodities and ideas, is becoming standardized around the world. • (Local ways are replaced by international /world “standardized“ ways of doing ways)

• 每天的生活經驗,特別 是產品和理念的傳播, 已經使全球變得一體化。

• (本土做法已被國際/全 球 “標準”做法所取 代。)

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Globalization Background 全球化 背景 (Friedman, Thomas. The World Is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-First Century 湯馬斯·佛里曼 . 《世界是平:二十一世紀簡史》

1. 1989. End of Cold War 1. 1989年冷戰結束, 容 permitted the 許全球化經濟的發展。 development of a global economy. 2. 1995年網景通訊公司 2. 1995. Creation of 成立,讓全世界民眾 Netscape enabled 可互相溝通。 people in all nations to communicate with each other. 5

More Background (Friedman) 續: 背景(佛里曼) 3. Emergence of IT 3. 資訊科技準則湧現, standards like HTML 例如HTML讓電腦互相 allowed computers to 溝通。 talk to each other. 4. New software making 4. 新軟體使上載和下載 it easy to upload and 資訊更容易,促進跨 download information, 國合作。 facilitated cross national cooperation.

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More Background (Friedman) 續:背景(佛里曼) 5. Outsourcing. 5. 外包. Technology has emerged 新科技使機構可外包部 which has enable 分工序給其他集團, 以 organizations to 節省成本。 subcontract parts of their work to other groups cost effectively. 6. Offshoring. The ability 6. 離岸作業. of companies to move 遷移一部分或所有的生 all or most of their 產工序到工資廉宜,物 manufacturing to other 料便宜的地區去生產。 countries with cheaper wages, materials, etc. 7

More Background (Friedman) 續: 背景(佛里曼) 7. Supply-chaining. Companies like WallMart or Trustmart can use IT to efficiently manage sales, distribution and shipping. 8. In-sourcing. One company does work in behalf of another company.

7. 供應鏈. 大公司如沃爾瑪或好 又多,能夠有效地利 用資訊科技來管理銷 售,物流和運輸。 8. 内包. 一間公司替另一間公 司完成該公司的作業。

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More Background (Friedman) 續:背景(佛里曼) 9. Google – easy access to an explosion of information. Every day people can instantly find useful information. 10. Steroid-like technologies. Digital technologies like wireless or devices like iPhones, i-Pads, 3-G phones, etc., which change the way we live.

9. 谷歌 – 容易取得海量的 資訊。人們可以立即尋 找到有用的資訊。

10. 激素似的技術 數碼科技像無線或智 能手機,平板電腦, 3-G手機設備等,都起改 變人們生活的作用。 9

Basic Arguments Against Globalization 反對全球化的論點 1. Jobs are exported overseas. 2. Workers in recipient countries are exploited. 3. Rich countries get richer, poor countries poorer. 4. Lack of health and safety regulations. 5. Recipient countries stop growing locally needed food. 6. Repressive regimes get World Bank/IMF help.

1. 工作會流失到海外去。 2. 受援國的工人會受到剝削。 3. 富裕國家將會更加富裕, 貧窮國家将会更貧窮。 4. 缺乏健康與安全規例。 5. 受援國停止種植當地所需 的糧食。 6. 受壓政體唯有向世界銀行 /國際貨幣基金組織求助

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Globalization and Academic Libraries 全球化與學術圖書館

1. Library Globalization Defined 圖書館全球化的界定

2. Examples 例子

3. Arguments Against Academic Library Globalization 反對學術圖書館全球化的論點

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Library Globalization Defined 圖書館全球化的界定 • The process by which libraries whose selection, acquisitions, cataloging , circulation, etc., practices differ greatly because of differences of locality, language, etc., are becoming standardized around the world.

• 圖書館選書,採購, 編目, 流通等工序, 過去因地區和語言的 差異而有所不同,但 在全球化的今天巳漸 趨一致。

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Selected Examples of Library Globalization 圖書館趨向全球化的例子 1. Materials published in a few countries purchased globally. 2. Teachers and librarians trained in western countries. Growing numbers of international students. 3. International copyright laws.

