A multi-agency partnership jointly chaired by Bristol City Council, Avon & Somerset Police and Unseen
Level 1 Training Learning Outcomes: - A basic understanding and awareness of modern slavery - What to look out for - How you can support a potential victim
What is Modern Slavery? Someone is in slavery if they are: • forced to work - through mental or physical threat • owned or controlled by an 'employer', usually through mental or physical abuse or the threat of abuse • dehumanised, treated as a commodity or bought and sold as 'property' • physically constrained or has restrictions placed on his/her freedom of movement
What is Human Trafficking?
Trafficking is the movement of people by means such as force, fraud, coercion or deception with the aim of exploiting them It is a form of Modern Slavery
Who is affected? • Contemporary slavery takes various forms and affects people of all ages, gender and races. • Slavery can include victims that have been brought from overseas, and vulnerable people in the UK • Slavery is an international crime, affecting an estimated 21 million people around the world* • The Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948 states that “No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms.” • 2,744 cases were reported in the UK in 2013 a 22% increase on the number of cases reported between 2012-2013** * International Labour Organisation **UK National Referral Mechanism Statistics 2013
Types of Slavery & Trafficking FORCED LABOUR: Victims are forced to work against their will, often working very long hours for little or no pay in dire conditions under verbal or physical threats of violence.
DEBT BONDAGE: Victims are forced to work to pay off debts that realistically they never will be able to.
SEXUAL EXPLOITATION: Victims are forced to perform non-consensual or abusive sexual acts against their will, such as prostitution, escort work and pornography. Adults are coerced often under the threat of force, or another penalty.
CRIMINAL EXPLOITATION: Often controlled and maltreated, victims are forced into crimes such as cannabis cultivation or pick pocketing against their will.
DOMESTIC SERVITUDE: Victims are forced to carry out housework and domestic chores in private households with little or no pay, restricted movement, very limited or no free time and minimal privacy often sleeping where they work.
Top Countries of Origin 250
200 150 Adult 100
50 0 Albania
Vietnam Romania Country of Origin
Where are trafficked people found? Farms Traveller Sites Labouring jobs Nail Bars Massage Parlours/private residences Cannabis Factories Car Washes Local Neighbourhoods & Residences Houses of multiple occupancy Takeaways/Restaurants At the airport- arrivals and leaving Homeless Shelters Missing persons
Case Studies • • • • •
Hung - Cannabis farming Sara – Domestic servitude Mirela – Sexual exploitation Mike – Forced Labour Liubo and Biatka – Debt Bondage
What to look out for • • • • • • •
Physical Appearance Isolation Poor living conditions Few or no personal effects Restricted freedom of movement Unusual travel times Reluctance to seek help
Potential Indicators • Do they have access to passport and travel documents • How did they get to the UK? • Are they scared of anyone/for anyone? • Did they choose the work they are doing? • Do they seem worried about their immigration status in the UK? • Did they get to choose where they lived? • Can they leave if they want to?
Potential Indicators • Evidence of control over movement (as individual or group) • Found in location likely to be used for exploitation • Money taken from what they are earning to cover travel, accommodation, food • Lack of English • Poor physical condition • Appears fearful of authorities/person who is controlling them • Doesn’t know work or home address • Threats against family or themselves
The National Referral Mechanism (NRM) • The National Referral Mechanism (NRM) is a framework for identifying victims of human trafficking and ensuring they receive the appropriate protection and support • Referral via a first responder agency • The NRM grants a minimum 45-day reflection and recovery period for victims of human trafficking • Victims receive: Temporary safe accommodation Medical treatment Help to cope with experience Interpreters Help finding independent legal advice
What to do • Use the Referral Pathways • If the person is at immediate risk call 999 • Call Salvation Army 24/7 accommodation and immediate advice helpline – 0300 303 8151 • Email any suspicions/concerns to [email protected]