Baroque and Rococo

January 6, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: History, European History, Renaissance (1330-1550)
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Baroque and Rococo 17th and 18th Century

Baroque The term Baroque once had a negative meaning.  The name is derived from Baroque pearls 

◦ pearls with unusual, odd shapes 

Compared to Renaissance art, it was considered to be ◦ “over-dramatic” ◦ The architecture, “overly decorated”.

Baroque Pearl

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Baroque Style Baroque style is Dramatic  Strong Contrast of Light and Dark  Dynamic Composition  Architecture is decorative / many details 



Roman Catholic Church supported Baroque art style in response to the Protestant Reformation (movement to reform Catholic Church) ◦ communication of religious themes with viewer's direct and emotional involvement



Aristocracy adopted Baroque style ◦ to impress visitors and to express triumphant power and control



Baroque Style spread throughout Europe ◦ Italy, Holland, France, Spain, and England.

Baroque Art – 1600-1750 Catholic Countries: Italy, Flanders (Flemish), Spain, France Common Traits that reflect the values of the time: -Gigantic religious works to display their faith’s triumph and to over-whelm and attract new worshippers.

-Massive displays of wealth by absolute monarchs to enchant and impress visitors.

Baroque Art – 1600-1750 Catholic Countries: Italy, Flanders (Flemish), Spain, France

What to look for: -Use of light – harsh light from single source to concentrate your eye (chiaroscuro but for focal point…). -Saints and miracles looking like ordinary people and events

Baroque Art – 1600-1750 Catholic Countries: Italy, Flanders (Flemish), Spain, France

What to look for:

-Use of light – harsh light from single source to concentrate your eye (chiaroscuro but for focal point…). -Saints and miracles looking like ordinary people and events -dynamic explosion of energy – images captured at height of action -VERY voluptuous female nudes -portraits – posed to show refinement but looked “real” -huge clouds in landscapes

Baroque Art – 1600-1750 Two distinct “schools” of Baroque Art:

1. Catholic Countries: Italy, Flanders (Flemish or Austrian/Spanish Netherlands), Spain, France

2. Protestant Countries: England & Holland (Dutch)

Italian Baroque

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Annibale Carracci, Loves of the Gods, 1597 – 1601, Ceiling Fresco



Commissioned by Cardinal Farnese to celebrate the wedding of his brother



Various Gods and Humans in love“quadro riportato” – looks like framed easel paintings



Inspired by Italian Renaissance art (Michelangelo, Raphael, Titian)

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Annibale Carracci, Loves of the Gods

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Comparison

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Baroque fresco

Renaissance fresco

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Caravaggio, Conversion of St. Paul, 1601, Oil on Canvas

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Story of Pharisee Saul converting to Christianity



Appears to be an accident in the horse stable (everyday life)



Caravaggio used strong light and dark / shadowy style (greatly influenced European art)



Perspective and Chiaroscuro (light and shadow) used to bring the viewer closer to the event

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Caravaggio, Calling of St. Matthew, 1597 – 1601, Oil on Canvas



Christ enters from the right to summon Levi (a Roman tax collector) to a “higher calling”



Bland street scene (“normal, everyday life”)



Caravaggio’s style of strong light and shadowLight as a symbol of God

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Comparison

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Caravaggio, Crucifixion of St. Peter



Caravaggio, Judith Slaying Holofernes

Artemisia Gentileschi Judith Slaying Holofernes

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Gianlorenzo Bernini, Baldacchino, 1624 – 1633, Gilded Bronze



Bronze “canopy” over the tomb of St. Peter



Focal point of church



Made from Bronze of doors of the ancient Roman Pantheon (Pantheon was a temple for Pagan religion)



Commissioned by the Barberini Family

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Bernini •Expressive •Dynamic •Energetic

David

David

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St. Peter's, Rome exterior – late Renaissance (Completed 1690) designed in part by Michelangelo



Largest interior of any Catholic Church in world – holds up to 60, 000 people

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Ancient Roman Pantheon, 125 – 28 CE

Bernini Italian

The Ecstasy of St. Theresa

Bernini Italian

Baldachin of St. Peter’s Cathedral

This supreme example of Baroque art was the first masterpiece that the twenty-six year old genius, Gianlorenzo Bernini made for St. Peter's Basilica. It is impossible not to admire this fantastic, sumptuous bronze canopy supported by four spiral columns, richly decorated with gold, as it majestically rises upward. It is the largest known bronze artwork. He sent most of his life working on St. Peter’s Cathedral