1. 一些小國出版的書籍 在全球任何地方都能 購買到。

2. 教師和圖書館館員在 西方受訓。 留學生人 數在增加。 3. 國際著作權法。

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Arguments Against Academic Library Globalization 反對學術圖書館全球化的論點 1. Many readers prefer materials with a local flavor, e.g., Chinese books for Chinese students. 2. Global mega-publishers can almost charge whatever they want. 3. Global cataloguing, etc. standards are excessive for small libraries and expensive to follow.

1. 很多讀者喜愛具本土味 道的書籍,例如中國學 生愛看中文書。 2. 全球大型出版商幾乎能 夠在收費上予取予求。 3. 又如全球化編目等, ,準 則過多, 小型圖書館要 遵循, 成本高昂。

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More Arguments Against 續: 反對論點 Global publishing is seen by some as a new form of cultural imperialism.

4. 全球化出版被一部分 人視為一種新的文化 帝國主義.

5. Buying global information/ software drains money that perhaps should be spent on local staff and materials.

5. 花費大量金錢來購買 全球資訊/軟件,或應 把這些資金投放在本 地員工和資源上。

4.

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More Arguments Against 續: 反對論點 6.

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Poor countries simply don’t have clean electric power or adequate internet connectivity to access global information. Since local leaders assume readers rely upon what is freely available on the WWW for information, they neglect local libraries and have no motivation to improve them.

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貧窮國家根本沒有充足電 力或足夠的國際互聯網絡 連接來存取環球資訊。

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由於本地領袖以為讀者依 賴萬維網來獲得免費的資 訊, 他們忽視和欠缺動力去 改善本地圖書館。

Academic Library Global Trends 學術圖書館全球化趨勢

1. Collection Development/Acquisitions Trends 館藏發展/採購趨勢 2. Public Service Trends 公共服務趨勢 3. Library Space Trends 圖書館空間趨勢 4. Technical Services Trends 技術服務趨勢 5. Staffing, Management, etc. 人力資源,管理, 等 17

Collection Development/ Acquisitions Global Trends 館藏發展/採購全球化趨勢 1. Buy E-books Not Printed Books

1. 購買電子書而非印刷 書

• Amazon, with the advent of the Kindle, by July 2010 sold more ebooks than hard cover books and by April 2011 sold more new e-books than new paper bound or hard cover books.

• 亞瑪遜,自從Kindle 平板電腦問世,至 2010年7月售出的電 子書便多於硬皮書。 到2011年4月售出的 電子書比紙本書或 硬皮書還多。 18

2. Acquire More Non-Commercial Content 徵集更多非商業資源 • Libraries are focusing more and more attention on acquiring non commercial content as Open Access grows, as the IR movement grows, as they devote staff to mining Internet content. • The whole context of collection building has changed. Every library and its readers has free access to tens of millions of older books.

• 圖書館更聚焦和採集非商 業資源如開放存取。隨著 機構典藏的發展, 圖書館用 更多人力去發掘國際互聯 網的內容 。 • 館藏建設的整體內容已有 改變, 所有圖書館和讀者已 能免費自由存取數以千萬 的舊書。

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3. Changed Role for Libraries 圖書館角色已改變 • The role of libraries as the major guardian of the intellectual output of the scholarly community is coming to an end. • In the face of the rapid growth of Google Books, the Hathi Trust content, other free or near free mega-collections, these collections are assuming this role.

• 圖書館作為主要學術保 衞者的角色已終結。

• 谷歌圖書, Hathi Trust協 同資料庫,其他免費和近 乎免費的大型藏書庫迅 速增長, 這些藏書資料庫 正替代並執行這個角色。

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4. Increased Importance of Special Collections 增加特色館藏的重要性 • Libraries don’t want to waste their time digitizing books held by other libraries. • Consequently, they are increasingly focusing on the unique materials found in their collections. • Since most libraries provide Open Access to this information, they are making a real contribution to scholarship.

