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January 6, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Arts & Humanities, Communications, Advertising
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The Hidden Persuaders

After and because of World War II, the United States had 65% of the world’s industrial capacity. By the 1950s, industrial giants were concerned that Americans had bought all their products and would stop buying, thus wrecking the consumer economy. Out of this, two strategies evolved. One was planned obsolescence, designing products that would soon be either outdated or break down, forcing the consumers to keep buying. The other was pushing advertising to a new level of intensity. Advertising agencies hired psychologists to design new strategies for boosting sales. Television was central to this, since consumers no longer had to go to the advertisers. Now advertisers could impose themselves into viewers’ homes every time they turned on the TV. Vance Packard’s book, The Hidden Persuaders, exposed many of the new strategies advertisers were using, including the alleged use of subliminal advertising, ads that would work beneath the conscious brain to influence people. For example, movies, which show 24 frames per second, purportedly would use one frame to display a picture of a soft drink, subconsciously enticing viewers to get up and head to the concessions stand. Despite Packard’s expose, advertising has grown and flourished ever since.

FC.142C THE HIDDEN PERSUADERS: A SHORT HISTORY OF ADVERTISING World War II (FC.137)

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FC.142C THE HIDDEN PERSUADERS: A SHORT HISTORY OF ADVERTISING World War II (FC.137) US has 60% of world’s ind’sPost-war boom Am’s have all the goods they need

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FC.142C THE HIDDEN PERSUADERS: A SHORT HISTORY OF ADVERTISING World War II (FC.137) US has 60% of world’s ind’sPost-war boom Am’s have all the goods they need

Rest of world is impoverished by war & can’t buy products from US

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FC.142C THE HIDDEN PERSUADERS: A SHORT HISTORY OF ADVERTISING World War II (FC.137) Puitan thrift ethic discourages consumption

US has 60% of world’s ind’sPost-war boom Am’s have all the goods they need

Rest of world is impoverished by war & can’t buy products from US

Puitan thrift ethic discourages consumption

a

FC.142C THE HIDDEN PERSUADERS: A SHORT HISTORY OF ADVERTISING World War II (FC.137) Puitan thrift ethic discourages consumption

US has 60% of world’s ind’sPost-war boom Am’s have all the goods they need

Rest of world is impoverished by war & can’t buy products from US

US businesses fear another Depression if they can’t sell products, esp. if there is no real difference b/w their products & others

Puitan thrift ethic discourages consumption

a

FC.142C THE HIDDEN PERSUADERS: A SHORT HISTORY OF ADVERTISING World War II (FC.137) Puitan thrift ethic discourages consumption

US has 60% of world’s ind’sPost-war boom Am’s have all the goods they need

Rest of world is impoverished by war & can’t buy products from US

Puitan thrift ethic discourages consumption

US businesses fear another Depression if they can’t sell products, esp. if there is no real difference b/w their products & others

Marshall Plan to revive Eur. Mkt’s (FC.138)

Marshall Plan to revive Eur. Mkt’s (FC.138)

a

FC.142C THE HIDDEN PERSUADERS: A SHORT HISTORY OF ADVERTISING World War II (FC.137) Puitan thrift ethic discourages consumption

US has 60% of world’s ind’sPost-war boom Am’s have all the goods they need

Rest of world is impoverished by war & can’t buy products from US

Puitan thrift ethic discourages consumption

US businesses fear another Depression if they can’t sell products, esp. if there is no real difference b/w their products & others

Surveys of people’s buying habits that showed: Marshall Plan to revive Eur. Mkt’s (FC.138)

Consumers often couldn’t distinguish their “favorite” products from others in blind tests

People buy on basis of subconscious fears, prejudices, etc. & unconscious feelings

Marshall Plan to revive Eur. Mkt’s (FC.138)

a

FC.142C THE HIDDEN PERSUADERS: A SHORT HISTORY OF ADVERTISING World War II (FC.137) Puitan thrift ethic discourages consumption

US has 60% of world’s ind’sPost-war boom Am’s have all the goods they need

Rest of world is impoverished by war & can’t buy products from US

Puitan thrift ethic discourages consumption

US businesses fear another Depression if they can’t sell products, esp. if there is no real difference b/w their products & others

Surveys of people’s buying habits that showed: Marshall Plan to revive Eur. Mkt’s (FC.138)

Consumers often couldn’t distinguish their “favorite” products from others in blind tests

People buy on basis of subconscious fears, prejudices, etc. & unconscious feelings

