Adobe stove and square foot garden training
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ADOBE STOVE/ ROCKET STOVE AND SQUARE FOOT GARDEN TRAINING
Fighting Poverty, Empowering People
Why Adobe Stoves or Rocket Stoves?
Indoor solid-burning fires that fill homes with smoke kill nearly one million children a year Smoke causes respiratory illness Smoke causes eye problems Indoor pollution is the fourth greatest risk factor for death and disease in the Third World Adobe stoves ventilate smoke out of the home decreasing the negative effects of open fires Rocket Stoves reduce smoke pollution in the home by improving the combustion of wood fuel. As a result it also reduces fuel use and efficiency of cooking.
How to decide if you will build an Adobe stove or a Rocket Stove?
What are the needs of the community? What does the individual want? What are the cooking needs of the individual? What materials are available? How much time do you have to complete the project?
Building a Stove- 10 Design Principles
Insulate around the fire using lightweight, heatresistant materials Place an insulated short chimney right above the fire to burn up the smoke and speed the draft Heat and burn the tips of the sticks as they enter the fire to make flame, not smoke High and low heat are created by how many sticks are pushed into the fire Maintain a good fast draft from under the fire, up through the coals. Avoid too much extra air above the fire to cool it. Information from Aprovecho Research Center
10 Design Principles Cont.
Too little draft being pulled into the fire will result in smoke and excess charcoal. Keep unrestricted airflow by maintaining cross sectional area through the stove. The opening into the fire, the size of the space within the stove where air flows, and the chimney should be about the same size. Use a grate under the fire Insulate the heat flow path, from the fire, to and around the pot(s) or griddle. Maximize heat transfer to the pots with properly sized gaps. Information from Aprovecho Research Center
Building an Adobe Stove
First gather all your materials Measure pots so you will know how big to make the stove Decide where you want to build your stove, you want to build the stove where one normally cooks and where a woman will be comfortable cooking. A corner is a good place to build the stove as this will require only two walls to be built instead of four. The location must include:
Air flow Roof or shelter from rain Level ground Hole for the chimney
Materials: the Frame and Base
Bricks, Cinder blocks, or Wood If using wood you will need a hammer, nails, and saw If no other material can be found large rocks may be a suitable alternative, it is however important to make the walls as level and strong as possible or the structure will not hold. You will also need rocks and dry dirt to fill in the base
Materials: Burners and Piping
4 medium sized cans or banana stock
1 medium can or a 2 liter bottle or banana stock
One for the fuel opening Two for the back burners (only one is needed if you plan on making a two burner stove)
1 large pot or plastic bowl
Used to make a hole for the chimney (very important)
2 or 3, depending on the size of your stove, large cans (paint can or larger)
These will be placed inside the stove to conduct the smoke
For the main burner Use something the same size as the woman’s main cooking pot
Metal grate or some sort of shelf for the fire 1 foot metal bar (rebar) or chicken wire
For extra support above fuel opening
Materials: Adobe Mixture
4 wheelbarrows of Clay (Africa-anthill dirt, Fiji-red sticky soil, Belize-white mahl) This will be used to fill the stove It is important to have something that will form a strong mold so that the stove does not crack or break. Ask locals what is used for brick making or pottery or the type of dirt most used for this type of building. 2 wheelbarrows of Sand Small fiber Suitable fibers include: dry grass, coconut husks, straw, stripped corn husks and pine needles Fiber should be cut into small pieces Sieve To sift clay and sand Water To help hold together the clay, sand, and fiber Shovel, spade or hoe To mix the clay, sand, and fiber
Cement To plaster the sides and top of stove (optional) Tin pipe or several cans To make the chimney Tarp/ banana leaves Used to cover the stove while it is drying Other miscellaneous tools that will be helpful Level Knife Can opener Measuring tape Trowel String Machete
Building the Base and Frame The Base
Laying the Stove
Cut the banana stock to form the molding for the burners, tunnels and fuel openings
If you are using tin cans remove the tops and bottoms and cover them in ashes or plastic so they will be easier to remove
Lay the prepared pieces in the stove, the layout shown may be used or it may be modified to better fit the needs of the individual
Don’t forget to Slant it Up Creating a well working stove is all about airflow. Smoke rises so make sure the stove slants up so the chimney and back burners are slightly higher that the front.