• 圖書館不會浪費時間, 把其 他圖書館都有庋藏的書籍 數位化。 • 因此他們會聚焦館藏中的 獨有的資源。

• 很多圖書館都讓這些資源 公開存取, 對學術有着實質 的貢獻。

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5. Users as Selectors 用戶成了挑選者 • Before rushing an order was seen as time consuming and costly, now • Book vendors now have software to make these sorts of transactions routine

• 從前為滿足讀者的需求,便 很趕急地訂購書籍, 非常浪 費時間而且成本很高。而 現在: • 書籍供應商現在用軟件來 完成各種交易程序。

• User initiated book borrowing programs like InnReach and OCLC’s new program are more and more wide spread

• 用戶啟動的借閱計劃,如 InnReach和OCLC的新方案, 已被廣泛採用。

• Journal publishers make it easy to buy articles one at a time

• 期刊出版商讓購買單篇文 章簡易化。 22

6. Libraries and Institutional Repositories (IR’s) 圖書館與機構典藏庫(機構知識庫)(IR’s) • DSpace may have been created by scholars to share information, but libraries have long been in the business of collecting and organizing information to go into IR’s. • Libraries faced with budget problems, are more motivated to adopt and support open access IR’s. • Libraries are more knowledgeable about the intellectual property issues encountered when building IR’s.

• DSpace可能是學者開創來分 享資訊,但長期以來從事收集 和整理資訊, 進而發展成機構 典藏的是圖書館。

• 圖書館正面對財政緊縮問題, 會更主動去採用和支持開放 存取的機構典藏庫。 • 圖書館有更多經驗去處理, 建 立機構典藏庫時遇到的眾多 知識產權問題。

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7. Collecting/servicing Data Sets 收集/維護資料集(數據集), • Libraries are taking up the responsibility of managing and making available large data sets created locally, e.g., social survey results, collections of art history visual data and providing visual data analysis tools.

• 圖書館負責管理和提 供本地製作的大型資 料集(數據集),如:社會 調查結果,藝術歷史視 覺數據的收藏和提供 視覺數據分析工具。

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Public Services Global Trends 公共服務全球趨勢

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8. The Physical Reference Desk Is Disappearing 實體的参考諮詢檯逐渐消失 • Reference desk statistics are down while online statistics are up. • Readers find that Wikipedia and Google generally provide sufficient information immediately. • The good old days of students going to the reference desk will soon be over. Reference books are being integrated within the general collection.

• 使用参考諮詢數量下降,而 網上服務的數量則上升。 • 讀者認為維基百科和谷歌 一般能立即提供足夠資訊。 • 昔日學生前往参考諮詢檯 諮詢的日子將成過去。參 考書籍會融入到一般圖書 中。

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9. Social Networking and Public Services 社交網路和公共服務 • If reference librarians want • 如果参考諮詢圖書館員希 to stay relevant to meeting 望能繼續满足學生的資訊 student needs, they need to 需要,他們需要了解在這個 figure out how to work in 以學生為主的社交網路世 the social networking world 界如何服務他們。 where students are operating. • Students, if and when they • 當學生希望得到圖書館的 協助,要求得到的是電子資 want library help, want it 源。 with electronic resources. • Students want “speed AND • 學生希望得到”快捷和方便” convenience.” 的服務。 27

10. Libraries and Own Campus Collaboration 圖書館與校內的協作 Libraries, hungry to demonstrate their value to their funders, are providing new sorts of services to others on their own campuses, e.g., - HKU’s Libraries digitized HK War Crimes Trial materials brought together by the Law School. - Libraries are adding 4th year student papers to IR’s.

• 圖書館很渴望向校方展示 它的價值,會在校內提供新 服務種類,例如, -香港大學圖書館與法律 學院攜手把香港戰時罪 行審判資料數位化。 -四年前圖書館巳把把學 生的論文加 到機構典 藏庫內。

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11. Libraries Helping Teachers with Intellectual Property Issues 圖書館協助教師處理有關知識產權事宜 • Teachers are electronically sharing published information with students on their web pages, online reserves, course management systems, etc. • Frequently, teachers are ignorant of, or are choosing to ignore copyright issues. • Libraries are providing intellectual property rights information and services to increase the amount of information students can legally access.

