AOS 1 - Sociology3and4
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Australian Indigenous Culture
Excursion update Review holiday homework Intro activities booklet
Culture Material Non Material Sociological imagination – Ellis model Ethnocentrism Cultural relativism Protection Assimilation Segregation integration
intro to course\intro lesson -STEEREOTYPES ABOUT INDIGENOUS AUSTRALIANS.docx intro to course\intro lesson- What is Australian Indigenous culture.docx intro to course\intro lesson-Aboriginal Australia Information Deficit Syndrome.docx
Australian Indigenous cultures – oldest living in the world Indigenous people believed to have been in Australia for at least 50 000 years (ABS, 2011) Indigenous people come from a range of diverse Aboriginal nations many with their own languages and traditions
Torres Strait Islander people come from the islands of the Torres Strait between the tip of Cape York in Queensland and Papua New Guinea Indigenous people come from mainland Australia, Tasmania and surrounding offshore islands Today both of the above live in a variety of settings – most live in urban areas, while some live on the fringes of towns and cities or within remote communities in rural Australia.
Of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander descent Who identifies as an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander and Is accepted as such by the community in which he/she lives. - Pg 21
From 1788 – British wanted Australia to be a colony of settlement Indigenous peoples lands we taken over on the premise that the land belonged to no one “terra nullius” (means land of no one in latin) Colonial take over was based on the assumption that British culture was superior to all others Many Indigenous people were killed or driven from their traditional lands by the European colonists
Lives were lost from diseases that Aboriginal people had no resistance to such as small pox, influenza and measles The new government thought Indigenous people should speak English, obey British Law and live a British way of life Many tribal groups had to live together on missions and reserves and were forbidden to practise their cultures and speak their languages As a result many cultural traditions and languages have been lost forever
1992 – Indigenous Australians recognised as the traditional owners of tracts of land by the High Court Of Australia Eddie Mabo see pg 7 Today Australian Indigenous people continue to keep their cultural heritage alive by passing their knowledge, arts, rituals and performances from one generation to another
Face the facts – update facts sheets Watch the beginning of the First Australians SBS documentary Create a detailed timeline of Australian history
Bunjil the Eagle Kulin Nation William Barak (1824-1903) http://www.yarrahealing.ca tholic.edu.au/storiesvoices/index.cfm?loadref=7 9 Read Text: p. 5-7.
Physical objects, artefacts, resources and spaces of a society which are passed onto subsequent generations Arts Crafts Clothing Homes Schools Technology Tools cities
Non physical creations and ideas of a society Knowledge, beliefs, languages, symbols and social norms which are transmitted across generations When analysing non material culture sociologists refer to several processes that a society uses to shape or control its members these are Values, symbols, languages and norms
Values and symbols Values – abstract ideas about what is good and right - Broad guidelines for acceptable behaviour - Key values in Australian culture include; democracy, freedom of speech and a ‘fair go’ - For AIP values were derived from the ‘Dreaming’ Symbols - Anything that acquires a particular meaning that is recognised by the people sharing a culture e.g., a word, sound, graffiti, sculpture and flag
Language Ability to communicate thorough spoken or written word is a unique and important feature of human cultural groups - Australian Indigenous – oral history - Indigenous languages of Victoria • Kulin Languages – Western and Eastern Kulin • Gulidjan or Colac language • Gunditjmara/Warrnambool langauge (se pg 11) -
Social norms -
Social norms Shared rules that exist in every culture that act as a guide for a wide range of behaviour See difference between norms and mores (more-rayz) pg 12 -13
dot 1 - meaning of culture\Indigenous culture article.docx
Complete material vs non material culture sheet.doc dot 1 - meaning of culture\Material Vs non material culture summary activity.docx
The Australian Sociologist, Evan Willis has developed a useful framework to assist in the process of sociological analysis. Willis drew on the work of Mills (1959) and Giddens (1986)
* Create a table that explains Gidden's, Mills and Ellis’s theory of the sociological imagination
TASK: Analysis of the stolen generation using Willis model using diagram on pg 17 and links on pg 18 Complete activity 3.02 pg 17
dot 2 - sociological imagination ethnocentrism and cultural relativism\Sorry Day and the Stolen Generations.docx sociological imagination analysis.docx
Indigenous Australians have a feeling of immense resentment toward white Australia for the breaking up of their families. - Distrust toward Australian government - Loss of culture - Displacement of families - Lack of education regarding parenting
- White people believed their culture and ways to be superior – blinded by ethnocentrism and the idea that “this is for the better” “Victorian board for PROTECTION of Aboriginals” - Took children away to educate under western society – - resulted in confusion of cultures - Culture of ‘Missionaries’ – role of church to ingrain Christianity into Indigenous children - White culture superior to Indigenous culture (culture of savagery and not significant) - Culture change occurred through Rudd saying ‘sorry’
Church and missionaries as social institutions had a significant impact on shaping children 2005 - The organisation 'Stolen Generations Victoria' is set up as a result of the 2003 report of the Stolen Generations taskforce.