The mixture is: 2 parts clay 1 part sand Some water A few handfuls of fiber
Mix the clay and sand together, adding water to help mix it and make it stronger. Then add a few handfuls of fiber to make the mixture even stronger.
Get it Right Not too wet
Not too dry
Make sure to make enough mixture to fill the stove in one work day. If you have to make the mixture a few times that is ok but make sure the stove is completed the same day you start.
Fill it Up!
Before the stove is completely full put the rebar above the fire source for additional support. Once the stove is completely full smooth it out. Use a index card or something flat to create a smooth surface on the top, this will help keep the structure from cracking.
Your Not Done Yet
You have now made the main part of the stove but there are still some critical steps. First,
you need to remind the family the stove is not ready to be cooked on until it is fully dry. Second, you need to remind families to twist the cans or banana stock daily so they can be removed in two weeks time. Third, you need to cover the stove with tarp or banana leaves to keep it out of direct sunlight. Lastly, you need to come back at least two more times to fix any problems, remove cans or banana stock, plaster the stove, and most importantly install the chimney.
Stove Check #1
In about two weeks the stove should be dry enough for you too remove the banana stock and tin cans. At this point you can also carve out burners so your pots fit nicely into the stove. This will also be when you install the chimney.
Installing the Chimney
For the chimney you may use tin pipes or tin cans. Be sure that the seal around the chimney is airtight so that no smoke can escape back into the house. You will also want the chimney about a foot outside the house to keep smoke from reentering and be sure the chimney is protected from the rain.
Final Stove Check
This check should be done about one month after the original construction of the stove. It will ensure that the stove is dry and ready to use. At this check you will also plaster or tile the sides of your stove. As soon as the plaster is dry the stove is ready to use.
Trouble Shooting Possible Problems
The stove cracks The stove is blackened around the edges
You do not have all the materials you need
Fill in the cracks using cement Remove blackened pieces and fill in with cement Find alternatives, be creative, ask locals
Building Rocket Stoves
Rocket Stove Videos Rocket stove demo
16 brick rocket stove
Design principles for Wood Burning Cook Stove http://www.bioenergylists.org/stovesdoc/Pcia/Design%20Principles%20for%20Wood%20Bu rning%20Cookstoves.pdf Rocket Stove User Guide http://www.bioenergylists.org/stovesdoc/Still/AprovechoPlans/ROCKET%20STOVE%20USER %20GUIDE.pdf Rocket Stove Design Guide http://www.bioenergylists.org/stovesdoc/Still/AprovechoPlans/Rocket%20Stove%20Design% 20Guide.pdf How to Build a Rocket Lorena Stove – http://www.energyandminerals.go.ug/pdf/HOUSEHOLD%20Stoves%20Construction%20Man ual.pdf Development and testing of fuel efficient technologies http://www.bioenergylists.org/stovesdoc/Scott/Uganda%20report.pdf Improved Stove in Peru http://www.bvsde.ops-oms.org/bvsacd/scan/411436/411436-04.pdf Making Insulative Clay Combustion Chambers http://www.bioenergylists.org/stovesdoc/Still/VC%20Stove/vcstove.html WHO Impact of Indoor Air Pollution http://www.who.int/mediacentre/events/H&SD_Plaq_no9.pdf
Square Foot Gardens
Why Build a Garden?