Marshall Plan to revive Eur. Mkt’s (FC.138)

a

FC.142C THE HIDDEN PERSUADERS: A SHORT HISTORY OF ADVERTISING World War II (FC.137) Puitan thrift ethic discourages consumption

US has 60% of world’s ind’sPost-war boom Am’s have all the goods they need

Rest of world is impoverished by war & can’t buy products from US

Puitan thrift ethic discourages consumption

US businesses fear another Depression if they can’t sell products, esp. if there is no real difference b/w their products & others

Surveys of people’s buying habits that showed: Marshall Plan to revive Eur. Mkt’s (FC.138)

Consumers often couldn’t distinguish their “favorite” products from others in blind tests

People buy on basis of subconscious fears, prejudices, etc. & unconscious feelings

Marshall Plan to revive Eur. Mkt’s (FC.138)

a

FC.142C THE HIDDEN PERSUADERS: A SHORT HISTORY OF ADVERTISING World War II (FC.137) Puitan thrift ethic discourages consumption

US has 60% of world’s ind’sPost-war boom Am’s have all the goods they need

Rest of world is impoverished by war & can’t buy products from US

Puitan thrift ethic discourages consumption

US businesses fear another Depression if they can’t sell products, esp. if there is no real difference b/w their products & others

Surveys of people’s buying habits that showed: Marshall Plan to revive Eur. Mkt’s (FC.138)

Consumers often couldn’t distinguish their “favorite” products from others in blind tests

People buy on basis of subconscious fears, prejudices, etc. & unconscious feelings

Madison Ave. hires psych’s who identify & exploit several needs of consumers’ psyches: Conformity

Oral gratification

Security

Marshall Plan to revive Eur. Mkt’s (FC.138)

a

FC.142C THE HIDDEN PERSUADERS: A SHORT HISTORY OF ADVERTISING World War II (FC.137) Puitan thrift ethic discourages consumption

US has 60% of world’s ind’sPost-war boom Am’s have all the goods they need

Rest of world is impoverished by war & can’t buy products from US

Puitan thrift ethic discourages consumption

US businesses fear another Depression if they can’t sell products, esp. if there is no real difference b/w their products & others

Surveys of people’s buying habits that showed: Marshall Plan to revive Eur. Mkt’s (FC.138)

Consumers often couldn’t distinguish their “favorite” products from others in blind tests

People buy on basis of subconscious fears, prejudices, etc. & unconscious feelings

Madison Ave. hires psych’s who identify & exploit several needs of consumers’ psyches: Conformity

Oral gratification

Security

Marshall Plan to revive Eur. Mkt’s (FC.138)

a

FC.142C THE HIDDEN PERSUADERS: A SHORT HISTORY OF ADVERTISING World War II (FC.137) Puitan thrift ethic discourages consumption

US has 60% of world’s ind’sPost-war boom Am’s have all the goods they need

Rest of world is impoverished by war & can’t buy products from US

Puitan thrift ethic discourages consumption

US businesses fear another Depression if they can’t sell products, esp. if there is no real difference b/w their products & others

Surveys of people’s buying habits that showed: Marshall Plan to revive Eur. Mkt’s (FC.138)

Consumers often couldn’t distinguish their “favorite” products from others in blind tests

People buy on basis of subconscious fears, prejudices, etc. & unconscious feelings

Madison Ave. hires psych’s who identify & exploit several needs of consumers’ psyches: Conformity

Oral gratification

Security

Marshall Plan to revive Eur. Mkt’s (FC.138)

a

FC.142C THE HIDDEN PERSUADERS: A SHORT HISTORY OF ADVERTISING World War II (FC.137) Puitan thrift ethic discourages consumption

US has 60% of world’s ind’sPost-war boom Am’s have all the goods they need

Rest of world is impoverished by war & can’t buy products from US

Puitan thrift ethic discourages consumption

US businesses fear another Depression if they can’t sell products, esp. if there is no real difference b/w their products & others

Surveys of people’s buying habits that showed: Marshall Plan to revive Eur. Mkt’s (FC.138)

Consumers often couldn’t distinguish their “favorite” products from others in blind tests

People buy on basis of subconscious fears, prejudices, etc. & unconscious feelings

Madison Ave. hires psych’s who identify & exploit several needs of consumers’ psyches: Conformity