The creation in any medium of aspects of ‘reality’ such as people, places, objects, events, cultural identities and other intangible concepts Can be historical or modern Can be presented in many forms – oral speech or writing, still or moving picture See analysis table
W.G. Summer Belief that an individuals culture is superior to that of other cultural groups Leads to a prejudice attitude Exists in all people in all societies
Historical representations of AIC influenced by ethnocentric views of British colonists Indigenous people seen as ‘noble savages’ Seen as the lowest form of human kind on the ‘Great Chain of Being’ – Europeans were placed highest and Indigenous Australians lowest nearest to animals Natural selection/evolution of natural world – scientific racism Indigenous Australians biologically and culturally inferior to British colonisers Race doomed to extinction Indigenous cultural symbols in art gradually gained acceptance but understood through the category of primitive art
Exclusion of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples from representations such as print and television advertising Stereotypical portrayals of Australian Indigenous people in tourism advertising reflecting the ‘noble savage’ The ongoing myth in film and TV that most Indigenous Australians live in remote and regional pars of Australia The over-reporting in news and current affairs programs of Indigenous Australians as victims and perpetrators of violence and/or paternalistic (authoritarian) reporting of social disadvantage
Complete Activity 3.06 pg 24 and write a detailed summary of what is on the web addresses on pg 25
Practice of judging a society by its own standards Encourages sociologists to refrain from passing judgement on unfamiliar cultural practices Necessitates a tolerance and respect for cultural practices that may seem strange or unusual to the observer Requires people to avoid being biased when evaluating ‘other’ customs, practices and behaviours
Education and awareness programs – Australian Curriculum Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA) repsonsiblke for national curriculum from kinder – 12 (developed in consultation with Indigenous consultation bodies) recognise need for all Australian children to understand Indigenous culture (
Political activism Albert Namatjira’s social movement for full citizenship rights in the 1950’s Freedom Ride 1965 Australian Human Rights Commission calling for Australian Constitution to be amended to recognise Australia’s first peoples
Protocols and Sanctions Commonwealth – Racial Discrimination Act (1975) - Racial Hatred Act (1995) - Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission Act (1986) - Victoria Racial and religious Tolerance Act (2001) - Equal Opportunity Act (1995) - See pg 26 bottom websites and take note of why they are culturally relative representations -
dot 3 - range of historical and contemporary reprsentqations\Media ANALYSIS of issues in jan 2012 holidays and background knowledge sheets.docx dot 3 - range of historical and contemporary reprsentqations\lesson 1 - Understanding Representations 2012.docx
See representation booklet Tent embassy Australia Day Cartoon analysis Annotated folio task – see pg. 53 of study design
dot 3 - range of historical and contemporary reprsentqations\Indigenous film representations.docx
Watch below – written by Fay June ball – song about white Koories http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v7uMP7ry YhM Watch BBQ area
Healing Challenging stereotypes Strengthening Indigenous culture dot - implications of different ways of representing\actiivty on implications of representing.docx
How might the return of the remains potentially lead to Healing Challenging stereotypes Survival of Australian Indigenous culture?