People are malnourished Inadequate nutrition Obesity problems Bring in extra money by selling produce at market
How to Build a Square Foot Garden
Choose an Area for the Garden
Place the garden close to the house for convenience and as a reminder to take care of the garden Put the garden in an area that will not puddle after a heavy rain You
may need to build a moat around the garden so that water from a heavy rain will be able to drain and/ or a covering for the garden
The garden needs to get sun for 6 to 8 hours daily Stay
away from trees and shrubs or other shady areas
Building the Box
It is recommended to make a 1 Meter X 1 Meter box (3 feet X 3 feet)
It is ok to make a little bigger box, it is better to have too much space rather than not enough
The box should be 20 centimeters deep (about 8 inches) The box can be made from wood, rocks, cinder blocks, or bricks
1/3 blended compost 1/3 peat moss 1/3 coarse vermiculite
Possible alternatives to the ingredients of Mel’s Mix: Perlite
can be used instead of vermiculite Coir (coco) can be used instead of peat moss Sphagnum can be used instead of peat moss
You will most likely not be able to find all three components of Mel’s mix and if you do it could be expensive. Mel recommends that when working in developing countries you should use only compost Even
this could be complicated as composting takes time and you want to start your gardens right away
Find the darkest, richest soil you can and/or ask locals what they use for farming and start from there then add your compost when it is ready
The first step to composting is deciding on a site and finding something to contain the compost (just a pile is fine too). A compost bin can be made using wood or metal posts with wire fencing, lumber or bamboo sides, wood pallet sides, brick or block sides The pile can be placed on the ground, the structure does not need a floor. No matter how the pile is contained, it should still allow for airflow.
What to Add to Your Compost Pile Composting materials can be divided into two categories green and brown
vegetable peelings fruit peelings grass clippings coffee grounds fresh manure green plant cuttings annual weeds young hedge trimmings
leaves hay & straw paper & cardboard woody prunings eggshells tea bags sawdust
Do NOT Add meat & bones poultry & fish fatty food waste whole eggs dairy products human & pet feces pernicious weeds treated wood
Make Great Compost
Making great compost is like making a giant layer cake!. Start with a 4 inch layer of brush, twigs, hay or straw at the bottom of the bin. Then add a 4 inch layer of brown material, then a thin layer of finished compost or good garden soil. That's one layer. Then add a 4 inch layer of green material topped with a thin layer of compost or soil. Moisten each layer by misting it lightly with a garden hose. Keep adding materials in alternating layers of greens and browns until the bin is full. Once you have a full bin, turn the pile once a week. The more you turn the pile the faster you will have finished compost!
Tips for Composting
The compost bin should be at least 1m x 1m x 1m minimum. (any smaller will not heat up enough) but not any larger than 2m x 2m x 2m maximum. (any larger will restrict air to the middle.) Unpleasant odor. Not enough air- turn every week Wrong ingredients- remove any animal, dairy, or bakery products. Too wet – Keep moist not soggy. Won’t Heat up Too wet or too dry Needs nitrogen type material (manure, grass clippings, weeds
If you are turning the compost once a week it should be ready in about one month. Compost is ready when dark and crumbly and mostly broken down with a pleasant, earthy, soil-like smell to it.
Ready to Plant
The last thing to do before you add the seeds is to lay out the grid
Use sticks, slats of wood, string, anything you can find to divide the garden into nine equal squares
The seeds will be planted in patterns of 1, 4, 9, or 16 depending on the size of the plant Zip, Zap, BING, BING, BING p
Tips for Planting
Choose vegetables and fruits to plant that the people are used to and familiar with Plant a variety of plants Plant 2 to 3 seeds in each hole to ensure that they grow Plants such as onions, marigolds, and garlic are natural pest deterrents Vine plants need to grow up, a structure should be built for them to grow on, they should also be planted on the north side of the garden After harvesting a crop, new compost should be added and a new and different crop should be planted, planting crops from the same crop or a crop from the same family in the same soil can deplete the soil of nutrients and also allow for disease in the plant.
Watering Your Garden
Plants should be watered twice a day Water immediately after planting Water lightly, do not want to pack down soil, poke holes in the bottom of metal can to make a strainer system Don’t water from overhead Keep a bucket of water in the sun so you always have warm water ready Plant each plant in a shallow depression to conserve water
Protecting Your Garden
Plant Protection cages – three sided wire mesh “cage” to protect from animals and adverse weather You will also most likely need to make some sort of covering for when it rains. One idea is to place a tarp over the protection cage Weeds – best way to have a weed free garden is to keep up with the weeding, also the close spacing of the plants will help to shade the soil and prevent weeds Pests- use natural deterrents like marigolds or onions planted in your garden
Remember You are Teaching