Breaking the Silence - Women in Peril
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BREAKING THE SILENCE: WOMEN IN PERIL 21ST ANNUAL NURSING EXCELLENCE IN LEADERSHIP AND EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE
PI THETA CHAPTER, UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS ELEANOR MANN SCHOOL OF NURSING Carolyn Mosley, PhD, RN, CS, FAAN, ANEF April 16, 2012
NATIONAL DOMESTIC VIOLENCE STATISTICS • •
A women is beaten every 12 seconds in the US 35% of all emergency room visits are a result of domestic violence Crimes are committed by men against women in 92% of all domestic violence cases Of those who abuse their partner, over 65% also physically and/or sexually abuse the children Each day 4 women die as a result of abuse Each day 3 children die as a result of abuse
ARKANSAS DOMESTIC VIOLENCE STATISTICS YEAR 2000 2001
RANK 7th in Nation 7th in Nation (Ranked 1st
2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
11th in Nation 18th in Nation 12th in Nation 6th in Nation 8th in Nation 4th in Nation 7th in Nation
in Nation for African American Female Domestic Related Deaths)
(Violence Policy Center Report, When Men Murder Women, 2010)
SEPTEMBER 15, 2009 ARKANSAS SUMMARY DOMESTIC VIOLENCE COUNT 606 victims served in one day • 71% - individual support/advocacy • 63% - emergency shelter • 46% - group support/advocacy • 43% - transportation • 37% - children’s support/advocacy • 31% - court accompaniment/advocacy • 23% - advocacy related to public benefits/TANF/welfare • 20% transitional housing • Answered 7 hotline calls every hour
UNMET REQUESTS FOR SERVICES •
60% - not enough funds for needed programs and services
26% - not enough staff
20% no available beds or funding for hotels
11% - limited funding for translators, bilingual staff, or accessible equipment
RISK FACTOR FOR THE PERPETRATOR • •
• • • • • • • •
Seeing or being a victim of violence as a child Using drugs and/or alcohol, especially drinking heavily Being violent or aggressive in the past Not having a job or other life events that cause stress Low academic achievement Marital conflict or instability Traditional male norms/societal norms supportive of violence Depression Personality disorders Weak community sanctions
Note: These are just a few risk factors.
FEMALE VICTIMS OF VIOLENCE AND PERCENT INCREASE BY NETWORK-’04-’09 Network
EFFECTS OF ABUSE ON CHILDREN •
WHY DO THE ABUSED STAY? • •
• • •
Fear of the batterer’s violence Immobilization by psychological and/physical trauma Connection to perpetrator through children Belief in cultural, family or religious values Continual hope and belief that violence will end or he will change Belief that batter will commit suicide Lack of funds Lack of real alternatives for employment and financial assistance
DOMESTIC VIOLENCE IMPACT ON HEALTH Physical • Cuts, scratches, bruises, and welts • Internal bleeding, head trauma, broken bones • Disfigurement, disability • Abdominal/thoracic injuries, • Ocular damage Psychological/Emotional • Panic attacks • Post traumatic stress disorder • Eating and sleep disorders • Inability to trust others • Somatic complaints • Depression, anxiety, suicidal behavior • Substance abuse
ECONOMIC COSTS OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE • •
• • • •
ED visits Outpatient visits Overnight in hospital Physician visits Dental visits Ambulance/paramedic services Physical therapy visits Cost
458, 096 306, 051 758, 066 860,346 216,955 85,070 974,693 $8.3 billion
(Cost of Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in the United States, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, March 2003)
UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS CLINTON SCHOOL OF PUBLIC SERVICE Needs • Violence prevention education • Funds/resources • Training for service providers • More mental health counselors with expertise on treating victims of violence, and relationship building among service providers. Gaps • Not enough service providers/counselors • Not enough prevention education
UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS CLINTON SCHOOL OF PUBLIC SERVICE Gaps (cont.) Lack of services for people with mental health issues Lack of violence prevention programs for youth Lack of standardized program for batterer
2011 ARKANSAS DOMESTIC LEGISLATION SB 751/Act 1004—An act to provide for adult abuse and domestic violence reporting. This Act states that a health care provider may report to a law enforcement agency an injury to an adult that they believe may be due to domestic violence. This report may be made if the injured adult agrees to the disclosure or if the health care provider feels the report is necessary to prevent serious harm to the adult. The injured adult must be informed of the report and the health care provider is immune from criminal or civil liability for making or deciding not to make the report.
2011 ARKANSAS DOMESTIC LEGISLATION HB 2001/Act 1049—An act regarding the care of pets under the domestic abuse act. This act list new relief that the court may provide in an order of protection. An order may now include language that directs the care, custody or control of any pet owned, possessed, leased, kept or held by either party residing in the household.
2011 ARKANSAS DOMESTIC LEGISLATION •
HB 2198/Act 1199– An act to require a law enforcement officer to complete continuing education and training relating to persons with disabilities in a law enforcement context. This act states that as part of certification requirements of the Arkansas Commission on Law Enforcement Standards and Training, all law enforcement officers shall complete a minimum of six hours yearly on training related to persons with disabilities in a law enforcement context.
SO WHAT FOR YOU? •
Research opportunities that address demographic, social, and environmental factors that may account for variations in victimization rates among women of different racial and ethnic backgrounds and the link between victimization experienced as a minor and subsequent victimization. Research that ask what distinguishes men who are able to form healthy, non violent relationships despite childhood adversity from those who become abusive? Development and testing of prevention strategies Career opportunities working with this population of individuals