Analysis of USA Swimming`s All-Time Top 100 Times

January 13, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Science, Health Science, Pediatrics
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Long-Term Training in Swimming

Genadijus Sokolovas, Ph.D., Senior Physiologist Global Sport Technology, Inc, www.globsport.org

Top-100 Study  The purpose of this study was to investigate the performances of elite level swimmers based on the USA Swimming’s All-Time Top 100 times.

 May early high-level performances limit a swimmer’s progression later in his/her career?

Methods  Analysis of USA Swimming’s All-Time Top 100 age group times by girls and boys.  Five age groups: 10-under, 11-12, 13-14, 15-16, and 17-18.  Swimming events: 100, 200, and 500 freestyle; 100 and 200 backstroke; 100 and 200 breaststroke; 100 and 200 butterfly; and the 200 individual medley.  Calculating the percent of participation.

Participation at USA All-Time Top 100 in All Events at Age 17-18 (Females) Top 100

10.3%

Age 10 & under Top 100

20.3%

Top 100

Age 11-12 Top 100

36.9%

Age 13-14

49.7% Top 100 Age 15-16

Age 17-18

Participation for USA All-Time Top 100 in 100 Freestyle at Age 17-18 (Males) Top 100

13.2%

Age 10 & under Top 100

12.6%

Top 100

Age 11-12 Top 100

31.1%

Age 13-14

53.5% Top 100 Age 15-16

Age 17-18

Freestyle Events for Girls

Backstroke and Breaststroke Events for Girls

Age 15-16 vs 17-18  There is still a low number of elite swimmers at age 15-16 for girls and boys.  About half of the elite swimmers in the Top 100 at age 17-18 were new swimmers who were never ranked in the Top 100 at any age.

 This statistics shows that most of the future elite swimmers swim under Top 100 times until age 15-16.

Females vs Males  There is a small difference between elite female and male freestyle swimmers at age 11-12 and 13-14, where it appears that higher numbers of female freestylers were ranked in the Top 100.  Higher numbers for females may be related to earlier biological maturation in girls.

Selection of Main Event by Females  51.6% of elite female swimmers are listed in other events at age 10 and under.  This number decreases with age and reaches 37.9%, 26.6% and 24.9% at age 11-12, 13-14 and 15-16, respectively.

 Most of elite female swimmers select their event at age 13-14.

Selection of Main Event by Males  69.6% of elite male swimmers are listed in other events at age 10 and under.  This number decreases with age and reaches 55.6%, 40.8% and 26.7% at age 11-12, 13-14 and 15-16, respectively.  The elite male swimmers select their events at age 15-16 or about 2 years later than elite female swimmers.

Conclusion 1

 A small number of elite swimmers from the Top 100 at age 17-18 were ranked in the Top 100 at a younger age. Typically, a little over 10 % were ranked as a 10-under, less than 20% as a 11-12 year old, a little over 30% as a 13-14 year old, and about 50% as a 15-16 year old.

Conclusion 2

 The analysis shows that most of elite level swimmers were unknown at young ages. About a half of elite swimmers at Top 100 at age 17-18 are new swimmers, which never were listed at Top 100 at any age. Most of future elite swimmers swim slower than age group champions, especially at ages until 15-16 years.

Conclusion 3

 Many participants ranked in the Top 100 as age groupers are not present in the Top 100 as they become an elite swimmer in the 1718 age group. It may be related to their early biological maturation and/or a high training volume and intensities at a young age.

Conclusion 4

 Elite level swimmers change their events during long-term training. Elite female swimmers tend to change their events until the age of 13-14. Elite male swimmers tend to change their events until the age of 1516.

