ALBTURIST - Association for Development of Cultural Tourism, the

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The 1th International Conference for Graduate Research in Tourism, Hospitality and Leisure 1 October 2010 -Shkoder, Albania

“PEEPING” TOURIST A CASE STUDY OF diffuso. THE UNIQUE STATE TOURIST Albergo AGENCY IN ALBANIA Developing tourism through innovation and tradition. ALBTURIST The case of Albania BRUNILDA LIҪAJ - Candidate PhD “A. Moisiu” University - Durres, Albania ARMADA MOLLA - MSs Chairwoman – ADCT Association for Brunilda DevelopmentLiçaj of Cultural Tourism, Tirana Albania

Lecturer “ A.Moisiu” University of Durrës

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES  To analyze the development of the Albanian tourism under State Agency called ALBTURIST (1956-1990)  To make present the role of Albturist “promoting” the Albanian tourism  To enlight the role of Albturist in surveillance of tourists METHODOLOGY - Research and analysis Resources:  Original records from the Albanian State Archives

 Articles published both in Albanian and foreign press of that period  Memories of former employees of this agency KEYWORDS: tourism, communism period, promotion, tourist survey, intelligence

surveillance 2 This information is confidential and iswas prepared bywas Bain & Company for the usefor of the ouruse client; is notitto on byonany 3rd3rd party without writtenconsent. consent. This information confidential and prepared by Bainsolely & Company solely of ourit client; is be not relied to be relied by any party withoutBain's Bain's prior prior written

TABLES OF CONTENTS

1.

INTRODUCTION

2. THE ALBANIAN TOURISM DURING THE COMMUNIST ERA

3. THE STATE TOURISM ENTERPRISE “ALBTURIST”

4. “PEEPING TOURIST”

5. CONCLUSION

6. BIBLIOGRAPHY 3 This information is confidential and iswas prepared bywas Bain & Company for the usefor of the ouruse client; is notitto on byonany 3rd3rd party without writtenconsent. consent. This information confidential and prepared by Bainsolely & Company solely of ourit client; is be not relied to be relied by any party withoutBain's Bain's prior prior written

INTRODUCTION –KEY FACT-1



The tourism sector in Albania experienced a late development ;



The earliest investments through the beginning of 20th century;



1928 King Zog speaks about the improvements that he wanted to do in order to attract tourists;



1933 founded “The Tourism and

Albanian automotive Club”; 

1939 The first Albanian Guide in Italian Language ;

First edition of “Guida dell’Albania” Touring Club Italiano 1939

4 This information is confidential and iswas prepared bywas Bain & Company for the usefor of the ouruse client; is notitto on byonany 3rd3rd party without writtenconsent. consent. This information confidential and prepared by Bainsolely & Company solely of ourit client; is be not relied to be relied by any party withoutBain's Bain's prior prior written

INTRODUCTION –KEY FACT- 2

The touristic Albanian property layout consist off: 

8 Historical centers,

 75 town,  115 religion cults (Churches, Monasteries, Mosque, hundred bridges)etc

Source: VLORA. K. A.(1979) La nuova Albania 5 This information is confidential and iswas prepared bywas Bain & Company for the usefor of the ouruse client; is notitto on byonany 3rd3rd party without writtenconsent. consent. This information confidential and prepared by Bainsolely & Company solely of ourit client; is be not relied to be relied by any party withoutBain's Bain's prior prior written

GRAND HOTEL ELBASAN ‘30

6 This information is confidential and iswas prepared bywas Bain & Company for the usefor of the ouruse client; is notitto on byonany 3rd3rd party without writtenconsent. consent. This information confidential and prepared by Bainsolely & Company solely of ourit client; is be not relied to be relied by any party withoutBain's Bain's prior prior written

ABANIAN TOURISTIC ASSETS & INFRASTRUCTURE

Kulla e Sahatit Tirana Clock Tower 1822

Xhamia e Haxhi Ethem Beut' E’Them Bey Mosque 1794-1821 (building period)

The famous Kafja e Madhe The Grand Café Or Grand Hotel SAVOIA Shkodra Source : Albanian State’s Archive 7 This information is confidential and iswas prepared bywas Bain & Company for the usefor of the ouruse client; is notitto on byonany 3rd3rd party without writtenconsent. consent. This information confidential and prepared by Bainsolely & Company solely of ourit client; is be not relied to be relied by any party withoutBain's Bain's prior prior written

ALBANIAN TOURISM 1945-1990

The services have influence in the distribution of prosperity, but they do not have influence in GDP configuration

Government was the only authority of tourism monopoly

Based its policy on the ideology of Karl Marx's theory Marginal role in the economy

8 This information is confidential and iswas prepared bywas Bain & Company for the usefor of the ouruse client; is notitto on byonany 3rd3rd party without writtenconsent. consent. This information confidential and prepared by Bainsolely & Company solely of ourit client; is be not relied to be relied by any party withoutBain's Bain's prior prior written

ALBANIAN TOURISM DURING THE COMMUNIST ERA

Table 1: The distribution of the balneary center in national level

Communist ideology: 

Private property was totally abolished;



Socialist property of two typically forms; 

the state property



the cooperatives

Years

1970

1975

1980

1987

Balneary center

6

6

6

6

405

640

700

640

Beds

Vacantioner 6.871

8.666

11.759 13.523

Source: ISTAT Albania

9 This information is confidential and iswas prepared bywas Bain & Company for the usefor of the ouruse client; is notitto on byonany 3rd3rd party without writtenconsent. consent. This information confidential and prepared by Bainsolely & Company solely of ourit client; is be not relied to be relied by any party withoutBain's Bain's prior prior written

THE TOURISTIC PRODUCTS DURING THE COMMUNIST REGIME (1945-1990)

Massive tourism

The Tourism of Events

The private Tourism

Medical Tourism

Albturist

Tourism in holiday villages

Tourism in the government holidays centers

10 This information is confidential and iswas prepared bywas Bain & Company for the usefor of the ouruse client; is notitto on byonany 3rd3rd party without writtenconsent. consent. This information confidential and prepared by Bainsolely & Company solely of ourit client; is be not relied to be relied by any party withoutBain's Bain's prior prior written

STATE TOURISM ENTREPRISE- ALBTURIST

ALBTURIST: Founded 1956 Specific condition:  Alliances between the socialist camp countries;  KNER (Council of Mutual Emergency Aid) meeting held in 1956) “Albania should be the touristic destination for the KNER's countries”

11 This information is confidential and iswas prepared bywas Bain & Company for the usefor of the ouruse client; is notitto on byonany 3rd3rd party without writtenconsent. consent. This information confidential and prepared by Bainsolely & Company solely of ourit client; is be not relied to be relied by any party withoutBain's Bain's prior prior written

ALBTURIST ACTIVITIES

Main directions

Network Of Hotel Tourism

Bus network Albturist “Promotion” of Tourism as Demagogy

12 This information is confidential and iswas prepared bywas Bain & Company for the usefor of the ouruse client; is notitto on byonany 3rd3rd party without writtenconsent. consent. This information confidential and prepared by Bainsolely & Company solely of ourit client; is be not relied to be relied by any party withoutBain's Bain's prior prior written

ALBTURIST TOURISM HOTEL AND STATISTICS

ALBTURIST HOTEL Table 2: The foreign tourists in Albania recorded in several years Source: ISTAT Albania

Years

Nr. of tourist

Presents

Over night

Income ($)

1956

280

3.612

12.09

23.000

1960

6065

85.516

14.01

409.000

1970

3.531

19.985

7.09

380.000

1980

3.748

39.491

10.05

1.475.000

1. Hotel Vollga Durres ( 1938) 2. Hotel Dajti Tirane ( 1939-1943) Capacity 98 luxury room 3. King Zog's summer residence 4. Hotel Adriatic (1958) 54 rooms (3 suites and 51 double rooms) 5. Hotel Apollonia ((1961-1962) 6. Hotel Kruja (1961-1962) 7. Hotel Durresi (1961-1962) 8. Hotel Gjirokastra ( 1963) 9. Hotel Fieri (1965) 10. Hotel Vlora, 11. Hotel Korca 12. Hotel Shkodra, 13. Hotel Saranda 14. Hotel Drini etc.,

13 This information is confidential and iswas prepared bywas Bain & Company for the usefor of the ouruse client; is notitto on byonany 3rd3rd party without writtenconsent. consent. This information confidential and prepared by Bainsolely & Company solely of ourit client; is be not relied to be relied by any party withoutBain's Bain's prior prior written

FOREIGN VISITOR ORIGINE

The role of ALBTURIST

Before 1961

change when it starts to organize

National Folk Festivals

Soviet Union

Czech Comunist block

1961-1980

France

China Austria Italy, Sweden 14 This information is confidential and iswas prepared bywas Bain & Company for the usefor of the ouruse client; is notitto on byonany 3rd3rd party without writtenconsent. consent. This information confidential and prepared by Bainsolely & Company solely of ourit client; is be not relied to be relied by any party withoutBain's Bain's prior prior written