• 教師透過互聯網與學生分 享巳出版的資訊,如網頁, 線上指定教材,課程管理系 統等 。 • 教師很多時不知道,或選擇 去漠視著作權權問題。 • 圖書館提供知識產權的資 訊和服務,增加學生可合法 存取資訊的數量。

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Library Space Global Changes 圖書館空間全球改變

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12. Library Space is being “Repurposed” 圖書館空間已被”改變用途” • Traditional libraries were designed for the individualized learning experience, quiet rules, food rules, individual carrels. • In the age of problem based learning, libraries are being repurposed to support group learning experiences.

• 圖書館的傳統設計原 本是為個人學習而設, 有安靜規則,飲食規則, 獨立研究小間。

• 在”基於問題的學 習”(PBL) 時代,圖書館 正改變以便支援小組 學習。 31

Information Commons Movement – The Ultimate Repurposing of Libraries 資訊共享空間運動 - 最終會令圖書館的用途改變

• Goal: Easy access to information, friends and food. • Group study is central • But not just computers • Non-library learning support services like writing labs, language labs, student counseling, banks, bakeries, barbers, etc., are being relocated to or near libraries.

• 目標:易於存取資訊, 與 朋友聯絡, 以至飲食。 • 小組研習巳成主流。 • 並不單靠電腦。 • 非圖書館的學習支援服 務,如: 寫作研習, 語言實 習, 學生輔導, 銀行, 麵包 店, 理髮店等, 巳遂漸遷 移到圖書館內或圖書館 附近。 32

Technical Services Global Trends 技術服務全球趨勢

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13. Resource Description and Access Has Arrived (RDA) “資源描述與檢索”巳到來 • RDA is a new set of • 書籍和其他資料的新 rules for cataloging 編目規則, 是資源描述 books and other 與檢索(RDA) 。 materials. • This new international • 這種新的國際標準是 standard is to take the 用來取代舊的AACR2。 place of the old standard: AACR2. • 這標準應是相容的,但 • Supposed to be 不同於AACR2。 compatible but not the same as AACR2. 34

14. Outsourcing Technical Services 外判技術服務 • Redesign/streamline technical processing. • Libraries moved from doing their own cataloging to copying other library’s records. • Now they are moving to taking data from everywhere and outsourcing as much as possible.

• 重新設計/精簡技術加工 工作。 • 圖書館由自己做原始編 目轉移至下載其他圖書 館的紀綠(抄錄編目)。 • 現在已轉向從其他地方 取得資料和盡可能把工 作外包。

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15. Mainstreaming Special Collections Cataloging 特色館藏編目成主流

• Special Collections cataloging was out of the mainstream and less important than the processing of new books. • With the emphasis on digitizing local unique materials, more attention is being paid to processing Special Collections materials.

• 特色館藏編目過去並不 是重心, 圖書館從前較重 視新書籍的加工工作。 • 重視本館獨有資料數碼 化, 圖書館把更多力量投 放在處理特色館藏資料 上。

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16. Cloud Computing and Academic Libraries 雲端運算與學術圖書館 • Libraries have long relied upon remote sites (the cloud) for information resources and bibliographic data. • OCLC is taking the Cloud concept to a whole new level. • Libraries will rely upon OCLC for even more shared data, workflows, integrated search access to online resources, shared APP’s, and libraries will be able to off load work to OCLC for completion. • Other vendors are bound to follow their example.

• 圖書館長久依賴遠程站(雲端) 來存取信息資源和書目數據。 • OCLC已把雲端的概念提升至 全完嶄新的層次。 • 圖書館會增加依賴OCLC , 如 數據分享, 工作流程, 綜合搜 索存取網路資源, 分享應用程 式等, 讓圖書館繁重的工作, 部分交由OCLC去完成。 • 其他供應商勢必跟從這些範 例。

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17. Using Mobile Devices 使用流動通訊設備 • A recent report indicated that “by the end of 2013, consumer cloud services for accessing content will be integrated into 90 percent of all connected consumer devices. • Libraries will be developing services to move with their patrons, to teach them how to use the Cloud, and provide integrated services to this new mobile environment.

• 近期報告顯示, 2013年底, 使用者以雲端服務去取得 資料將會逹所有使用設備 者的百分之九十。 • 圖書館將會與讀者一起發 展各項服務,教導他們如何 使用雲端, 並在這個新的行 動環境中提供嶄新的綜合 服務。

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Staffing, Management, etc., Global Changes 人力資源,管理等,全球在變

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18. Cross-institutional Staff Sharing 跨機構人力共享 • Libraries faced with critical financial problems are beginning to collaborate as never before, e.g., 2CUL where Columbia and Cornell’s libraries are sharing two area studies bibliographers and plan to share more. • Advances in IT make it possible for a single person to meaningfully work in two places at the same time.

• 圖書館面對着嚴峻的財務 問題,巳開始前所未有的合 作, 例如: 哥倫比亞大學圖 書館與康奈爾大學圖書館 正共用兩位學科館員, 並計 劃共享更多。

• 先進的資訊科技能讓一個 員工同時為兩個地方進行 有意義的工作。

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19. Nature of Staff Changing 員工性質的改變 • Traditional library staffing levels are decreasing or stagnant. • As libraries change from being so book centric, the nature of the work done by library employees is changing. Fewer people dealing with the book as an object, more people focusing on the content.

• 傳统圖書館員工階層 已漸遞減或停滯。 • 圖書館巳不再以書籍 為中心, 圖書館員的工 作性質也漸改變。很 少人把處理書籍視為 目標, 更多人把焦點集 中在內容上。 41

More on nature of staff changing 員工的性質有更多改變 • The numbers of non librarians employed in libraries is increasing. • Much more emphasis is being placed on staff with systems/computer skills, marketing, outreach, and fundraising.

• 聘用非圖書館專業館 員的人數在逐漸遞增。 • 更重視系統/電腦技術, 推廣,外展,和籌募經費 的工作。

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20. Academic Library Organization Trends 學術圖書館組織趨勢 • All of the trends mentioned above make it clear that academic libraries have and are changing significantly and so it is logical that the library ‘s organizational structure will also change.

• 上述的趨勢很明 顯反映學術圖書 館正進行改變, 並 已有着重大的變 化, 所以圖書館的 組織結構上也將 會有改變。 43

Academic Library Organization Trends 學術圖書館組織趨勢

• Two models have emerged but it is not clear if either of these will dominate or whether both will disappear:

• 兩種模式已合 併, 但是並不清 楚那一種會主 導, 或兩種都會 消失: -

Two Possible Models (1) The current Director and 13 functional assistant directors will simply be changed by adding additional assistant directors who focus on new functions. (2) The Library is merged with another organization on campus, e.g., the Computer Center. These have been called the Merged Information Services Organization (MISO).

(1) 現任館長與一至三位 以職責劃分的副館長 的架構,會改變為增加 多 位負責新職能的副 館長。 (2) 圖書館與校內其他組 織合併,例 如和計算機 中心。這稱作合併資 訊服務組織 (MISO)。

Implications for Asia Pacific Academic Libraries 對亞太區學術圖書館的影響

• Why are some trends so relevant? • Why are some not so relevant?

• 為甚麼有些 趨勢相關? • 為甚麼有些 不大相關? 46

Before we answer these questions, let me tell three brief stories and then say what I think is the one Magic Word that holds the key to our future:

回答這些問題前,讓我說三個短故事和我認為 最能影響未來成功的一個關鍵字: 1. 7-11 STORES 2. APPLE STORES 3. DUANE READE DRUGSTORES

• 7-11便利店 • 蘋果電腦商店 • DUANE READE藥店

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商店與圖書館有甚麼相同之處?

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7-11 Stores /7-11便利店 • 1927 ice house worker got an idea. He had lots of ice to keep food cold. • He decided to sell milk, bread, & eggs during the late hours. • He added more goods and opened more stores. • Now 41,000+ 7-11 stores. Taiwan has 4,790 stores

• 1927年,一位在製冰廠 工作的工人想出一個 主意, 用 冰去保存食物 新鮮。 • 他決定售賣牛奶, 麵包 和鷄蛋到很晚。 • 他增添很多貨品和開 辦很多便利店。 • 現在全球已有41,000多 間7-11便利店, 在台灣 便有4,790間。 49