Oral gratification

Security

You deserve a break today

Marshall Plan to revive Eur. Mkt’s (FC.138)

a

FC.142C THE HIDDEN PERSUADERS: A SHORT HISTORY OF ADVERTISING World War II (FC.137) Puitan thrift ethic discourages consumption

US has 60% of world’s ind’sPost-war boom Am’s have all the goods they need

Rest of world is impoverished by war & can’t buy products from US

Puitan thrift ethic discourages consumption

US businesses fear another Depression if they can’t sell products, esp. if there is no real difference b/w their products & others

Surveys of people’s buying habits that showed: Marshall Plan to revive Eur. Mkt’s (FC.138)

Consumers often couldn’t distinguish their “favorite” products from others in blind tests

People buy on basis of subconscious fears, prejudices, etc. & unconscious feelings

Marshall Plan to revive Eur. Mkt’s (FC.138)

Madison Ave. hires psych’s who identify & exploit several needs of consumers’ psyches: Conformity

Oral gratification

Security

Use of non-rational techniques (e.g., bright colors & logos) to sell the illusion of: Sex appeal: (e.g., fountain pens w/sleek bodies, beer, cigars, Marlboro cigarettes, cars, & men’s adventure mags) Ego gratification: (e.g., Reassurance of worth: (e.g., Creative outlets: (e.g., vanity presses so authors detergents that give women Instant cake mixes where can see their work in print) status of clean homes) you add the egg & milk)

Emotional security: Immortality:(e.g., Sense of power: Roots & fam. (e.g., freezers that hold insurance policies (e.g., new car every tradition: (e.g., wines more food than people You can take care of 2 yrs to renew just like grandma need or can afford) your fam. after you die) sense of manhood) used to make)

a

FC.142C THE HIDDEN PERSUADERS: A SHORT HISTORY OF ADVERTISING World War II (FC.137) Puitan thrift ethic discourages consumption

US has 60% of world’s ind’sPost-war boom Am’s have all the goods they need

Rest of world is impoverished by war & can’t buy products from US

Puitan thrift ethic discourages consumption

US businesses fear another Depression if they can’t sell products, esp. if there is no real difference b/w their products & others

Surveys of people’s buying habits that showed: Marshall Plan to revive Eur. Mkt’s (FC.138)

Consumers often couldn’t distinguish their “favorite” products from others in blind tests

People buy on basis of subconscious fears, prejudices, etc. & unconscious feelings

Marshall Plan to revive Eur. Mkt’s (FC.138)

Madison Ave. hires psych’s who identify & exploit several needs of consumers’ psyches: Conformity

Oral gratification

Security

Use of non-rational techniques (e.g., bright colors & logos) to sell the illusion of: Sex appeal: (e.g., fountain pens w/sleek bodies, beer, cigars, Marlboro cigarettes, cars, & men’s adventure mags) Ego gratification: (e.g., Reassurance of worth: (e.g., Creative outlets: (e.g., vanity presses so authors detergents that give women Instant cake mixes where can see their work in print) status of clean homes) you add the egg & milk)

Emotional security: Immortality:(e.g., Sense of power: Roots & fam. (e.g., freezers that hold insurance policies (e.g., new car every tradition: (e.g., wines more food than people You can take care of 2 yrs to renew just like grandma need or can afford) your fam. after you die) sense of manhood) used to make)

a

FC.142C THE HIDDEN PERSUADERS: A SHORT HISTORY OF ADVERTISING World War II (FC.137) Puitan thrift ethic discourages consumption

US has 60% of world’s ind’sPost-war boom Am’s have all the goods they need

Rest of world is impoverished by war & can’t buy products from US

Puitan thrift ethic discourages consumption

US businesses fear another Depression if they can’t sell products, esp. if there is no real difference b/w their products & others

Surveys of people’s buying habits that showed: Marshall Plan to revive Eur. Mkt’s (FC.138)

Consumers often couldn’t distinguish their “favorite” products from others in blind tests

People buy on basis of subconscious fears, prejudices, etc. & unconscious feelings

Marshall Plan to revive Eur. Mkt’s (FC.138)

Madison Ave. hires psych’s who identify & exploit several needs of consumers’ psyches: Conformity

Oral gratification

Security

Use of non-rational techniques (e.g., bright colors & logos) to sell the illusion of: Sex appeal: (e.g., fountain pens w/sleek bodies, beer, cigars, Marlboro cigarettes, cars, & men’s adventure mags) Ego gratification: (e.g., Reassurance of worth: (e.g., Creative outlets: (e.g., vanity presses so authors detergents that give women Instant cake mixes where can see their work in print) status of clean homes) you add the egg & milk)

Emotional security: Immortality:(e.g., Sense of power: Roots & fam. (e.g., freezers that hold insurance policies (e.g., new car every tradition: (e.g., wines more food than people You can take care of 2 yrs to renew just like grandma need or can afford) your fam. after you die) sense of manhood) used to make)

a

FC.142C THE HIDDEN PERSUADERS: A SHORT HISTORY OF ADVERTISING World War II (FC.137) Puitan thrift ethic discourages consumption

US has 60% of world’s ind’sPost-war boom Am’s have all the goods they need

Rest of world is impoverished by war & can’t buy products from US

Puitan thrift ethic discourages consumption

US businesses fear another Depression if they can’t sell products, esp. if there is no real difference b/w their products & others

Surveys of people’s buying habits that showed: Marshall Plan to revive Eur. Mkt’s (FC.138)

Consumers often couldn’t distinguish their “favorite” products from others in blind tests

People buy on basis of subconscious fears, prejudices, etc. & unconscious feelings

Marshall Plan to revive Eur. Mkt’s (FC.138)

Madison Ave. hires psych’s who identify & exploit several needs of consumers’ psyches: Conformity

Oral gratification

Security

Use of non-rational techniques (e.g., bright colors & logos) to sell the illusion of: Sex appeal: (e.g., fountain pens w/sleek bodies, beer, cigars, Marlboro cigarettes, cars, & men’s adventure mags) Ego gratification: (e.g., Reassurance of worth: (e.g., Creative outlets: (e.g., vanity presses so authors detergents that give women Instant cake mixes where can see their work in print) status of clean homes) you add the egg & milk)

Emotional security: Immortality:(e.g., Sense of power: Roots & fam. (e.g., freezers that hold insurance policies (e.g., new car every tradition: (e.g., wines more food than people You can take care of 2 yrs to renew just like grandma need or can afford) your fam. after you die) sense of manhood) used to make)

a

FC.142C THE HIDDEN PERSUADERS: A SHORT HISTORY OF ADVERTISING World War II (FC.137) Puitan thrift ethic discourages consumption

US has 60% of world’s ind’sPost-war boom Am’s have all the goods they need

Rest of world is impoverished by war & can’t buy products from US

Puitan thrift ethic discourages consumption

US businesses fear another Depression if they can’t sell products, esp. if there is no real difference b/w their products & others

Surveys of people’s buying habits that showed: Marshall Plan to revive Eur. Mkt’s (FC.138)

Consumers often couldn’t distinguish their “favorite” products from others in blind tests

People buy on basis of subconscious fears, prejudices, etc. & unconscious feelings

Marshall Plan to revive Eur. Mkt’s (FC.138)

Madison Ave. hires psych’s who identify & exploit several needs of consumers’ psyches: Conformity

Oral gratification

Security

Use of non-rational techniques (e.g., bright colors & logos) to sell the illusion of: Sex appeal: (e.g., fountain pens w/sleek bodies, beer, cigars, Marlboro cigarettes, cars, & men’s adventure mags) Ego gratification: (e.g., Reassurance of worth: (e.g., Creative outlets: (e.g., vanity presses so authors detergents that give women Instant cake mixes where can see their work in print) status of clean homes) you add the egg & milk)

Emotional security: Immortality:(e.g., Sense of power: Roots & fam. (e.g., freezers that hold insurance policies (e.g., new car every tradition: (e.g., wines more food than people You can take care of 2 yrs to renew just like grandma need or can afford) your fam. after you die) sense of manhood) used to make)

a

FC.142C THE HIDDEN PERSUADERS: A SHORT HISTORY OF ADVERTISING World War II (FC.137) Puitan thrift ethic discourages consumption

US has 60% of world’s ind’sPost-war boom Am’s have all the goods they need

Rest of world is impoverished by war & can’t buy products from US

Puitan thrift ethic discourages consumption

US businesses fear another Depression if they can’t sell products, esp. if there is no real difference b/w their products & others

Surveys of people’s buying habits that showed: Marshall Plan to revive Eur. Mkt’s (FC.138)

Consumers often couldn’t distinguish their “favorite” products from others in blind tests

People buy on basis of subconscious fears, prejudices, etc. & unconscious feelings

Marshall Plan to revive Eur. Mkt’s (FC.138)

Madison Ave. hires psych’s who identify & exploit several needs of consumers’ psyches: Conformity

Oral gratification

Security

Use of non-rational techniques (e.g., bright colors & logos) to sell the illusion of: Sex appeal: (e.g., fountain pens w/sleek bodies, beer, cigars, Marlboro cigarettes, cars, & men’s adventure mags) Ego gratification: (e.g., Reassurance of worth: (e.g., Creative outlets: (e.g., vanity presses so authors detergents that give women Instant cake mixes where can see their work in print) status of clean homes) you add the egg & milk)

Emotional security: Immortality:(e.g., Sense of power: Roots & fam. (e.g., freezers that hold insurance policies (e.g., new car every tradition: (e.g., wines more food than people You can take care of 2 yrs to renew just like grandma need or can afford) your fam. after you die) sense of manhood) used to make)

a

FC.142C THE HIDDEN PERSUADERS: A SHORT HISTORY OF ADVERTISING World War II (FC.137) Puitan thrift ethic discourages consumption

US has 60% of world’s ind’sPost-war boom Am’s have all the goods they need

Rest of world is impoverished by war & can’t buy products from US

Puitan thrift ethic discourages consumption

US businesses fear another Depression if they can’t sell products, esp. if there is no real difference b/w their products & others

Surveys of people’s buying habits that showed: Marshall Plan to revive Eur. Mkt’s (FC.138)

Consumers often couldn’t distinguish their “favorite” products from others in blind tests

People buy on basis of subconscious fears, prejudices, etc. & unconscious feelings

Marshall Plan to revive Eur. Mkt’s (FC.138)

Madison Ave. hires psych’s who identify & exploit several needs of consumers’ psyches: Conformity

Oral gratification

Security

Use of non-rational techniques (e.g., bright colors & logos) to sell the illusion of: Sex appeal: (e.g., fountain pens w/sleek bodies, beer, cigars, Marlboro cigarettes, cars, & men’s adventure mags) Ego gratification: (e.g., Reassurance of worth: (e.g., Creative outlets: (e.g., vanity presses so authors detergents that give women Instant cake mixes where can see their work in print) status of clean homes) you add the egg & milk)

Emotional security: Immortality:(e.g., Sense of power: Roots & fam. (e.g., freezers that hold insurance policies (e.g., new car every tradition: (e.g., wines more food than people You can take care of 2 yrs to renew just like grandma need or can afford) your fam. after you die) sense of manhood) used to make)

a

FC.142C THE HIDDEN PERSUADERS: A SHORT HISTORY OF ADVERTISING World War II (FC.137) Puitan thrift ethic discourages consumption

US has 60% of world’s ind’sPost-war boom Am’s have all the goods they need

Rest of world is impoverished by war & can’t buy products from US

Puitan thrift ethic discourages consumption

US businesses fear another Depression if they can’t sell products, esp. if there is no real difference b/w their products & others

Surveys of people’s buying habits that showed: Marshall Plan to revive Eur. Mkt’s (FC.138)

Consumers often couldn’t distinguish their “favorite” products from others in blind tests

People buy on basis of subconscious fears, prejudices, etc. & unconscious feelings

Marshall Plan to revive Eur. Mkt’s (FC.138)

Madison Ave. hires psych’s who identify & exploit several needs of consumers’ psyches: Conformity

Oral gratification

Security

Use of non-rational techniques (e.g., bright colors & logos) to sell the illusion of: Sex appeal: (e.g., fountain pens w/sleek bodies, beer, cigars, Marlboro cigarettes, cars, & men’s adventure mags) Ego gratification: (e.g., Reassurance of worth: (e.g., Creative outlets: (e.g., vanity presses so authors detergents that give women Instant cake mixes where can see their work in print) status of clean homes) you add the egg & milk)

Emotional security: Immortality:(e.g., Sense of power: Roots & fam. (e.g., freezers that hold insurance policies (e.g., new car every tradition: (e.g., wines more food than people You can take care of 2 yrs to renew just like grandma need or can afford) your fam. after you die) sense of manhood) used to make)

a

1951

1954

1954

1954

FC.142C THE HIDDEN PERSUADERS: A SHORT HISTORY OF ADVERTISING World War II (FC.137) Puitan thrift ethic discourages consumption

US has 60% of world’s ind’sPost-war boom Am’s have all the goods they need

Rest of world is impoverished by war & can’t buy products from US

Puitan thrift ethic discourages consumption

US businesses fear another Depression if they can’t sell products, esp. if there is no real difference b/w their products & others

Surveys of people’s buying habits that showed: Marshall Plan to revive Eur. Mkt’s (FC.138)

Consumers often couldn’t distinguish their “favorite” products from others in blind tests

People buy on basis of subconscious fears, prejudices, etc. & unconscious feelings

Marshall Plan to revive Eur. Mkt’s (FC.138)

Madison Ave. hires psych’s who identify & exploit several needs of consumers’ psyches: Conformity

Oral gratification

Security

Use of non-rational techniques (e.g., bright colors & logos) to sell the illusion of: Sex appeal: (e.g., fountain pens w/sleek bodies, beer, cigars, Marlboro cigarettes, cars, & men’s adventure mags) Ego gratification: (e.g., Reassurance of worth: (e.g., Creative outlets: (e.g., vanity presses so authors detergents that give women Instant cake mixes where can see their work in print) status of clean homes) you add the egg & milk)

Emotional security: Immortality:(e.g., Sense of power: Roots & fam. (e.g., freezers that hold insurance policies (e.g., new car every tradition: (e.g., wines more food than people You can take care of 2 yrs to renew just like grandma need or can afford) your fam. after you die) sense of manhood) used to make)

a

FC.142C THE HIDDEN PERSUADERS: A SHORT HISTORY OF ADVERTISING World War II (FC.137) Puitan thrift ethic discourages consumption

US has 60% of world’s ind’sPost-war boom Am’s have all the goods they need

Rest of world is impoverished by war & can’t buy products from US

Puitan thrift ethic discourages consumption

US businesses fear another Depression if they can’t sell products, esp. if there is no real difference b/w their products & others

Surveys of people’s buying habits that showed: Marshall Plan to revive Eur. Mkt’s (FC.138)

Consumers often couldn’t distinguish their “favorite” products from others in blind tests

People buy on basis of subconscious fears, prejudices, etc. & unconscious feelings

Marshall Plan to revive Eur. Mkt’s (FC.138)

Madison Ave. hires psych’s who identify & exploit several needs of consumers’ psyches: Conformity

Oral gratification

Security

Use of non-rational techniques (e.g., bright colors & logos) to sell the illusion of: Sex appeal: (e.g., fountain pens w/sleek bodies, beer, cigars, Marlboro cigarettes, cars, & men’s adventure mags) Ego gratification: (e.g., Reassurance of worth: (e.g., Creative outlets: (e.g., vanity presses so authors detergents that give women Instant cake mixes where can see their work in print) status of clean homes) you add the egg & milk)

Emotional security: Immortality:(e.g., Sense of power: Roots & fam. (e.g., freezers that hold insurance policies (e.g., new car every tradition: (e.g., wines more food than people You can take care of 2 yrs to renew just like grandma need or can afford) your fam. after you die) sense of manhood) used to make)

Focus ads on TV which has several advantages: TV ads can reach & influence esp. impressionable children Lifelong customers TV ads go straight into Much harder to ignore TV ads can incessantly repeat homes Consumers can’t visual medium than radio their messageSinks in escape

a

FC.142C THE HIDDEN PERSUADERS: A SHORT HISTORY OF ADVERTISING World War II (FC.137) Puitan thrift ethic discourages consumption

US has 60% of world’s ind’sPost-war boom Am’s have all the goods they need

Rest of world is impoverished by war & can’t buy products from US

Puitan thrift ethic discourages consumption

US businesses fear another Depression if they can’t sell products, esp. if there is no real difference b/w their products & others

Surveys of people’s buying habits that showed: Marshall Plan to revive Eur. Mkt’s (FC.138)

Consumers often couldn’t distinguish their “favorite” products from others in blind tests

People buy on basis of subconscious fears, prejudices, etc. & unconscious feelings

Marshall Plan to revive Eur. Mkt’s (FC.138)

Madison Ave. hires psych’s who identify & exploit several needs of consumers’ psyches: Conformity

Oral gratification

Security

Use of non-rational techniques (e.g., bright colors & logos) to sell the illusion of: Sex appeal: (e.g., fountain pens w/sleek bodies, beer, cigars, Marlboro cigarettes, cars, & men’s adventure mags) Ego gratification: (e.g., Reassurance of worth: (e.g., Creative outlets: (e.g., vanity presses so authors detergents that give women Instant cake mixes where can see their work in print) status of clean homes) you add the egg & milk)

