AP English Language Exam

January 5, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Arts & Humanities, English, Literature, English Literature
Share Embed Donate

Short Description

Download AP English Language Exam...


Argument in the AP English Language Classroom Don Stoll Rowan University

Argument vs. Persuasion 

Definition of Argument   

Reasoned inquiry-logos Rational discourse Seeking common ground-ethos 


Definition of Persuasion 

A question of belief and preference-pathos Manipulate-able

Types of Argument 

Argument of Fact  

Arguments of Value  

Something is or is not the case Causal argument

Something is or is not desirable Evaluations of quality or worth according to accepted criteria

Argument of Policy 

Something should or should not be done

Toulmin Model - terminology  

  

Claim - an assertion Support - data used as evidence, reasons, or grounds Warrant - assumption shared by the writer & the reader Backing - data/assurances to support the warrant Qualifier - restrictor Reservation - explains the qualifier Rebuttal - objections to claim and/or warrant

The Toulmin Sentence 

Because (data as support), therefore, or so (qualifier?) (claim), since (warrant), because, or on account of (backing), unless (reservation). Because of the new cell phone law, in most cases no one should call while driving since it is good to obey the law because if the law is broken it means a heavy fine unless, of course, there is an emergency.

Writing the Toulmin Sentence  

 

Claim - People should wear seatbelts Support - High rate of serious injury in accidents when seatbelts are not worn Warrant -Serious injury should be avoided Backing - serious injury is costly, painful, and dangerous Qualifier - Typically Reservation - cases where seatbelts may be dangerous like small children Rebuttal -High rate of serious injury when seatbelts are worn

Toulmin Sentence…. 

Because of the high rate of serious injury in accidents when seatbelts are not worn, in most instances we should all wear seatbelts. This is true because avoiding serious injury is good. Serious injury can be costly, painful, and dangerous. Of course there are situations when seatbelts may be dangerous such as in the case of small children who might have their necks broken by the seatbelt. While some may say there is a high rate of serious injury when seat belts are worn, such as when the car goes underwater or bursts into flames, having a device to cut the seatbelt near at hand in such cases is better than not wearing a seatbelt at all.

Writing the Toulmin Sentence Again 

  

 

Claim - Sweetened soft drinks should be removed from the school’s vending machines Support - high obesity of teens in our school Warrant - sweetened soft drinks lead to fat teens Backing - obesity leads to heart disease and diabetes Qualifier - After it is cleared by the administration Reservation - People who need sweetened food in an emergency like diabetics Rebuttal - Tens should be encouraged to take responsibility for their own health and make their own decisions.

Writing the Toulmin Sentence Claim of Fact 

    

Claim - Students who work hard in high school do better in college Support - There is greater demand for AP courses Warrant Backing Qualifier Reservation Rebuttal -

Writing the Toulmin Sentence Claim of Value 

    

Claim - Faux news programs are a great addition to television Support People who are aware of current events are better off than being ignorant Warrant Backing Qualifier Reservation Rebuttal -

Writing the Toulmin Sentence Claim of Policy 

    

Claim - Department chairs should receive extensive training in management skills Support - The new principal is decentralizing power Warrant Backing Qualifier Reservation Rebuttal -

Further Reading    

http://jerz.setonhill.edu/writing/argument/toulmin.html http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/teaching/co300man/list10.cfm http://www.unl.edu/speech/comm109/Toulmin/index.htm http://www.public.asu.edu/~macalla/toulmintime.html

View more...


Copyright � 2017 NANOPDF Inc.