Born in Blood and Fire chap 3

January 6, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: History, US History
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BORN IN BLOOD AND FIRE

Chapter 3: Independence (pages 90-116)

KEY QUESTIONS  What

was the context in which independence was gained?  What events and ideas influenced the revolutions?  Who was and who was not involved? To what extent were they involved?  How did the outcomes of the revolutions match the founding ideals?

Violence and Invasion  Napoleonic Wars (1799-1815  Carlos IV drove state into bankruptcy  Imprisonment of  Increased taxes and Spanish king gave sale of political offices colonies de facto for revenue independence Bad government in Spain



Resentment among Spanish Americans

EUROPEAN CONTEXT

EUROPEAN IDEAS FLY ACROSS THE ATLANTIC

•Loyalists Peninsulars •Selected first •Privileged jobs

Creoles Natives, Africans, Mixed Descent

•Compete with Peninsulars •Rebels •Maybe rebels •80% of the population •Annoyed by Creoles in daily life

Slaves???

SOCIAL HIERARCHIES AND REVOLUTIONARY CRIES

AMERICAN REBELLIONS BEGIN SLOWLY 





Mexico Hidalgo inspires peasants, but “too !Viva la revolucion! indigenous for the Creoles Father Morelos, a mestizo, energies creoles and lower classes Peru Tupac Amaru II’s revolt of 1780s scare away creoles from uniting natives

Venezuela + Argentine  Both had active creole movements against Spain

CREOLES FOUND THEMSELVES IN A PICKLE

Too few Creoles for a revolution  Considered indigenous rebellions dangerous  Need to unite with lower classes to fight Peninsulars











“NATIVISM” Birthplace distinguishes “them” from “us” Creoles, Natives and Mestizo were now Americanos Peninsulars were not Americanos Now Americanos v Peninsulars

UNITING CREOLES AND NATIVES AGAINST SPAIN

BACKGROUND 





King Jao was living in Brazil to escape Napoleon Jao left son to rule over Brazil when forced back to Portugal New leader declared “Empire of Brazil”

KEY DIFFERENCES 



WHAT ABOUT BRAZIL?

No need to fight the king— the king declared independence Imperial army too small to oppose declaration

SIMON BOLIVAR  Began revolutions in Venezuela  Moved to Ecuador  Finished the work of an Martin after he fled to Europe

JOSE DE SAN MARTIN 







THE LIBERATORS

Launched surprise attack from Argentina through Chile From Chile, captured Lima, Peru Made his way towards the center of the continent, but had to flee Bolivar finished liberation in highlands

SPANISH CONTROL

CREOLE CONTROL

Patriarchy

Patriarchy

Racism

Racism

Classicism

Classicism

UNFINISHED REVOLUTION?

WAS BOLIVAR THE LATIN GEORGE WASHINGTON?

VOCABULARY TO KNOW

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