Baroque 3 - midworld productions

January 6, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Arts & Humanities, Music, Music History
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• Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) • Came from long line of GERMAN musicians • Plus four of his sons became influential musicians themselves • Grew up in church music • First $$ / non-church gig was court conductor for Prince of Cothen • The Brandenburg Concertos grew out of this period.

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Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) Went back to church position Director for St. Thomas Church Responsible for four main town churches in Leipzig • Remained @ position until death • Became involved in music education in Leipzig • In later years his eye sight left him and was completely blind at death

• Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) • Not recognized at time as greatest Baroque composer but considered most eminent organist and improviser • Bach created masterpieces in ever Baroque Form except Opera • Vocal pieces mainly for the church • Instrumentals had secular influence

• Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) • At this time secular and sacred music styles are very close to each other • Bach would often rewrite same pieces to fit one or the other • Baroque is music revived in 19th and 20th cen. • Bach becomes focus of serious music students • Recognized as the preeminent composer of the Age

• Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) • Considered the master of….

• The Fugue • Can be written for a group of instruments or voices but…. • Mostly found on organ and harpsichord • polyphonic piece • top line soprano • bottom line bass other voices vary in between • based around main theme called SUBJECT

• Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) • The Fugue….

• The SUBJECT • Subject stays mostly constant through out • But changes as it is moved into new keys and combines rhythmically with other lines • Form is flexible but beginning is always the same • Subject is started alone in soprano • Followed by solo Answer in another voice

• Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750)

• The Fugue • Subject is often accompanied throughout fugue by Countersubject • Episode can by linking material that has nothing to do with subject directly • Fugues sometimes introduced by short piece called a Prelude

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Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) LISTENING JOURNAL: BACH, Organ Fugue in G Minor (Little Fugue) Bach has another G minor fugue that is longer Subject goes into major keys for contrast Subject goes into organist feet when played in the bass


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Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) The Baroque Suite sets of dance inspired movements all movements in the same key but vary in tempo, meter, and character suites differ from national origin played for private parties court concerts background music for dinner outdoor fest

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Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) The Baroque Suite Form is usually binary AABB Suites often begin with non-dance inspired movement. • Most famous is the French Overture which has specific form • (slow & grand followed by fugue like section)

• Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) • The Baroque Suite • LISTENING JOURNAL: • Bach, Suite No.3 in D Major • Fourth Movement of this Suite • Shortest Movement of this Suite • Livelier dance number • AABB form • Duple meter

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Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) The Chorale & Church Cantata Bach was Lutheran Lutheran service was the social event of the week in Leipzig • Chorale or HYMN TUNE • sung in German not Latin • easy tune to sing along too.

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Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) The Chorale & Church Cantata Cantata uses these Chorales as a base Expands them with orchestration and new material • May last as long as 25 minutes • In Bach’s day… would include several movements of choruses, recitatives, arias, and duets

• Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) • The Chorale & Church Cantata • In this way Cantata’s resembled Opera • But…..

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Based on sacred themes Much shorter than a full Opera Less acting & drama Typical of Baroque for line between Sacred and Secular to be thin • Bach wrote about 295 Cantatas

• Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) • The Chorale & Church Cantata

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LISTENING JOURNAL: Bach, Cantata No. 140 IV & VII movments IV movement ritornello and basso continuo play instrumental with chorale tune against it in alternating sections • VII movement • chorale throughout with instrumental doubling • homophonic instrumental accompaniment

• Another Sacred style work………

• The Oratorio • Along with Cantata and Opera, The Oratorio is major vocal music development of Baroque • Like opera with text narrative • Set for chorus, soloist, and orchestra • But no acting ,no scenery, or costumes • First appears in 17th cen. Italy as musical drama’s of biblical stories. • Messiah =best-known oratorio by Handel

• George Frideric Handel (1685-1759) • Master of Italian Opera and English Oratorio • Born in Germany just 1 month (same year 1685) before JS BACH • Not from a Musical Family • Father wanted him to study law • Child prodigy by 9 • Father eventually allows him to study music by age 11 • At 11 he was composing and giving lessons

• George Frideric Handel (1685-1759) • Age 18 goes to Hamburg to renowned opera house • Played violin and harpsichord in the orchestra of opera house at Hamburg • At 21 his operas are beginning to be performed • Traveled to Italy and London to study

• George Frideric Handel (1685-1759)

• While in London……. • Became a favorite of the Queen of England • Became the director of Royal Academy of Music • Begins to write English Oratorios

• George Frideric Handel (1685-1759) • Handel is held as near equal to Bach in Music History • Although huge output is mostly vocal • ----Italian Opera and English Oratorio---• Handel’s music has more changes in texture than Bach’s • Less Unity of Mood

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George Frideric Handel (1685-1759) LISTENING JOURNAL: 2 Pieces from The Messiah Messiah is New Testament text that doesn’t follow specific story • Just the subject of the messiah (which was unusual) • Messiah written 1741 premiere in Dublin • Successful but took almost a decade to find popularity in England

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George Frideric Handel (1685-1759) LISTENING JOURNAL: Handel, Every Valley, from Messiah Aria that opens with orchestral ritornello Chorale text based on new testament verse from Isaiah • Vivid word painting

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George Frideric Handel (1685-1759) LISTENING JOURNAL: Handel, Hallelujah Chorus, from Messiah One of the world’s most famous chorales Sudden changes in texture Took text from other holy works (revelation of St. John)

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