The historical suppression of Australian Indigenous culture through protection, segregation, assimilation and integration policies And Australian Indigenous responses to this suppression
From colonisation – Australian Indigenous people subject to formal government policies AIMED TO SUPPRESS THEIR CULTURE Culture suppression occurs when a culture is overpowered and dominated – coinciding with the promotion of another culture
First example of attempted cultural suppression was the frontier wars between British colonists and Australian Indigenous people Wars commenced in 1788 and reports of violent interaction continued as late as the 1930’s
Arrival of British colonists saw considerable resistance from Australian Indigenous people
1800’s British colonists saw Australian people as primitive and savage race The Indigenous Australian customs and lifestyles they observed were very different to their own British believed Australian Indigenous people were an inferior race – led to assumption they need to be protected
Definition: Policies that resulted in the separation of Australian Indigenous people into missions and reserves
1. Terra Nullius: Aboriginal land was acquired by British colonists based on the assertion that the land belonged to no one. (1992: Eddie Mabo Vs Queensland Gov overturned terra nullius)
2. Protection Policies: In the 1800’s through moral conviction or religious faith. Settlers saw it as their duty to help these ‘poor’ indigenous people. A period where aboriginal people were segregated and controlled by protection boards. Paternalism: is the practice of treating a group of people as children. This paternal attitude led to the assumption that the AIC were an inferior race. From 1837-1950 the British government had implemented a “Protection Policy”.
1839 George Robinson was appointed Chief Protector of Aborigines. 1841: Recorded many atrocities
1860: Victorian Government established a central board for Aborigines. It’s role was to establish reserves and managers to control them. 1886: Victorian Aborigines Protection Board was formed. Its aim was to ‘civilise, Christianise and above all train”.
Aboriginal children were taken from Families who were seen as bad influences (white socialisation).
Between 18691911 most states in Australia confined Aboriginal people to certain areas called ‘missions’. This resulted in the beginning of the Stolen Generation
British government implemented new ways to solve the “Aboriginal problem” through policies which involved the separation of Australian Indigenous people into church run missions and government reserves
- Justified by belief that Indigenous people were a dying race and would not survive alone in non Indigenous society
dot 4- supression of AIC through policies\MISSION CULTURE.docx
Many Australian Indigenous people did not adopt the cultural and religious mores of the British settlers and government
For many living in the missions despite new modes of dress, housing, economic patterns and religious beliefs many Australian Indigenous people did not abandon their traditional values “they still practised kinship ties and obligations, feared the effect of sorcery (witch craft), practised certain rituals, especially relating to personal hygiene and funerals, hunted and collected bush food in their leisure time and maintained a deep attachment to the land and its governing stories”
The overall impact on many Australian Indigenous people during the era of the protection and segregation policies could be described as one of either “Despair or Defiance”.
Resistance Groups: Five Key Elements. Cultural Maintenance A Sense of Injustice The Acting out of someone’s negative oppositional culture 4. The Rebuilding of a positive Aboriginal Identity 5. Aboriginal Political Movement led by William Cooper 1. 2. 3.
Born in YortaYorta Territory Established the Australian Aboriginal League (AAL) 1934. Log onto: http://www.abc.net.au/missionvoic es/cummeragunja/mission_history /default.htm
Read the story.dot 4- supression of AIC through policies\Cummeragunja mission and responses to it.docx
Research policy and responses assignment on PowerPoint Construct an overview of the historical suppression of Australian Indigenous culture dot 4- supression of AIC through policies\lesson 2-historical suppression\Historical suppression timeline overview.docx dot 4- supression of AIC through policies\lesson 2-historical suppression\Historical suprression timeline.docx
Period prior to Second World War – became clear to the government that Australian Indigenous people were not a ‘dying race’ Government decided to change its policy to one of ‘assimilation’
In 1937, the Commonwealth Government decided that the ATSI peoples ‘not of full blood’ should be absorbed or assimilated into the wider population. The aim was to make the ‘Aboriginal problem’ gradually disappear. Some examples include separate education, town curfews, no social security and the forcible removal of children who were placed in white controlled institutions or foster homes.
http://www.connectinghome.org.au/sitebuild er/careers/knowledge/asset/files/37/august_2 008_stolen_generation_the_barbara_william s_weton_story_part_1.mp3 http://www.connectinghome.org.au/sitebuild er/careers/knowledge/asset/files/38/august_2 008_stolen_generation_the_barbara_william s_weston_story_part_2.mp3
dot 4- supression of AIC through policies\Sorry Day and the Stolen Generations.docx sociological imagination analysis.docx dot 4- supression of AIC through policies\stolen generation info sheet.docx dot 4- supression of AIC through policies\Stolen generation man wins compensation.docx dot 4- supression of AIC through policies\lesson 2-historical suppression\Historical suprression stolen generation timeline.docx
The policy of integration 1965 was to create a better relationship between the Australian indigenous people and the white people of Australia. Indigenous people, their customs, culture, tradition and language needed to be ‘westernised’.
‘Assimilation in disguise’?