What is the Goal in Career Training? Best performance: - 10 & under? - 11-12? - 13-14? - 15-16? - 17-18? - at the age of peak performance potential! 16

Average Age of Ten Best Swimmers in History (Freestyle) Event

Men (years)

Women (years)

50 FR

24.8 ± 2.7

25.3 ± 7.0

100 FR

25.3 ± 3.7

24.6 ± 6.7

200 FR

22.6 ± 2.1

20.8 ± 2.4

400 FR

22.1 ± 2.4

20.0 ± 2.1

1500/800 FR

21.3 ± 2.0

20.1 ± 2.6

17

Average Age of Ten Best Swimmers in History (Backstroke & Breaststroke) Event

Men (years)

Women (years)

100 BK

23.9 ± 1.7

21.9 ± 3.6

200 BK

23.1 ± 2.2

20.8 ± 3.7

100 BR

25.4 ± 2.5

21.3 ± 3.9

200 BR

23.6 ± 2.6

21.5 ± 3.3

BACKSTROKE

BREASTSTROKE

18

Average Age of Ten Best Swimmers in History (Butterfly & IM) Event

Men (years)

Women (years)

100 FL

24.8 ± 3.0

25.1 ± 4.4

200 FL

23.5 ± 1.6

22.4 ± 4.6

200 IM

23.2 ± 1.1

20.5 ± 2.9

400 IM

22.9 ± 2.3

19.6 ± 2.7

FLY

IM

19

Average Age of Ten Best Swimmers in History (Male, Free) 26.0

25.0

50 FR 100 FR

24.0

200 FR 23.0

400 FR

1500 FR

22.0

21.0

20.0 2000

2005

2008

Average Age of Ten Best Swimmers in History (Female, Free) 27.0

25.0

50 FR 100 FR

23.0

200 FR 21.0

400 FR 800 FR

19.0

17.0

15.0 2000

2005

2008

Swimming Performance Progression 2

V (m /s)

1.8

1.6

10 best swimmers 1.4

Elite level swimmer 1 1.2

Elite level swimmer 2

1 9

11

13

15

17

19

21

23

Age (years)

22

Swimming Performance Progression in Career Training PERFORMANCE PROGRESSION FOR 100 FREE MEN (LC)

1:11.20 01:12

Elite level swimmer A Elite level swimmer B Elite level swimmer C

01:07 1:00.13

TIME

01:03

0:57.30 0:55.55 0:54.63 0:53.40 0:52.15 0:49.73

00:59 00:54 00:50

0:48.93 0:49.18 0:49.02

00:46 11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

YEARS

23

Swimming Performance Progression in Career Training  Peak Performance / Performance at age 11  For Females – 0.71-0.89 (71-89%)

 For Males – 0.61-0.79 (61-79%)

24

Swimming Performance Progression in Career Training WINDOWS FOR PERFORMANCE PROGRESSION

Lower level

Time at age 11

Upper level

TIME

Ratios: Male - 0.61-0.79 (61-79%) Female - 0.71-0.89 (71-89%)

11

12

13

14

15

16

17 YEARS

18

19

20

21

22

23

Peak performance time 25

Optimal Swimming Performance Progression WINDOWS FOR 100 FREE MEN (LC) 01:19

1:19.90

01:15 1:10.65 01:11

Lower level 1:04.67

TIME

01:07

1:00.41

01:02 1:01.70 00:58

0:57.31 0:54.99

0:58.99

0:53.23

0:56.85

00:54

0:51.87

0:55.13 0:53.72

00:49

0:52.57

0:51.62

Upper level

0:50.80

0:50.83 0:50.16

0:49.95 0:49.28

0:48.74

0:49.61 0:49.14

0:48.74

00:45 11

12

13

14

15

16 17 YEARS

18

19

20

21

22

26

Optimal Swimming Performance Progression WINDOWS FOR 100 FREE MEN (LC)

1:19.90

01:19 01:15

Lower level

1:10.65

01:11

Upper level

1:04.67

TIME

01:07

1:00.41

Sub-elite level swimmer

01:02 1:01.70

00:58

0:57.31 0:58.99

0:54.99 0:53.23

0:56.85

00:54

0:51.87

0:55.13 0:53.72

0:52.57

00:49

0:51.62

0:50.80

0:50.83 0:50.16

0:49.95

0:49.28 0:48.74

0:49.61 0:49.14 0:48.74

00:45 11

12

13

14

15

16

17

YEARS

18

19

20

21

22

27

Optimal Swimming Performance Progression 01:20

WINDOWS FOR 100 FREE MEN (LC)

1:19.90

01:16

TIME

01:07

Upper level

1:04.67

Elite level swimmer

1:00.41

01:03 00:59

Lower level

1:10.65

01:12

1:01.70

0:57.31 0:54.99

0:58.99

0:53.23

0:56.85

00:54

0:51.87

0:55.13 0:53.72

00:50

0:52.57

0:51.62

00:46 11

12

13

14

15

16

17

0:50.80

0:49.95 0:49.28 0:48.74

0:50.83 0:50.16 0:49.61 0:49.14 0:48.74

18

19

20

21

22

YEARS

28

Performance Progression Model DATE

CURRENT PERFORMANCE NAME LAST NAME AGE GENDER M STROKE Free DISTANCE TIME, Sec.

11

100 79

GOAL AGE TIME

Age 11

Optimal Progression, Sec. 79.00

Time, Min., Sec. 1:19

12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

70.16 64.34 60.29 57.37 55.21 53.58 52.33 51.36 50.60

1:10.16 1:4.34 1:0.29 0:57.37 0:55.21 0:53.58 0:52.33 0:51.36 0:50.6

65.91 61.70 58.62 56.30 54.53 53.16 52.08 51.23 50.55

74.09 66.66 61.71 58.25 55.75 53.91 52.51 51.45 50.64

21

50.00

0:50

50.00

50.00

Upper Level Lower Level 71.89 86.11

21 50

29

Performance Progression Model Forecast of performances progression in career training Optimal Progression, Sec. Upper Level

85.00

79.00

80.00

Lower Level Time

75.00

70.16

70.00

64.34 60.29

65.00

57.37

60.00

55.21

55.00

53.58

52.33 51.36

50.6050.00

50.00 10

12

14

16

18

20

Years

30

Duration of Career Training Age at Peak Performances

Age at the Beginning of Career Training

Maintenance of High Performances

“Time Reserve” to prepare each swimmer to achieve their individual maximum potential

31

Duration of Career Training  Age at the Beginning of Career Training

 Age at Peak Performance

 6-8 years

 18-25 years depending on gender, distance orientation and rate of individual maturation

“Time Reserve” - 10-19 years!!!

“Time Reserve” for Men (Freestyle) Years 1

3

5

7

9

11

13

15

16.8

50 m Free

17.3

100 m Free

14.6

200 m Free

400 m Free

1500 m Free

17

14.1

13.3

33

“Time Reserve” for Women (Freestyle) Years 1

3

5

7

9

11

13

50 m Free

15

17

17.3

100 m Free

16.6

200 m Free

12.8

400 m Free

12

800 m Free

12.1

34

Stages of Biological Maturation  Early Childhood and Prepuberty – Girls - until 11 years, Boys - until 12 years

 Puberty – Girls - 11-14 years, Boys - 12-15 years

 Postpuberty – Girls - after 15 years, Boys - after 16 years

35

EARLY CHILDHOOD  Age 4-6: – Kids don’t have good postural and balance skills – Very short attention spans – Imprecise eye movement – There is no advantage to begin swimming at this age

CHILDHOOD  Age 6-9: – Improved postural and balance skills – Good age to begin organized swimming practices – Longer attention spans, but still isn’t long enough to focus on long explanation – More precise eye movement – Simple swimming drills – Difficulty to accomplish complex skills

PREPUBERTY  Age 10-12:  Good postural and balance skills  Growth in extremities and long bones  Maturational differences between genders and early/late maturers  Easy to learn advanced swimming technique  Complex swimming and synchro drills

PUBERTY  Age 12-17: – Improved attention and decision making skills – Rapid growth and development (sensitive period). Decrease in strength and power because of rapid growth. – Improved aerobic capacity – Deterioration in postural and balance skills (it is important to continue working on swimming skills at this age) – Greater potential of skeletal-muscular injuries

POSTPUBERTY  Age 16-19: – Appreciation of variety in training and swimming sets – Improvements in racing skills – Increased muscle mass and tolerance to the high-intensity work (anaerobic capacity) – Increased sprinting ability (strength and power) – Improved cardio-vascular system

Sensitive Periods of Development  Physical characteristics and physiological systems develop at different rates during maturation.  During the adolescent growth spurt many parameters show accelerated growth size and strength.  These accelerated phases of development are called “sensitive periods” and represent the fastest rate of development.