Emotional security: Immortality:(e.g., Sense of power: Roots & fam. (e.g., freezers that hold insurance policies (e.g., new car every tradition: (e.g., wines more food than people You can take care of 2 yrs to renew just like grandma need or can afford) your fam. after you die) sense of manhood) used to make)

Focus ads on TV which has several advantages: TV ads can reach & influence esp. impressionable children Lifelong customers TV ads go straight into Much harder to ignore TV ads can incessantly repeat homes Consumers can’t visual medium than radio their messageSinks in escape

a

FC.142C THE HIDDEN PERSUADERS: A SHORT HISTORY OF ADVERTISING World War II (FC.137) Puitan thrift ethic discourages consumption

US has 60% of world’s ind’sPost-war boom Am’s have all the goods they need

Rest of world is impoverished by war & can’t buy products from US

Puitan thrift ethic discourages consumption

US businesses fear another Depression if they can’t sell products, esp. if there is no real difference b/w their products & others

Surveys of people’s buying habits that showed: Marshall Plan to revive Eur. Mkt’s (FC.138)

Consumers often couldn’t distinguish their “favorite” products from others in blind tests

People buy on basis of subconscious fears, prejudices, etc. & unconscious feelings

Marshall Plan to revive Eur. Mkt’s (FC.138)

Madison Ave. hires psych’s who identify & exploit several needs of consumers’ psyches: Conformity

Oral gratification

Security

Use of non-rational techniques (e.g., bright colors & logos) to sell the illusion of: Sex appeal: (e.g., fountain pens w/sleek bodies, beer, cigars, Marlboro cigarettes, cars, & men’s adventure mags) Ego gratification: (e.g., Reassurance of worth: (e.g., Creative outlets: (e.g., vanity presses so authors detergents that give women Instant cake mixes where can see their work in print) status of clean homes) you add the egg & milk)

Emotional security: Immortality:(e.g., Sense of power: Roots & fam. (e.g., freezers that hold insurance policies (e.g., new car every tradition: (e.g., wines more food than people You can take care of 2 yrs to renew just like grandma need or can afford) your fam. after you die) sense of manhood) used to make)

Focus ads on TV which has several advantages: TV ads can reach & influence esp. impressionable children Lifelong customers TV ads go straight into Much harder to ignore TV ads can incessantly repeat homes Consumers can’t visual medium than radio their messageSinks in escape

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FC.142C THE HIDDEN PERSUADERS: A SHORT HISTORY OF ADVERTISING World War II (FC.137) Puitan thrift ethic discourages consumption

US has 60% of world’s ind’sPost-war boom Am’s have all the goods they need

Rest of world is impoverished by war & can’t buy products from US

Puitan thrift ethic discourages consumption

US businesses fear another Depression if they can’t sell products, esp. if there is no real difference b/w their products & others

Surveys of people’s buying habits that showed: Marshall Plan to revive Eur. Mkt’s (FC.138)

Consumers often couldn’t distinguish their “favorite” products from others in blind tests

People buy on basis of subconscious fears, prejudices, etc. & unconscious feelings

Marshall Plan to revive Eur. Mkt’s (FC.138)

Madison Ave. hires psych’s who identify & exploit several needs of consumers’ psyches: Conformity

Oral gratification

Security

Use of non-rational techniques (e.g., bright colors & logos) to sell the illusion of: Sex appeal: (e.g., fountain pens w/sleek bodies, beer, cigars, Marlboro cigarettes, cars, & men’s adventure mags) Ego gratification: (e.g., Reassurance of worth: (e.g., Creative outlets: (e.g., vanity presses so authors detergents that give women Instant cake mixes where can see their work in print) status of clean homes) you add the egg & milk)

Emotional security: Immortality:(e.g., Sense of power: Roots & fam. (e.g., freezers that hold insurance policies (e.g., new car every tradition: (e.g., wines more food than people You can take care of 2 yrs to renew just like grandma need or can afford) your fam. after you die) sense of manhood) used to make)

Focus ads on TV which has several advantages: TV ads can reach & influence esp. impressionable children Lifelong customers TV ads go straight into Much harder to ignore TV ads can incessantly repeat homes Consumers can’t visual medium than radio their messageSinks in escape

a

FC.142C THE HIDDEN PERSUADERS: A SHORT HISTORY OF ADVERTISING World War II (FC.137) Puitan thrift ethic discourages consumption

US has 60% of world’s ind’sPost-war boom Am’s have all the goods they need

Rest of world is impoverished by war & can’t buy products from US

Puitan thrift ethic discourages consumption

US businesses fear another Depression if they can’t sell products, esp. if there is no real difference b/w their products & others

Surveys of people’s buying habits that showed: Marshall Plan to revive Eur. Mkt’s (FC.138)

Consumers often couldn’t distinguish their “favorite” products from others in blind tests

People buy on basis of subconscious fears, prejudices, etc. & unconscious feelings

Marshall Plan to revive Eur. Mkt’s (FC.138)

Madison Ave. hires psych’s who identify & exploit several needs of consumers’ psyches: Conformity

Oral gratification

Security

Use of non-rational techniques (e.g., bright colors & logos) to sell the illusion of: Sex appeal: (e.g., fountain pens w/sleek bodies, beer, cigars, Marlboro cigarettes, cars, & men’s adventure mags) Ego gratification: (e.g., Reassurance of worth: (e.g., Creative outlets: (e.g., vanity presses so authors detergents that give women Instant cake mixes where can see their work in print) status of clean homes) you add the egg & milk)

Emotional security: Immortality:(e.g., Sense of power: Roots & fam. (e.g., freezers that hold insurance policies (e.g., new car every tradition: (e.g., wines more food than people You can take care of 2 yrs to renew just like grandma need or can afford) your fam. after you die) sense of manhood) used to make)

Focus ads on TV which has several advantages: TV ads can reach & influence esp. impressionable children Lifelong customers TV ads go straight into homes Much harder to ignore TV ads can incessantly repeat Consumers can’t escape visual medium than radio their messageSinks in

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Rosser Reeves, one of the fathers of modern advertising and creator of the Anacin commercials, one of the most hated (and successful) ad campaigns in history

“Melts in your mouth, not in your hands”

Before the 1950s, ads for women’s undergarments were found mainly in Sears catalogs until…

One of the most successful ad campaigns was a series for Maidenform bras where a woman claimed to have dreamed being in all sorts of unique or exotic situations wearing nothing above the waist except her Maidenform bra. In the TV version of the ad on the right, the woman exclaimed: “What a construction job!”

As baby-boomers grew up, got married, and/or had kids, advertisers realized the need to pitch their products to a new younger generation that could be hooked for life on their products. One of the first of these was MacDonalds with its Happy Meals.

To ensure we all grow up to be good responsible shoppers, companies like Milton Bradley put out games like Park & Shop to teach us how to spend real money once we get some.

Games like this were designed to make sure we all were good “patriotic” consumers.

In 1941, there were 8,000 TVs in US; half of them in New York City Ad agencies saw TV as just an extension of radio & treated TV ads as radio ads, just with a picture. Therefore, on July 1, 1941, when the first TV commercial aired on WNBT (NBC) in NYC for Bullova, the camera focused on a watch & said “It’s three o’clock, Bulova Watch time.” This was already a standard ad on radio. The ad agency, Biow Company, charged Bulova $9 for the ad: $5 for TV time & $4 for “station charges.

Just like the internet in the 1990s, no one knew how much of a future TV would have. Who would buy them with nothing to watch and who would broadcast shows without anyone owning TVs The first big market for TVs was taverns because sports events would pack in customers. Therefore, beer, cigarettes, cars & Gillette razors were the main sponsors. On June,1946, Gillette & NBC televised the Joe Louis-Billy Conn fight. Louis won. So did Gillette with an audience of 150,000. In 1947, Ford & Gillette sponsored the 1st game of the World Series, making Gillette’s Sharpie, ( an animated parrot) & jingle (“Look sharp, be sharp”) fixtures on TV for years.

In the late 1940s, TV set sales skyrocketed. People seemed mesmerized & would seemingly watch anything: Roller Derby, wrestling, harness racing, amateur shows, really bad B movies, anything.

YOU’RE TOO FAT! A brief history of Madison Avenue’s campaign to make us feel insecure about our bodies

As we got richer and more sedentary, the only thing that seemed to keep moving was the size of our waistlines. Even before World War II advertisers played up our insecurities about our weight with advertising campaigns for medications that would effortlessly dissolve the fat.

At first, these ads were discretely placed in medical journals, encouraging doctors to prescribe these drugs, which often had powerful side effects, in particular affecting patients’ moods. But that’s OK, because there were drugs for that too.

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Gradually, food companies joined the bandwagon by touting their products as promoting weight loss. Such ads at first discretely mimicked the ads in medical journals touting powerful drug remedies.

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“MOTHER’S LITTLE HELPERS”

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