AP 4 English Colonies
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APUSH English Colonies in North America Mr. Weber 217
Agenda • Activator, agenda, and objective (10 minutes) • Chapter 1 reading test (15-20 minutes) • English Settlement Lecture (30 minutes) • Give Me Liberty! Jigsaw reading (30-45 minutes) • Writing a summary (15 minutes)
Objective: You will master these College Board AP Topics • 2. Transatlantic Encounters and Colonial Beginnings, 1492– 1690: First European contacts with American Indians; Spain’s empire in North America; French colonization of Canada; English settlement of New England, the MidAtlantic region, and the South; From servitude to slavery in the Chesapeake region; Religious diversity in the American colonies; Resistance to colonial authority: Bacon’s Rebellion, the Glorious Revolution, and the Pueblo Revolt. • 3. Colonial North America, 1690–1754: Population growth and immigration; Transatlantic trade and the growth of seaports; The eighteenth-century back country; Growth of plantation economies and slave societies; The Enlightenment and the Great Awakening; Colonial governments and imperial policy in British North America
Ch. 1 Reading Test • 10 AP style multiple choice questions
• 5 open response short answer questions. • Good luck!
Give Me Liberty! Chapter 2 Pre-reading Highlights
Beginnings of English America 1607-1660 • Focus on Chesapeake and New England colonies. • Motives for English colonization and reasons for emigration to the colonies. • Contact with the Indians. • Tobacco as the “gold” of the Virginia colony and required agricultural labor (slavery). • New England colonies more about family and spirituality of the Puritans. More economically diverse. • Puritans’ banish Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson from Massachusetts colony.
England and North America • Motives for colonization: • National glory, profit, and a missionary zeal motivated the English crown to settle America. • Religious freedom for Protestants. • People imagined a place where they could go to escape the economic inequalities of Europe. • English crown issues charters for individuals such as Sir Humphrey Gilbert and Sir Walter Raleigh to colonize America at their own expense, but both failed.
Coming of the English • The majority of English immigrants to North America were young, single, men from the bottom of society. • 2/3rds. Of English settlers came as indentured servants. • Indentureds did not enjoy liberty while under contract. • Land was the basis of liberty and the source of wealth and power for colonial officials.
The Chesapeake • Jamestown Colony: • Settlement and survival were questionable in the colony’s early history because of high death rates, frequent changes in leadership, inadequate supplies from England, etc. • By 1616 80 percent of the immigrants who had arrived in the first 10 years were dead. • John Smith began to get the colony on its feet.
Powhatan and Pocahontas • Powhatan was the leader of 30 tribes near Jamestown and traded with the English. • English-Indian relations were mostly peaceful early on. • Pocahontas married John Rolfe in 1614 symbolizing Anglo-Indian harmony. • Once the English decided on a permanent colony instead of merely a trading post conflict ensued. • In the uprising of 1622 Opechancanough led an attack on Virginia’s settlers. • English forced the Indians to recognize their subordination to the gov. of Jamestown and moved them to reservations.
New England • Puritanism emerged from the Protestant Reformation in England.
• Puritans followed the teachings of John Calvin and were strict on reading the Bible and listening to sermons. • Many Puritans came for religious liberty and were governed by a system of “moral liberty.” • Puritan work ethic stressed hard work as saving the soul
Plymouth • Pilgrims came to Plymouth (Cape Cod) on the Mayflower. • Signed the Mayflower Compact before going ashore. • Squanto provided help to get the pilgrims through their first Thanksgiving. • New England settlement would be very different than Chesapeake: more equal balance of power between men and women, longer life expectancy, more families, healthier climate.
Massachusetts Bay Colony • Massachusetts Bay Company was chartered in 1629 to London merchants. • Organized Mass. Into self-governing towns. • Each town has Congregational church and school. (Harvard was started to educate ministers). • Church membership was required to vote. • Church and state were very connected.