41

Anthropometric Parameters in Career Training (Swimmers) 190 185

Males

180

Females

.

170

Height, cm

175

165 160 155

“Sensitive Periods”

150 145 140 10

12

14 Age, years

16

Timakova T.S., 1985

18

42

Changes in Height Gain Peak Height Velocity (Puberty)

Initiation of Adolescent

Spurt (Prepuberty)

Deceleration (Postpuberty) 43

Changes in Weight Gain 10 9

Males

8

Females

Peak Weight Velocity (Puberty)

WG, kg/yr

7 6 5 4 3

Deceleration

2

Initiation of Adolescent 1

(Postpuberty)

0 Spurt (Prepuberty) 9

11

13

15

17

19

Age, years 44

Vo2 max in Young Male Athletes “Sensitive Period” 4500 4250

Vo2 (ml/min)

4000 3750 3500 3250 3000

Cunningham et al. (1987)

2750

Daniels et al. (1978)

2500 2250

Murase et al. (1981)

2000

Baxter-Jones et al. (1993)

1750

8

10

12

14

16

18

20

Age (yrs) 45

Changes in Aerobic Capacity Gain (Males) 1.8

VO2 max

“Sensitive Periods” 1.6

O2 debt

Parameters

1.4

Vital Capacity

1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 11

12

13

14 Age

15

16

17

Kashkin A.A., 1981; Timakova T.S., 1985 46

Strength Parameters in Career Training (Swimmers, Males) “Sensitive Periods”

Sokolovas G., Gordon S., 1986

47

Changes in Strength Gain (Males) 14

“Sensitive Periods”

Gain of Strength, KG

12 Dryland Strength

10

Water Strength 8 6 4 2 0 12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

Age

Priluckij P.M., 1998 48

Arm Pull

Vertical Jump

14

5

12 4

cm/yr

kg/yr

10 8 6

3 2

4 2

1 -3

-2

-1

PHV

1

2

3

-3

Bent Arm Hang

6

-2

-1

PHV

1

2

3

Sit and Reach

2

2 0

cm/yr

s/yrr

4

-3

-2

-1

PHV

1

2

1

3

-2 -4

0 -3

-2

-1

PHV

1

2

3

Data from Beunen et al., 1988 49

Progression of Physical Qualities in Career Training 100.0 90.0

Progression, %

80.0 70.0 60.0 50.0

Aerobic

40.0

Mix

30.0

Anaerobic-glycolitic Creatine phosphate

20.0

Specific power

10.0 0.0 10

12

14

16 Age

18

20

22 50

Duration of Sensitive Periods Physical Quality

Boys (years)

Girls (years)

Flexibility Balance Agility Endurance Strength

7-13 9-11 10-12 12-14 14-16

6-12 8-10 9-11 11-13 13-15 51

Workload Progression in Career Training (Male) Total - 3,600,000 yrd

Aerobic - 62%

100.0

Mix - 22%

90.0 80.0

Progression, %

70.0

Distance Swimmer

Anaerobic - 5% CP - 1.5% Total - 2,700,000 yrd

60.0

Aerobic - 59%

50.0

Mix - 30%

Sprinter

40.0

Anaerobic - 8%

30.0Total - 380,000 yrd

CP - 3%

20.0Aerobic - 90% 10.0Mix - 7% 0.0Anaerobic - 2% 10- 1% 12 CP

14

16 Age

18

20

22 52

Workload Progression in Career Training (Male Sprinters) 3,000,000 2,500,000

Total

Workload, yrd

REC-EN1

2,000,000

EN2-3

1,500,000 1,000,000 500,000 0 9

11

13

15

Age

17

19

21

23 53

Workload Progression in Career Training (Male Sprinters) 250,000 SP1-2

200,000

SP3 Workload, yrd

150,000 100,000 50,000 0 9

11

13

15

Age

17

19

21

23

54

Dryland Workload Progression in Career Training (Male Sprinters) 8,000 7,000

General Strength (Weights)

6,000

Specific Strength (Biokinetic etc.)

