AP Review - Learning

January 6, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Social Science, Psychology
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Learning • Learning versus Instincts • Simple forms of learning – Habituation – Mere exposure effect

Learning • Classical Conditioning – Ivan Pavlov – Neutral stimulus – Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) – Unconditioned response (UCR) – Acquisition – Conditioned stimulus (CS) – Conditioned response (CR)

Learning

Learning

Learning • Operant Conditioning – B.F. Skinner – Positive and negative reinforcement – Contingencies of reinforcement – Schedules o reinforcement – Ratio or interval – Fixed versus variable – Primary and secondary reinforcers – Premack principle

Cognitive Learning • Insight learning - problem solving occurs by means of a sudden reorganization of perceptions – Wolfgang Köhler

Cognitive Learning • Cognitive maps - mental representation of physical space – Edward Tolman

Cognitive Learning • Albert Bandura Bobo doll experiment

The story of Sabra overcoming he fear of flying and getting the job illustrates the concept of A. B. C. D. E.

Good luck Learning Hard Work Skill Talent

75%

15% 5%

5% 0%

A.

B.

C.

D.

E.

The type of learning in which association plays a major role is A. B. C. D. E.

Classical conditioning Instinctual learning Operant conditioning Social learning Insight learning

50% 40%

5%

5%

D.

E.

0% A.

B.

C.

When you learn to ignore the sound of traffic on the busy street where you live, you are exhibiting A. B. C. D. E.

100%

Unlearning Habituation Conditioning Instinct Prompting

0% A.

0% B.

C.

0%

0%

D.

E.

You were conditioned to smile when you hear Christmas carols. During the summer, this response diminishes. However, in November when you hear these songs, you begin to smile again. In classical conditioning, the return of this response is known as

A. B. C. D. E.

Acquisition Extinction Reconditioning Spontaneous recovery Generalizations

85%

15% 0% A.

0% B.

C.

0% D.

E.

You were frightened by a yellow cat when you were a child. Now you get scared whenever you see any cat. In classical conditioning, this response would be known as A. B. C. D. E.

Spontaneous recovery Discrimination Generalization Insight Extinction

100%

0%

0%

A.

B.

C.

0%

0%

D.

E.

Dr. Susie has a client who is exhibiting an undesirable conditioned fear. Susie decides to try a therapeutic strategy called __________ conditioning to extinguish the response.

A. B. C. D. E.

Appetitive Aversive Reflex Stimulus Counter

62%

19%

0% A.

19%

0% B.

C.

D.

E.

Your psychology professor gives several scheduled short quizzes and three scheduled tests throughout the semester. She is using a __________schedule of reinforcement.

A. B. C. D. E.

Fixed interval Variable ratio Variable interval Fixed ratio Continuous

43%

19%

19%

19%

0% A.

B.

C.

D.

E.

Stimuli that fulfill basic needs and acts as a reinforce are called_______ reinforcers.

A. B. C. D. E.

Secondary Natural Conditioned Primary Neutral

95%

0% A.

5% B.

0% C.

0% D.

E.

Punishment is designed to ______ a behavior while negative reinforcement is designed to _______ a behavior.

A. B. C. D. E.

Increase, decrease Extinguish, repeat Highlight, emphasize Repeat, extinguish Decrease, increase

65%

20% 10% 5% 0% A.

B.

C.

D.

E.

The lights in your house went out and it was pitch dark in your house. You were able to navigate to the kitchen because of a _______ map.

A. B. C. D. E.

Navigation Cognitive Memory Representation Environmental

90%

5% A.

5% B.

C.

0%

0%

D.

E.

You are in the grocery store waiting to check out. Your son cries because he wants candy. When you give in to his demands to make the tantrum stop, he has been ________. 70%

A. B. C. D. E.

Positively reinforced Socially reinforced Negatively reinforced Positively punished Classical conditioning 15% 10% 5% 0% A.

B.

C.

D.

E.

Your teacher says that if everyone stays quiet for the next thirty minutes, the class would have no homework. This is an example of…

A. B. C. D. E.

Positive reinforcement Negative reinforcement Classical conditioning Positive punishment Negative reinforcement

65%

20% 15%

0% A.

B.

C.

0% D.

E.

Kohler’s study of chimpanzees suggests that they reorganize their perceptions, a mental process he called ______ learning. A. B. C. D. E.

85%

Operant Latent Classical Insight Perceptual

15% 0%

0%

0%

A.

B.

C.

D.

E.

Jack learned how to shoot a free-throw by watching his older brother. Bandura called this ________ learning. 100%

A. B. C. D. E.

Insight Latent Imitational Perceptual Observational

0%

0%

0%

A.

B.

C.

0% D.

E.

The part of the brain most implicated in the development of cognitive is the_______. 40%

A. B. C. D. E.

Thalamus Hippocampus Hypothalamus Limbic system Cerebellum

20%

20%

20%

0% A.

B.

C.

D.

E.

Studies of learning have shown that animals develop a aversion for tastes associated with…

A. B. C. D. E.

95%

Electric shock Extinguished association Sickness Novel stimuli Starvation

5% A.

0% B.

C.

0%

0%

D.

E.

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