AnimAsset_Class16

January 6, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Math, Geometry
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Welcome to 2D & 3D Animation & Asset Production IGME.119.02 Instructor: Sten McKinzie Email: [email protected] Monday & Wednesday 6:30 – 7:45pm Room 2750

Visual Story Telling

Why look back? • All new media are built on old media • Theories and techniques from previous media are adopted and adapted for new media • As the new media grows it creates it’s own theories and techniques • Even so, many of the established techniques remain

The Frame • Has always been a factor in media • What represents the frame in these medias? – Film / Television – Theatre – Print – Comics – Video games

• Until we are able to break through the hardware wall it will always exist

Composing the Frame • How we arrange our environment, props & subjects within the frame can effect how the audience perceives it. • This has been studied for thousands of years • Many of the techniques remain consistent from painting to film to video games

Frame Composition • Leading Lines • Rule of Thirds • Triangle Formation

Leading Lines • Lines are everywhere around us. • Natural lines can strengthen composition by leading the viewer's eyes toward your subject. • Diagonal lines can add energy • Curved lines can add soft elegance • Using a road or path as a leading line can add depth

Leading Lines

Leading Lines

Leading Lines

Rule of Thirds • A centered image is boring • There are certain "hotspots" - areas of intensity that exist within any given image • Align the subject within these hotspots for a more energetic and interesting composition

Rule of Thirds • This image shows the 4 Rule of Thirds "hotspots" where the red lines intersect

Rule of Thirds

Rule of Thirds

Rule of Thirds

Triangle Composition • Occurs when the placement of the subjects (or group of elements themselves) form the shape of a triangle. – To create depth – Break up the image for variety in spacing – Create a connection or relationship between the different subjects – Can help describe relationships between subjects visually when used properly

Triangle Composition

Triangle Composition

Territorial Space • Consider the camera as our eye • The cameras proximity to the subject is our proximity to the subject • It is affected by the rules of territorial space

Territorial Space

Outside of this all becomes public space

Territorial Space • PUBLIC: 12 feet to 25 feet – People generally ignore each other – Alone in a crowd – Keep their private space to themselves – No intimacy

Territorial Space • PUBLIC: 12 feet to 25 feet

Territorial Space • SOCIAL: Four feet to 12 feet • • • •

Boss/employee First date Job interview Cashier/customer

Territorial Space • SOCIAL = formal

Territorial Space • PERSONAL: 18 inches to 4 feet • Two people who have gone on a few dates, and feel comfortable with each other, but still respect each other’s personal space • Parent and child, but possibly in a more public setting • Good friends sharing a conversation

Territorial Space • PERSONAL: More discreet personal range

Territorial Space • INTIMATE: within 18 inches • Two lovers • Parent and child • Two very good friends sharing a secret

Territorial Space • INTIMATE: Very close

Territorial Space • INTIMATE: Very close (not necessarily comfortable)

Territorial Space • When public space becomes intimate – People crunched against each other on a crowded subway – Try to keep their private space – Forced intimacy

Territorial Space • Consider the camera as our eye • The cameras proximity to the subject is our proximity to the subject • It is affected by the rules of territorial space

Framing

Types of Shots ELS = Extreme Long Shot LS = Long Shot FS = Full Shot MS = Medium Shot OTS = Over The Shoulder shot CU = Close Up shot ECU = Extreme Close Up OS = Out of Shot POV = Point Of View shot

ELS: Extreme Long Shot • Used in all genres • Epic films: enhance the experience of watching narratives that are epic in scale • Important: used in films where locale plays an important role • Westerns, historical films, war films, etc.

ELS: Extreme Long Shot • Establishing Shot – First shot in a film or sequence – Establishes location – Spatial frame of reference for closer shots – Important: helps us to understand the greater picture of where the film or sequence is taking place and set the tone

ELS: Extreme Long Shot

Dreams, Akira Kurosawa, 1990. Establishing shot.

ELS: Extreme Long Shot

The Sting, George Roy Hill, 1974. Establishing shot.

LS: Long Shot • Distance is Subjective • Generally considered the distance between audience and a theatrical stage • Imagine sitting in the front to 10th row during play • Important: Places the subject in its surroundings (vs ELS)

LS: Long Shot

Ran, Akira Kurosawa, 1985.

LS: Long Shot

Ran, Akira Kurosawa, 1985.

FS: Full Shot • • • •

Specific category of Long Shot Think Full Shot = Full Body A human figure is framed head to feet Can frame a single character or a group

FS: Full Shot

Smoke Signals, directed by Chris Eyre, 1998.

