Ancient Greece Unit 3: Democracy and Greece`s Golden Age

January 5, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: History, Ancient History, Ancient Greece
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Ancient Greece Unit 3: Democracy and Greece’s Golden Age World History Core

Cultural Interaction Democratic principles and classical culture flourished during Greece’s golden age.

Why is it important today?!?!? At its height, Greece set lasting standards in art, politics, literature, and philosophy that are still influential today.

Terms: Be able to define these by the end of this PowerPoint   Direct Democracy  Classical Art  Tragedy  Comedy  Peloponnesian War  Philosopher  Socrates  Plato  Aristotle

Setting the Stage……. 

For 50 years (477-431 BC) Athens grew intellectually and artistically = Golden Age of Athens Achievements in:      

Drama Sculpture Poetry Philosophy Architecture Science

Pericles’ Plan for Athens 

 

leader of Athens through Golden Age 461-429 BC, aka Age of Pericles 3 GOALS   

(1) strengthen democracy (2) hold and strengthen empire (3) glorify Athens

Athenian Democracy Citizens: male, 18 years old, born of citizen parents Laws voted on and proposed directly by assembly of all citizens Leader chosen by lot Executive branch composed of a council of 500 men Juries varied in size No attorneys; no appeals, one-day trials

Both Political power exercised by citizens Three branches of government Legislative branch passes laws Executive branch carries out laws

Judicial branch conducts trial with paid jurors

US Democracy Citizens: Born in US or completed citizenship process Representatives elected to propose and vote on laws Elected President Executive branch made up of elected and appointed officials Juries composed of 12 jurors Defendants and plaintiffs have attorneys; on appeals process

GOAL 1: Strengthen Democracy 

Increased # of paid public officials Having paid officials meant even poor could serve if elected or chosen by lot Direct Democracy: form of government in which citizens rule directly and not through representatives

Important Question?????? 

How accurate do you think Pericles’ statement that Athenian democracy was in the hands of the “whole people”?

Goal 2: Hold and Strengthen Empire 

 

Delian League formed after Persian War. Athens took over leadership = dominated all city-states in it Used $$$ from League to build up Athenian Navy Athens needed trade (waterways) to obtain grain and raw materials to support the city-state Athens military strength=Pericles treated members of league as part of an empire Peloponnesus city-states resisted (Ex. Sparta)

Goal 3: Glorify Athens 

Used $$$ from League to make Athens beautiful Convinced Assembly to buy gold, ivory, and marble with funds More $$$ was also needed to contract artist, architects, and workers

Glorious Art and Architecture 

Goal: Greatest Greek artists/architects to glorify Athens PARTHENON = center of his plans

Architecture and Sculpture: Parthenon 

Parthenon (temple)  

23,000 sq foot building in tradition Greek design Built to honor Athena (Goddess of wisdom and protector of Athens) Statue of Athena inside 30 ft tall

Architecture and Sculpture: Sculptors 

Graceful, strong, and perfect (ideal beauty) Faces only show serenity (no other emotion)

Architecture and Sculptures: Classical Art 

Classical Art: ancient Greece ideal, in which harmony, order, and proportion were emphasized

Drama and History 

Greeks invented drama as an art form and built the 1st theaters Civic Pride and Honor to Gods  

Wealthy put on productions Plays showed leadership, justice, and duties owed to Gods

Tragedy 

 

Serious drama about love, hate, war, and/or betrayal Tragic hero: important figure and gifted with extraordinary ability Tragic flaw: hero’s downfall Sophocles: wrote 100 plays, Oedipus the King Euripides: Medea

Comedy 

 

Scenes with slapstick comedy and crude humor Made fun of politics and respected people Satire: Aristophanes: Lysistrata in which women of Athens try to force their husbands to end the Peloponnesian War

History 

Recap: Dorian Age, no written records…had works of Homer, but not considered accurate Herodotus: a Greek, living in Athens, pioneered accurate reporting 

Book on Persian War = 1st history book

Thucydides: believed certain events and political situations recur over time = important to write events down

Important Question????? 

Do you think that Thucydides was right in his assertion that history sometimes repeats itself??? YES OR NO…..

Athenians and Spartans Go to WAR!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 

Athens = power, prestige, and power = other city-states hostility 


Sparta declared war in 431 BC

Important Question????? 

What might have been Pericles’ goals in the Peloponnesian War?

Peloponnesian War      

  

Athens = Navy Sparta = Army Pericles’ Strategy: avoid land battles and wait for a sea opportunity Sparta marched into Athens territory Pericles had no other choice but to bring people into city walls City safe from hunger as long as ships could come into ports 2nd year of war PLAGUE outbreak in Athens, killing 1/3rd of population and PERICLES!!! Athens still continued to fight for several years 421 BC signed a truce (worn out by war)

Important Question????? 

Why might the plague that struck Athens in the second year of the war have been so devastating???

Sparta Gains VICTORY! 

Peace did not last, 415 BC Athens sent fleet to Syracuse (Sicily) to destroy them, one of the greatest allies of Sparta 

Ended in crushing defeat in 413 BC

Athens, weak and few, continued to fight for nine more years 404 BC Athenians surrendered 

Lost empire, power, and wealth

Philosophers Search for TRUTH! 

After war = time of doubt and uncertainty = rise of great thinkers 

 

Determined to seek truth

Philosophers = “lovers of wisdom” Based philosophy on 2 assumptions: 

(1) The universe is put together in an orderly way, subject to absolute and unchanging laws (2) Understand laws through logic and wisdom

Important Question????? 

Why would philosophers start question traditional beliefs at this particular time in Athenian history????

Socrates  

Absolute standards did exist for truth and justice Question yourself and moral character 

“The unexamined life is not worth living”

399 BC, age 60, trial for “corrupting youth of Athens” and “neglecting the city’s Gods” His defense: teachings good for Athens, because forced people to think about their actions and values Condemned to death, drinking hemlock

Important Question????? 

How does the trail of Socrates reflect on Athenian democracy???

Plato  

Student of Socrates 370 BC wrote The Republic, set forth vision of a perfectly governed society  

Not democracy All citizens fall naturally into 3 groups   

(1) farmers and artisans (2) warriors (3) ruling class

Person with greatest insight and intellect from ruling class would e chosen as philosopher-king


Why wasn’t Plato put to death if he was doing the same thing as Socrates was?!?!?

Aristotle     

Student of Plato Questioned nature of world and of human belief, thought, and knowledge Invented method of arguing according to rules of logic Invented basis of scientific method used today Famous pupil Alexander the Great (more information to follow….)

Alexander the Great

Socrates Raphael

Plato Aristotle

TERMS, defined……      

 

Direct Democracy: form of government in which citizens rule directly and not through representation Classical Art: ancient Greece, in which harmony, order, and proportion were emphasized Tragedy: serious drama about love, hate, war, and/or betrayal Comedy: Scenes with slapstick comedy and crude humor Peloponnesian War: Sparta v. Athens Socrates: philosopher, “the unexamined life is not worth living”, developed Socratic method of teaching, sentenced to death by drinking hemlock Plato: philosopher, student of Socrates, The Republic was his vision of perfect government Aristotle: philosopher, student of Plato, invented basis of scientific method and classifying plants and animals, most famous student was Alexander the Great

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