Apple Computer Stores 蘋果電腦商店 • 從前很多人認為開辦蘋果 • Many thought the idea 電腦商店是愚蠢的念頭。 of an Apple Store to be stupid. • 人們巳在網上或折扣店購 • People could already 買電腦。 buy computers on-line or at discount stores. • But, Apple stores have • 但蘋果電腦商店非常成功。 been very successful. 平均每間蘋果商店有高達 On average, each APPLE 四千萬美元的銷售額。 Store has average sales of US$40 million dollars. 50

US Duane Reade Drug Stores 美國Duane Reade藥店 • Duane Reade drug stores were well known in the US for dirty, crowded, stores with terrible service. • Now they are seen as the most innovative drug store chain in the country.

• Duane Reade藥店在美 國曾因骯髒, 擁擠, 服 務差而聞名。 • 現在他們已成為美國 很創新的連鎖藥店。

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How they did it: Convenience 他們的秘訣:方便 7-11 Stores

• Most now open 24X7 • Now they sell a little bit of almost everything, hot and cold food, drinks, cosmetics, DVD’s, etc. • You can do your banking, pay utility bills, (Taiwan) pay traffic fines, buy phone cards. • In US many sell gasoline and other car products.

7-11便利店

• 大部份開放時間是 24X7 。 • 現在他們售賣各種各 類的小東西, 冷熱食 物飲品, 化妝品, 影碟 等。 • 可辦理銀行事務,繳付 公用帳單,(台灣)繳付 交通罰款,購買電話卡。 • 在美國很多還售賣汽 油和其它汽車用品。52

How they did it: Convenience 他們的秘訣:方便 Apple 蘋果 • They teach people how • 他們辦班教授人們如 to use APPLE devices, 何使用蘋果的設備,如 teach them how these 如何使用各種功能和 capabilities can improve 如何改良設備 -。 their devices – they • 他們有天才員工去幫 have classes. 助人解決問題 -通常是 • They have Geniuses 免費的。 who freely help people with their problems. • 他們不只是商店,還是 • They aren’t just stores, 能幫助人們去豐富生 they are places which 活的地方。 will help people enrich their lives.

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How they did it: Convenience 他們的秘訣:方便 Duane Reade Drug Stores Duane Reade藥店 • They cleaned the stores, • 他們潔淨商店, 加寬走 widened the aisles, told 道, 教工人要友善否則 their workers to be nice 要離職。 or leave. • Many have added hair • 很多商店已加入髮廊, salons, juice bar, sushi, 果汁吧, 壽司檔, 醫生, a doctor, beauty 美容顧問, 股票市塲磁 consultants, stock 帶等。 market ticker tape signs, etc. 54

So, what will be the one magic key to our success? • Convenience

• 方便

What is CONVENIENCE? You 甚麼是方便? 你-1. Reduce readers’ physical effort 2. Put our content and services into the "flow" of readers‘ every-day lives. 3. Make sure people “perceive” that your services is good. 4. Let readers be in control of as much as possible: self check, user initiated delivery, online and phone

1. 減少讀者的體力消耗。 2. 將圖書館提供的內容 和服務融入讀者每日 的生活 中。 3. 確認人們可以感覺到 圖書館的好服務。 4. 盡可能讓讀者自行操 作: 自助借還書, 用戶 啟動傳遞, 網上和電 話諮詢協助等。 56

So, which global trends should your library adopt? 圖書館應採用那些全球趨勢? • Those which are convenient to students and teachers. • You should look at all of your existing services and ask if they are convenient or not. • If not, change or get rid of them.

• 那些能方便學生和老 師的措施。 • 審視現有的服務, 看它 們是否方便。 • 如果不是, 改變或取消。

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下列那一項能給大部分的讀者提供額外 方便?

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下列那一項能給大部分的讀者提供額外方便?

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Two Conclusions 1. Libraries should adopt those trends which make information finding convenient. 2. While some of the global trends may not be a good fit for your patrons, you may have to adopt them as the price of interacting with other libraries and businesses globally.

1. 圖書館應採用那些能 方便學生和老師的措 施。 2. 如果其中一些全球趨 勢並不適合你的讀者, 你也可能要使用它, 作為與全球其他圖書 館和企業進行互動的 代價。 60

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