AEROPORT : ONLY ENTRANCE

Aircraft companies

 JAT

 Malev Interflug Swiss Air (1968 )Tirana to Zurich Lufthansa 1987

E. Hoxha: Chez nous le tourisme n'est pas une industrie ni un moyen de corruption et de vagabondage.

“the man bearded travelers were shave off and cut the long hairs, while

Statistics 1960-1990 The Albanian Tourism Statistics shown a law scale of tourism industry development which range to 1.6% of the tourism industry developed in the Albanian’ neighbors Greece or Yugoslavia

dressed on western

the female tourists

miniscirts and long trausers ala-

style

replaced

with

local

dress

produced in the country, before they cross the borders”

Source: The memories of a German journalist: “Der Spiegel” 30.06.1975

15

This information is confidential and iswas prepared bywas Bain & Company for the usefor of the ouruse client; is notitto on byonany 3rd3rd party without writtenconsent. consent. This information confidential and prepared by Bainsolely & Company solely of ourit client; is be not relied to be relied by any party withoutBain's Bain's prior prior written

TOURISTIC PROPAGANDA OF ALBTURIST propaganda

HOTEL ALBTURIST PROMOTION’S LEAFLETS

BROCHURES

• Albanie Pays de Tourism (Albturist 1958) • Guide d'Albanie (avec un petit Manuel de conversation) Albturist, 1958 • Albanien. A Handbook for New vanner, vetgiriga Stockholm 1976 • pocket-size Tourist guide book was published in the late 1960 (Albturist, 1969) Even this.... Hall described the role of Albturist:

'the tourist finds his/her role

becoming one of passive sponge' Source : Archiva of States

16

This information is confidential and iswas prepared bywas Bain & Company for the usefor of the ouruse client; is notitto on byonany 3rd3rd party without writtenconsent. consent. This information confidential and prepared by Bainsolely & Company solely of ourit client; is be not relied to be relied by any party withoutBain's Bain's prior prior written

PEEPING TOURIST

17 This information is confidential and iswas prepared bywas Bain & Company for the usefor of the ouruse client; is notitto on byonany 3rd3rd party without writtenconsent. consent. This information confidential and prepared by Bainsolely & Company solely of ourit client; is be not relied to be relied by any party withoutBain's Bain's prior prior written

TOURIST FACTS

1.

Entry visa system in Albania was very tight

2. People from Israel, USA, and South Africa were not allowed 3. Visitors should follow the rules in terms of behavior and way of dressing 4. Not allowed for religious materials or other materials against the ideology of the state

5. Not allowed cameras and photographic equipments 6. Tourist group no more than 30 person, organised with bus 7. Tourism in Albania developed just after the Enver Hoxha’s death (1985)

18 This information is confidential and iswas prepared bywas Bain & Company for the usefor of the ouruse client; is notitto on byonany 3rd3rd party without writtenconsent. consent. This information confidential and prepared by Bainsolely & Company solely of ourit client; is be not relied to be relied by any party withoutBain's Bain's prior prior written

GUIDES AND MAGAZINES dedicated ALBANIA

Dutch Magazine: International Times 1979

ALBANIE Emanuel ZAKHOS Petite Planète

19 This information is confidential and iswas prepared bywas Bain & Company for the usefor of the ouruse client; is notitto on byonany 3rd3rd party without writtenconsent. consent. This information confidential and prepared by Bainsolely & Company solely of ourit client; is be not relied to be relied by any party withoutBain's Bain's prior prior written

TOURISTS ‘ REAMRKS

Albturist have shiny and new coaches for trucking visitors around… …You feel embarrassingly flash and it's like being in a fish tank being peered at like human UFOs, even though you're wearing your drabbest gear. …You're not allowed to take local buses or go off alone anywhere.

The hotels, mainly- Russian built, are huge with vast ' dining halls with pillars, chandeliers, drapes and marble floors

Source: The memories of a German journalist: “Der Spiegel” 30.06.1975 20

This information is confidential and iswas prepared bywas Bain & Company for the usefor of the ouruse client; is notitto on byonany 3rd3rd party without writtenconsent. consent. This information confidential and prepared by Bainsolely & Company solely of ourit client; is be not relied to be relied by any party withoutBain's Bain's prior prior written

INSTEAD OF RESORTS.... “MUSHROOMS” 750.000 bunkers were build in Albanian

21 This information is confidential and iswas prepared bywas Bain & Company for the usefor of the ouruse client; is notitto on byonany 3rd3rd party without writtenconsent. consent. This information confidential and prepared by Bainsolely & Company solely of ourit client; is be not relied to be relied by any party withoutBain's Bain's prior prior written

MEDIA AND ART in the FUNCTION OF PROPAGANDA

Albanian Filmic fragments show the state security activities towards the foreign touris (“Peeping tourist”)

An extremely sophisticated surveillance of the foreign visitors “the rhetoric of xenophobia of the Albanian state” in the name of safety of the host population and foreign guest.