1965 – assimilation was replaced by ‘integration’ Recognised Australian Indigenous culture Acknowledged that Australian Indigenous people had their own culture, languages, customs and traditions which needed to be ‘westernised’
Some AI protest groups argued that integration was a more suitable policy as it allowed for individuals to choose the extent to which they wished to join broader society while at the same time being able to practice their own culture and beliefs
Others argued that while integration was an improvement on assimilation it contained some elements is assimilation in disguise It was expected that future generations would assimilate into non- Indigenous society, letting go of their beliefs and customs
dot 4- supression of AIC through policies\graphic organiser - protection segregation assimialtion and integration.docx
Watch DVD – the right to vote
When the Constitution of the Commonwealth of Australia was drawn up, Aboriginal people had no political power and most of the leaders of the colonial delegations who met to debate the terms of the document considered them to be ‘a dying race’.
Consequently, the only two specific references made to Aboriginal people in the Constitution were in a clause 1 of section 51, relating to a power granted to the Commonwealth to enact special laws with regard to racial minorities: The Parliament shall subject to this Constitution, have power to make laws for the peace, order, and good government of the Commonwealth with respect to…(xxvi) The people of any race, other than the aboriginal race in any State, for whom it is deemed necessary to make special laws. and, section 127: In reckoning the numbers of people of the Commonwealth, or of a State or other part of the Commonwealth, aboriginal natives shall not be counted.
By 1966, most racially discriminatory legislation had been repealed and most Aboriginal people had been granted the legal rights associated with citizenship. However, when the Federal Council for the Advancement of Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders and its supporters campaigned for a ‘Yes’ vote for the Aboriginal question in the referendum of 27 May 1967, it equated the constitutional changes with the overthrow of discriminatory laws and the winning of rights or citizenship for Aborigines.
The Australian Constitution does not recognise Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. The last few years have seen a growing feeling that the Constitution needs to be brought up to date to reflect the reality of Australia in the 21st century. It is time for a genuine national conversation on the best option for constitutional recognition that will be supported by the majority but is also meaningful for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.
The Australian Government, the Opposition, the Australian Greens and the Independent members of Parliament all support recognising Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians in the Constitution Towards this end, the Prime Minister has established an Expert Panel to lead a national conversation on constitutional recognition. The Constitution which underpins our federal laws and institutions can only be changed by the people. This site provides you with information that will help you to be part of this once-in-a-generation opportunity to help shape the future of Australia. There is also a webpage set up by the Expert Panel where you can find virtually all the information you need - go towww.youmeunity.org.au
http://www.youmeunity.org.au/ - video
http://www.youmeunity.org.au/uploads/cust om/de55df59ff23d2ebcf0f.pdf - full text of constitution
Write a paragraph explaining the historical suppression of Australian Indigenous culture through protection, segregation, assimilation and integration policies. Explain Indigenous responses to this suppression using material you have studied this year Incl info off Right to vote DVD
Explain Protection Segregation Assimilation Integration
Complete table of suppression and response
Explore the initiatives in place by the Australian Football League (AFL) regarding Australian Indigenous players as a way of building awareness and perception of Indigenous culture
There have been a number of national and international factors that have supported/limited the public awareness and perception of Australian Indigenous culture What do you think these may be?
Reconciliation The Redfern Park Speech Northern Territory Intervention The Apology United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples
Redfern park speech
Northern Territory Intervention
United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous people
Take notes in each of the columns from both the textbook and the videos you will see
Reconciliation – “coming together” As an Australian government policy it aims to achieve justice, recognition and healing Purpose – has been to help Australians move forward with a better understanding of the past and how the past affects the lives of Indigenous peoples today
Involves recognition that Indigenous peoples were the first Australians Acknowledges how the past impacts their culture and lives today Involves both SYMBOLIC and PRACTICAL approaches
• Focus on social justice component • Recognising historical injustice and Indigenous right such as the formal sorry in 2008 • Education programs designed to combat racism and discrimination
• Focus on providing services to address the inequalities that exist in our society • Providing funding for the “Close the Gap” program
dot 5 - national and international factors\Create a power-point slide that includes the national.pptx
Look up the bringing them home report and take notes!
http://www.indigenousrights.net.au/section.a sp?sID=11 – National museum Australia https://fuse.education.vic.gov.au/pages/View. aspx?id=fb556f1b-9e22-42d1-b8f6a46aa227f897 - FUSE