Pietro da Corton, The Triumph of Divine Providence

Spanish Baroque

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Diego Valazquez,Las Meninas (The Maids of Honor),1656

 

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Informal family portrait Theme “Mystery of the Visual World”



Young Princess in middle “Infantata”



Maids in waiting helping her



Her favorite dwarfs and her dog



Valasquez is working on large canvas (portrait of King Philip IV and Queen Mariana (reflections in mirror)



Man framed in doorway

Diego Valazquez, Surrender of Breda, 1634 – 1635,



Made for King Philip IV



Spanish Victory over Dutch in 1625



Spanish troops on right (organized - victory)



Dutch troops on left (disorganized – defeat)



Spanish General patting the back of Dutch General

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Francisco de Zurbaran, Saint Serpion, 1628,



St. Serpion (Martyr) – tied to a tree and tortured (devotion to religion)



St. Serpion - monk born in England ◦ “commoner”



De Zurbaran inspired by Caravaggio’s light and shadow



Figure fills the foreground (close to viewer)

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Dutch Baroque

Baroque Art – 1600-1750

Protestant Countries: Holland (Dutch) & England

Common Traits that reflect the values of the time: -Still lifes -Landscapes -Portraits -Very little to no religious imagery

Independence from Spain  Trade and Banking = Patrons of Art  Protestant rejected religious art, traded for portraits, genre scenes, and landscapes 

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Rembrandt van Rijn Self-Portrait in a Cap, Etching, 1630



Created when he was a student



Exercise in lighting, expression



Rembrandt created at least 70 self-portraits during his lifetime (oil paintings and etchings)

Rembrant Self-Portraits

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Rembrandt van Rijn, Return of the Prodigal Son,



Stillness / inward contemplation (less dramatic than Italian Baroque paintings)



Humility and humanity of Christ



Father and Son relationship (father forgiving Christ)



Light mixed with shadow



Light focused on father and son

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Rembrant, Anatomy Lesson of Dr.Tulp

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Frans Hals, The Women of the Regents of the Old Men’s Home at Haarlem, 1664



Somber and Serious



Very orderly composition



Monochromatic Color Palette (black and white and gray)



Women look out of painting (2 look at viewer)

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Vermeer Dutch

The Geographer

French Baroque

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Louis XIV expanded the Louve and extended expenses for the building and completion of versailles

Hyancinthe Rigaud, Louis XIV, 1701,



King Louis XIV



Grandiose



Absolute Monarchy



Wore high heels to make him taller (5’4”)

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Jules Hardouin-Mansart and Charles Le Brun, Hall of Mirrors (Palace of Versailles), 1680, interior architecture



Hall of Mirrors in King Louis XIV’s Palace of Versailles



Mirror – Baroque source of illusion



100’s of rooms in palace



Rich decoration / details

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Rococo

Rococo     

Means pebble, or shell Refined, fanciful, playful style fashionable in France due to Louis XIV’s pampered lifestyle. 1700-1789 Scenes showed the luxuries and leisurely pursuits of aristocrats and the wealthy More decorative and non-functional then Baroque

Rococo Style Pastel colors  Delicately curving forms  Dainty figures,  Light hearted  Sensual and erotic 

Jean Baptiste Simeon, Boy Blowing Soap Bubbles



Antoine Watteau, L’Indifferent



Anotine Watteau, Return from Cythera



Francois Boucher, Cupid a Captive

Jean-Onore Fragonard, The Swing

William Hogarth, Breakfast Scene, from Marriage a la Mode

Jean Honore Fragonard, The Secret Meeting

Jean Honore Fragonard ,The Lover Crowned

Jean Honore Fragonard , The Bathers

Jean Honore Fragonard , Marquise de Pompadour

• Compare and Contrast each “David”. • Discuss the Artist, Time Period, and Materials used • Discuss what style characteristics are evident in each piece and how does it compare to the others? • Discuss the theme and situation that the statue portrays. How Does it fit in the time period?

David

Compare and Contrast Compare the artwork of Baroque and Rococo.  What characteristics of style did they have in common? In contrast?  What were the themes of Baroque? Of Rococo?  What was going on in society when Baroque was popular?  What was going on in society during the Rococo period? 

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