Albania was the 1st place in East Europe statistics for the usage of the slogans along its roads, whose traces are still alive and inevitable

22

This information is confidential and iswas prepared bywas Bain & Company for the usefor of the ouruse client; is notitto on byonany 3rd3rd party without writtenconsent. consent. This information confidential and prepared by Bainsolely & Company solely of ourit client; is be not relied to be relied by any party withoutBain's Bain's prior prior written

CONCLUSIONS

1. The fewer interest of the Albanian Communist Government in development of the Albanian tourism was as the result of "isolation policy” of the regime. 2. The need for foreign currency as the result of trade import & export led the government to give more attention to the Tourism industry as the only foreign currency resource. 3. The Tourism role change in the late '80 4. The final countdown begun as the tourists interest to Albania grow up immediately. 5. Actually, The Albanian tourism has the helmsman status of the Albanian economy

23 This information is confidential and iswas prepared bywas Bain & Company for the usefor of the ouruse client; is notitto on byonany 3rd3rd party without writtenconsent. consent. This information confidential and prepared by Bainsolely & Company solely of ourit client; is be not relied to be relied by any party withoutBain's Bain's prior prior written

The promise future of the Albanian Tourism

Albania easy to get in, hard to get out

24 This information is confidential and iswas prepared bywas Bain & Company for the usefor of the ouruse client; is notitto on byonany 3rd3rd party without writtenconsent. consent. This information confidential and prepared by Bainsolely & Company solely of ourit client; is be not relied to be relied by any party withoutBain's Bain's prior prior written

REFERENCES

Albania Moving Along, But Slowly, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty,Report on Eastern Europe, 2, No. 1, January 5, 1990. Anamali,S and Adhami,S.(1974Mosaiques de l’Albanie. Tirana:8 Nentori. Collombon, J.M (2001) Le tourism solidaire en zones rurales du sud de l’Albanie. Technical report. Ducellier, A.(1981) La facada marittime de L'Albanie au Moyen Age.Insitute for Balkan Studies:Thessaloniques Economist (1977) “Hoxha's happy land “Economist 263, 14 May 54–7 Economist (1978) “Tales from Albania's beaches” Economist 266, 4 March 50 Freedman, Robert Owen.(1970) Economic Warfare in the Communist Bloc: A Study of Soviet Economic Pressure Against Yugoslavia, Albania, and Communist China. New York: Praeger, Hall, D.R. (1994) Albania and the Albanians, Pinter: London Hall, D.R. (1990) Stalinism and tourism: a study of Albania and North Korea .Annals of Tourism Research 1, 36–54 Hall, Dr. (1984) Foreign tourism under socialism: the Albanian “Stalinist” model. Annals of Tourism Research 11 Jenkins,L.(1976) Albania the land of eagles. Port Talbot Guardian: 13April. Karin, T (2011). From trips to modernity to holidays in nostalgia: tourism history in eastern and southeastern Europe.Tension of Europe/ Inventing Europe: Working paper WP_2011 Kaser, M. Albania under and after Enver Hoxha. Joint Economic: United States Congress, 99th, 2d Session,1-21 Marmullaku, R.(1975) Albania and the Albanians” Hamden, New York: Archon Books P. Sandstorm and O. Sjoberg (1991) Albanian economic performance: Stagnation in the 1980. Soviet Studies, 43(5):931 947 Panarity.M.(1957) Albania: The Rock Garden of Southeastern Europe and Other Essays. Boston: Pan-Albanian Federation of America Salmon, S.( 2006) Marketing socialism: Inturist in the late 1950s and early 1960s in Gorsuch A E and Koenker D P Turizm: the Russian and East European tourist under capitalism and socialism Cornell University Press, Ithaca NY 186– 204 Skendi, S (1956) Albania. New York: Praeger.

25 This information is confidential and iswas prepared bywas Bain & Company for the usefor of the ouruse client; is notitto on byonany 3rd3rd party without writtenconsent. consent. This information confidential and prepared by Bainsolely & Company solely of ourit client; is be not relied to be relied by any party withoutBain's Bain's prior prior written

Brunilda LICAJ “A.Moisiu” University Durrës [email protected]

ARMADA MOLLA ADCT (Association for Development of Cultural Tourism) [email protected]

26 This information is confidential and iswas prepared bywas Bain & Company for the usefor of the ouruse client; is notitto on byonany 3rd3rd party without writtenconsent. consent. This information confidential and prepared by Bainsolely & Company solely of ourit client; is be not relied to be relied by any party withoutBain's Bain's prior prior written

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