Trials of Anne Hutchinson • Hutchinson was a well-educated, articulate woman who charged that nearly all the ministers in Mass. Were guilty of faulty preaching. • Placed on trial in 1637 for sedition and spoke of divine revelations while on trial. • She and followers were banished from Mass. • Mass. not practicing free religion: Quakers were hanged, for example.
Other Highlights … • The Pequot War 1637. • The Merchant Elite. • The Half-Way Covenant. • English Civil War. • Crisis in Maryland • Cromwell and the Empire.
Give Me Liberty! Chapter Outline
I. England and the New World
• Reasons for England’s late entry
• Protracted religious strife • Continuing struggle to subdue Ireland
• Awakening of English attention to North America • Early ventures • Humphrey Gilbert’s failed Newfoundland colony • Walter Raleigh’s failed Roanoke colony
• Impetus for North American colonization • National rivalry • Opposition to (Spanish) Catholicism • Spain’s attempted invasion of England • Desire to match Spanish and French presence in the New World
I. England and the New World (cont’d) B. Awakening of English attention to North America 2. Impetus for North American colonization b. Sense of divine mission • Image of Spanish brutality in the New World • England’s self-conception as beacon of freedom
c. Material possibilities • Prospects for trade-based empire in North America • Solution to English social crisis • Chance for laboring classes to attain economic independence
I. England and the New World (cont’d) C. English social crisis of late sixteenth century • Roots of • Population explosion • Rural displacement
• Elements of • • • •
Urban overcrowding Falling wages Spread of poverty Social instability
• Government answers to • Punishment of dispossessed • Dispatching of dispossessed to the New World
II. Overview of seventeenth-century
English settlement in North America •
Challenges of life in North America
Magnitude of English emigration • • •
Indentured servitude • •
Chesapeake New England Middle colonies
Similarities to slavery Differences from slavery
Significance of access to land • • • •
As basis of English liberty As lure to settlement As resource for political patronage As source of wealth
II. Overview of seventeenth-century
English settlement in North America E. Englishmen and Indians • Displacement of Indians • Preference over subjugation or assimilation • Limits of constraints on settlers • Recurring warfare between colonists and Indians
• Trading • Impact of trade and settlement on Indian life
III. Settling of the Chesapeake • Virginia • Initial settlement at Jamestown • Rocky beginnings • High death rate • Inadequate supplies • Inadequate labor
• Virginia Company measures to stabilize colony • Forced labor • Headright system • “Charter of grants and liberties”
• Indians and Jamestown settlers • Initial cooperation and trade
Roger Williams and Rhode Island • Roger Williams preached that any citizen ought to be free to practice whatever form of religion he chose. • He believed it was essential to separate church and state.
• Was banished from the Mass. In 1636. • Established Rhode Island as a beacon of religious freedom.