MS: Medium Shot • Also called “Mid-Shot” or “Middle Shot” • Equivalent distance of framing a character from head to midriff (can be as low as the knees) • Often but not always waist to head

MS: Medium Shot • TWO-SHOT: MS framing two characters – Intimate distance – Listening in on a conversation

• THREE-SHOT: MS framing three characters – Any more than three characters would have to become a full shot

MS: Medium Shot

Crooklyn, directed by Spike Lee, 1994.

MS: Medium Shot

Juno, directed by Jason Reitman, 2007. THREE-SHOT.

MS: Medium Shot

Juno, directed by Jason Reitman, 2007. THREE-SHOT.

OTS: Over The Shoulder Shot • Literally shooting over the shoulder of a character • Back of character’s head and shoulder are visible at one side of the frame • Rest of the frame is filled by what has the character’s attention • We join the character in the experience, empathy

OTS: Over The Shoulder Shot

E.T. the Extraterrestrial, Steven Spielberg, 1982. Empathy

OTS: Over The Shoulder Shot • Used for conversation when director wants to highlight characters separately • Shows the speaker when what is being said is important • Shows the listener when the reaction to what is said is important

OTS: Over The Shoulder Shot

Vertigo, Alfred Hitchcock, 1958. Converstation

CU: Close Up • Distance necessary to frame the human head • Does not mean CU is always showing a head • Forces the audience to notice an important detail, such as an object or emotion • Audience is inside subjects intimate space

CU: Close Up

Casablanca, directed by Michael Curtiz, 1942.

CU: Close Up

Welcome to the Dollhouse, Todd Solondz, 1996.

ECU: Extreme Close Up • Most dramatic of all shots • When used properly, the extreme close-up can be very powerful • Forces the audience to notice an important minute detail, such as an object or emotion • Exaggerates the slightest movement • Audience is way inside subjects intimate space

ECU: Extreme Close Up

Meshes of the Afternoon, Maya Deren, 1943.

POV: Point of View shot • Shot that portrays the point of view of the character/actor • It tells us what they are looking at • Overused in B-Horror Movies

POV: Point of View shot

Halloween, John Carpenter, 1978.

OS: Out of Shot • Things can be made more dramatic by NOT showing them • Show the reaction of the actor who IS in frame • Exaggerates drama, keeps mystery

OS: Out of Shot (Closure) • Humans have an innate ability to fill in the blanks

Understanding Comics, Scott McCloud, 1993.

OS: Out of Shot (Closure) • When something is shown to us we immediately rationalize it • If we see nothing there is nothing to rationalize so imagination kicks in • Our imaginations are far more powerful than any imagery

OS: Out of Shot (Closure) • Directors can use this to heighten a sense of drama

Understanding Comics, Scott McCloud, 1993.

OS: Out of Shot (Closure) “I may have drawn the axe being raised…, but I am not the one who let it drop or decided how hard the blow or who screamed or why. That, dear reader, was your special crime. Each of you committed it in your own style.” Understanding Comics, Scott McCloud

Camera Angles 6 Basic Angles Birds Eye View High Angle Eye Level Low Angle Worms Eye View Oblique Angle

Birds Eye View

North by Northwest, Alfred Hitchcock, 1959.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=npMQ7FD2m1g&feature=related

Birds Eye View • • • • •

This shows a scene from high overhead Disorienting Abstracts familiar objects Audience in a godlike position Subject made to look insignificant, ant-like, part of a wider scheme of things.

High Angle

Psycho, Alfred Hitchcock, 1959. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rsgDP31v2LE

High Angle • The camera is elevated above the action • Can be used to give a sense of general overview. (ex: an office scene) • Important of the setting or environment, surrounding the subject(s), increases • Movement is slowed down (look closer at this compared to low angle) • Good for conveying tedium

High Angle • • • •

Subject is reduced in height Viewer is put in a power position Reduces importance of the subject A person will seem harmless, insignificant and even threatened • Effective for conveying self-contempt

Eye Level

Drunken Angel, Akira Kurosawa, 1948.

Eye Level • Neutral shot • The camera will be placed eye level with the subject • Subject becomes ordinary • Audience is left to make its own judgment on the characters presented • Character has human proportions (vs subhuman or super human)

Low Angle

Dr. Strangelove or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb , Stanley Kubrick, 1964.

Low Angle • Gives the subject importance, power, dominance • Background tends to be sky or ceiling, separating the subject from it’s environment • Can be used to inspire fear and insecurity in the viewer • Speeds up action (vs High Angle) - Do you agree, why?

Discussion: 12 Angry Men • Filmed primarily in one room • Over the course of the film, angles were changed to convey specific emotions

Discussion: 12 Angry Men High Angle / Long Shot

12 Angry Men, Sidney Lumet, 1957.

Discussion: 12 Angry Men Eye Level / Medium Shot

12 Angry Men, Sidney Lumet, 1957.

Discussion: 12 Angry Men Low Angle / Close Up

12 Angry Men, Sidney Lumet, 1957.

Oblique Angle (Dutch Angle)

Terminator 2: Judgement Day , James Cameron, 1991.

Oblique Angle (Dutch Angle) • Suggests imbalance, transition, violence and instability • This technique is often used to suggest Pointof-View shots. • Frequently used in Film Noir

Oblique Angle: Origins and Death of a Technique • German Expressionists first to make use • The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari 1920 silent film directed by Robert Wiene

Oblique Angle: Origins and Death of a Technique • Became very popular in Noir Films Like The Third Man, 1949, directed by Carol Reed

Oblique Angle: Origins and Death of a Technique • Batman TV Show of the 1960s over used it and made it cheesy

Oblique Angle: Origins and Death of a Technique • Has been brought back by filmmakers like Quentin Tarantino and Robert Rodriguez

Kill Bill V1, Quentin Tarantino, 2003.

Oblique & Low Angle

Kill Bill V1, Quentin Tarantino, 2003.

Placement Within Frame • Certain areas within the frame can suggest symbolic ideas. • The filmmaker can radically alter the comment on that object or character. • Here form IS content.

Center Frame • Instinctively regarded as the natural center of interest.

The Big Lebowski, The Coen Brothers, 1998.

Center Frame • A portrait photographer, centers the individual or group in the viewfinder. • A child draws objects in the center of the page • we expect to see objects in the center, therefore: OBJECTS IN CENTER = LACK OF DRAMA

Center Frame • When the filmmaker wants to focus on what the actor is saying, or feeling • Minimizes distraction by other things • all attention is focused on the subject

The Big Lebowski, The Coen Brothers, 1998. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Be7Og9Gc_KY

Center Frame • Examples of objects that would appear in the center of the screen • The Mundane • • • •

A person talking in a matter-of-fact tone of voice A bouquet of flowers on a table A letter being read by an actor A close-up of a key turning in a lock

• Often used when the director wants the audience to focus on OS (out of shot) sound

Top of Frame • Suggests power, authority, and aspiration. • This works for both people and objects.

Bend it Like Beckham, Gurinder Chadha, 2002.

Top of Frame

Seven Samurai, Akira Kurosawa, 1954.

Top of Frame • Examples of objects that would appear in the top of the frame • Perceived Power • • • • • •

President Overbearing parent A Killer Religious iconography Rock star A spooky castle

Top of Frame • Not all objects placed near the top of the screen are there for symbolic purposes

Bend it Like Beckham, Gurinder Chadha, 2002.

Top of Frame • Examples of objects that appear at the top of the screen because that is where they arbitrarily must fall: • • • • •

People’s heads Tops of trees Tall buildings The sky Mountains

Bottom of Frame

Bend it Like Beckham, Gurinder Chadha, 2002.

Bottom of Frame • Gives the sensation that objects (people) are ready to fall out of the bottom of the frame. • • • • • •

Insignificant Unimportant Shy Defeated Sad Lonely

Sides of Frame • Objects tend to feel insignificant, due to distance from the center of the screen. • Characters feel as though they are close to the darkness, due to proximity to the black edges of the screen. • Figures who are trying to hide may also appear at the sides of the screen.

Sides of Frame

Psycho, Hitchcock, 1960.

Sides of Frame • How does Janet Leigh’s position on-screen make you feel? • She seems as though she is powerless • It feels as though she is grabbing on and trying to keep herself in the frame • Cast off, barely there

http://www.floobynooby.com/IPUB/comp1.html

Project 2: Animated Cut scene or Open • Project 2 will be to create a 20 second (min) animated sequence for your platform level • It can be used as the intro to the level or the cut scene after the level or can be split between the 2 • You can also use it for the win or lose sequence

Project 2a: Storyboards • Break out the shots for your cut scene into storyboard sketches • Minimum of 10 shots • Use the camera angles, proximity and composition to convey enhance the drama for the audience

Storyboard Terminology Sheet

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