Min

5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 0 9

11

13

15

Age

17

19

21

23 55

Total Swimming Workload Volume for Early, Normal, and Late Matured Swimmers 3,000,000

Normal Matured Early Matured

Workload, yrd

2,500,000

Late Matured 2,000,000 1,500,000 1,000,000 500,000 0 8

10

12

14 Age

16

18

20

Stages of Career Training     

Preliminary Preparation Basic Training Specialization Peak Performance Maintenance of High Performance

57

Preliminary Preparation (Girls 7-9, Boys 8-10)  Teaching of swimming technique in different swimming strokes  Teaching of diving and turns  Improvement of interest to compete  Development of flexibility, general (aerobic) endurance, balance in water  Playing & games method  Recommended maximum number of sessions per week - 3-4  Recommended number of seasons - 3 (3 peak 58 performance competitions)

Basic Training (Girls 10-12, Boys 10-13)  Teaching of advanced swimming technique in different swimming strokes  Evaluation of individual swimming stroke and distance orientation  Development of aerobic and anaerobic-aerobic (mix) endurance  Development of quickness and agility  Beginning of development of general strength  Recommended maximum number of sessions per week - 6-9  Recommended number of seasons in one year - 23 (2-3 peak performance competitions) 59

Specialization (Girls 12-17, Boys 13-18)  Development of individual swimming technique  Individualization of technical and racing tactics  Development of aerobic-anaerobic mix, anaerobic specific endurance, and general strength  Beginning of development of specific strength and speed  Maintenance of flexibility  Recommended maximum number of sessions per week - 9-12  Recommended number of seasons in a year - 2-3 (2-3 peak performance competitions)

60

Peak Performance (Girls 16-20, Boys 17-22)  Perfection and stabilization of individual swimming technique, diving, turns, and tactical skills  Development of distance specific endurance, specific power, transition of specific power to water  Development of specific strength speed  Maximization of workload volume  Modeling (race simulation) of all conditions of competition  Maintenance of individual flexibility  Recommended maximum number of sessions during peak week - 12-15  Recommended number of seasons in a year - 2 (2 peak performance competitions) 61

Maintenance of High Performance (Girls 18 and older, Boys 20 and older)  Maintenance of individual swimming technique, diving, turns, and tactical skills  Maintenance of individual power, endurance, speed, and flexibility  Reduction of total workload volume with increasing of intensity  Maintenance of health  Recommended maximum number of sessions per week - 9-12  Recommended number of seasons in a year - 2 (2 peak performance competitions) 62

Optimizing Long-Term Training  Measure height at least twice a year. Increase workload volumes accordingly:

63

Optimizing Long-Term Training  Identify early/late maturers: – Early maturers experience early success due to physical growth advantage – Early success does not predict later success – Late maturers often catch up and exceed the performance of early maturers – Keep success in perspective – Develop sets to monitor individual progression

Optimizing Long-Term Training  Evaluate distance orientation (sprint, middle distance, distance): Swimmer 1

Swimmer 2

Best Time on 100 Best Time on 200 Times in Seconds

00:54.50 01:57.70 54.5, 117.7 sec

00:55.00 02:02.10 55.0, 122.1 sec

Calculation Ratio 200/100

117.7/54.5 2.16

122.1/55.0 2.22

Optimizing Long-Term Training  Predict performance progression and make corrections in workload volumes/intensities: WINDOWS FOR 100 FREE MEN (LC) 01:19

1:19.90

01:15 1:10.65 01:11 1:04.67

TIME

01:07

1:00.41

01:02 1:01.70 00:58

0:57.31 0:54.99

0:58.99

0:53.23

0:56.85

00:54

0:51.87

0:55.13 0:53.72

00:49

0:52.57

0:51.62

0:50.80

0:50.83 0:50.16

0:49.95 0:49.28

0:48.74

0:49.61 0:49.14

0:48.74

00:45 11

12

13

14

15

16 17 YEARS

18

19

20

21

22

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