III. Settling of the Chesapeake (cont’d) • Virginia 4. Indians and Jamestown settlers b. Key figures in early Indian-settler relations • Powhatan • John Smith • Pocahontas
c. Sporadic conflict d. War of 1622 • Opechancanough attack on settlers • Settlers’ retaliation • Aftermath
e. War of 1644 • Defeat of Opechancanough rebellion • Removal of surviving Indians to reservations
f. Continuing encroachment on Indian land
III. Settling of the Chesapeake (cont’d) • Virginia 5. Take-off of tobacco cultivation • Introduction and spread • Effects • • • •
Issuance of royal colonial charter Rise of tobacco planter elite Spread of settler agriculture Rising demand for land and labor
III. Settling of the Chesapeake • Virginia 6. Emerging strata of white Virginia • Wealthy gentry • Small farmers • Poor laborers • Indentured servants • Free
7. Women settlers • Quest for • Status of • Hardships
III. Settling of the Chesapeake (cont’d) B. Maryland • Similarities to Virginia colony • Distinctive features • Proprietary structure • Cecilius Calvert • Absolute power of proprietor vs. rights of colonists • Resulting conflict
• Religious and political tensions • Calvert’s Catholic leanings vs. settlers’ Protestant leanings • Reverberations of English Civil War
• Diminishing prospects for the landless
IV. Settling of New England • Puritanism • Emergence in England • Variations within • Common outlooks • Central importance of the sermon • John Calvin’s ideas • The elect and the damned • Salvation • Worldly behavior
IV. Settling of New England (cont’d) B. Puritan separatists • Growth under Charles I • Aims • Conceptions of Freedom • Denunciation of “natural liberty” • Embrace of “moral liberty”
C. Founding of Plymouth Colony • • • • • •
The Pilgrims Arrival at Plymouth Mayflower Compact Rocky beginnings Help from Indians Thanksgiving
IV. Settling of New England (cont’d) D. Founding of Massachusetts Bay Colony • Massachusetts Bay Company • Great Migration • Unique features of New England settlement
E. The Puritan family • Elements of patriarchy • The place of women
F. Government and society in Puritan Massachusetts • Attitudes toward individualism, social unity
IV. Settling of New England (cont’d) F. Government and society in Puritan Massachusetts 2. Organization of towns • Self-government • Civic • Religious
• Subdivision of land • Institutions
3. Colonial government • Emphasis on colonial autonomy • Principle of consent • “Visible Saints”
IV. Settling of New England (cont’d) F. Government and society in Puritan Massachusetts 4. Lines of hierarchy • • • •
Access to land Status within church Social stature Claim to “liberties”
5. Relation of church and state
G. New Englanders divided • Prevailing Puritan values • Emphasis on conformity to communal norms • Intolerance of individualism, dissent
IV. Settling of New England (cont’d) G. New Englanders divided 2. Roger Williams • Critique of status quo • Banishment • Establishment of Rhode Island • •
Religious toleration Democratic governance
3. Other breakaway colonies • Hartford • New Haven
4. Anne Hutchinson • Challenge to Puritan leadership • Challenge to gender norms • Trial and banishment
IV. Settling of New England (cont’d) H. Puritans and coastal Indians • Balance of power • Settler’s numerical supremacy • Indians’ lack of central political structure
• Settlers’ views of Indians • As savages • As dangerous temptation • As object to be removed
• Rising frontier tensions • Settler war with and extermination of Pequots • Aftereffects of Pequot War •
Opening of Connecticut River valley to white settlement
• Intimidation of other Indians • Affirmation of Puritan sense of mission
IV. Settling of New England (cont’d) I. New England economy • Economic motives behind New England settlement • Aspiration for a “competency” • Land ownership • Craft status
• Aspiration for mercantile success • Blending of religious and profit motives
• Emerging New England economy • Family-based agriculture • Chiefly subsistence orientation • Broad distribution of land
• Exports to other colonies and Europe • Rise of Boston merchant elite
IV. Settling of New England (cont’d) I. New England economy 3. Tensions within political/religious order • Merchant challenge to Puritan policies • Old-guard Puritan concern over “declension” • Half-Way Covenant
V. Religion, politics, and freedom • Gradually expanding “rights of Englishmen” • Magna Carta • English Civil War • Parliament vs. Stuart monarchs • Commonwealth and restoration • Levellers and Diggers
• Repercussions of English Civil War in colonial North America • In New England • Ambivalence of Puritans • Quakers • Emergence of • Persecution of
V. Religion, politics, and freedom (cont’d) B. Repercussions of English Civil War in colonial North America 2. In Maryland • Religious-political crisis • Initiatives to stabilize colony • Calvert’s pre-Protestant gestures • Enactment of religious toleration measure
Jigsaw Reading Posters • Count off 1-4 and to form study groups.
• Group 1: • Group 2:
• Read and take notes on your section for 15-20 minutes. Discuss what you found to be important in that section. • Form new super-groups groups made up one expert from each of the original study groups.
• Group 3:
• Group 4: