Causes of the Civil War
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A Project on the development of the U.S. after the Constitution
Project Details Multi Media Power Point Groups of 4-5 Chapters 6-10 150 total points Due Monday November 4 2013
Power Point: Minimum of 10 slides and 5 images covering the
assigned chapter. 50 pts Minimum of 2 video clips embedded no longer that 10 minutes each (unless otherwise approved by teacher). 20 pts Minimum of 1 primary source document that group will lead the class through an analysis of via comprehension reading questioning or close reading techniques (see me for help). 20 pts Presentation follow –up: create a quiz, game or activity that helps students review important content in the presentation. 10 pts
AZ State Standard on the Civil War:
Regional conflicts led to the Civil War and resulted in significant changes to American social, economic, and political structures. According to the standard, what “caused” the Civil War?
Analyzing Causes through Primary Sources Each group will get an envelope, but DO NOT open it until I tell you to do so. In each envelope there are 10 primary source documents. Read or examine each document as a group and then decide how you can organize them by topic or category (you come up with the categories). Each of you should choose 2 documents you can explain to the class, including the category and reason)
Road Map to the Civil War With a group of no more than 4 you are going to create a road map of America documenting important events leading up to the Civil War in 1860. Your maps must reflect the correct geography of the time as well as an accurate historical portrait of the preCivil War Era known as Antebellum America. Let me explain!
Westward Expansion- Task One
One of the leading factors in the outbreak of the Civil War was the acquisition of new territories out west and the debate over whether these territories would be slave states or free states. Re-create the map of these Westward territories as seen on Atlas pages A28-29. Outline it in marker then fill in with colored pencil. Research the following territorial acquisitions and write a 1-2 paragraph summary about how the US came to own each territory. Louisiana Territory Texas Annexation Mexican Cession Gadsden Purchase Oregon Territory
Road Map Requirements Part 2
Draw in the states as they existed in 1860 prior to the Civil War. Label then states. Map a minimum of 10 important “stops” along your road map to mark major events/people or places that are essential for understanding the causes of the American Civil War. Each “stop” should have a 1-2 paragraph summary to explain the significance of the event and how it is a cause of the Civil War, as well as a primary source document as an “artifact” of the era The summary will be glued or taped to the map in the state/area in which it occurred or is most closely related and in a manner that allows someone to still read it and view the map. (Suggestion – use pockets) Summaries can be hand written or typed as long as it is legible, accurate and informative. The primary source document must also be explained as to how it is relevant to this “stop”. Primary sources can include letters, laws, photos, cartoons, newspaper articles or editorials…
Events/People/Places: Everyone must start at the Constitution (which counts as one “stop”). Below is a list to choose the other 9 “stops” on your road map.
Missouri Compromise Compromise of 1850 Fugitive Slave Law Uncle Tom’s Cabin Kansas Nebraska Act “Bleeding Kansas”
Political ActivismNew Parties Brooks vs. Sumner in the Senate Dred Scott Decision Lincoln-Douglas debates John Brown’s Raid Election of Lincoln Secession of South Carolina
Grading 400 points!!!!!!!
You will be graded on your overall product including historical accuracy, neatness, organization, creativity and purpose, as well as participation and planning. Historical Accuracy = 10 points per territory and each “stop” Primary Source = 10 points per source with explanation Neatness/Organization = 50 points Creativity/Purpose = 50 points Participation and Planning = 50 points
industrialized Vast networks of railroads for trade
North network – telegraph lines were strung along the railroads Immigrant workers settled in the North and worked in the factories. Against slavery because they felt it would compete with paid labor Communication
South rural – plantations and small farms Use rivers to transport goods Southern economy relied on staple crops like cotton – “King Cotton” Mainly
South immigrants settled here – there was not a need for labor b/c of slavery
The Debate Over Slavery Compromise – a series of agreements passed by Congress to maintain the balance of power between slave and free states. Established the Missouri Compromise Line 36 degree 30’ north latitude – north of that line was free – south of it was slave Missouri
Wilmot Proviso “neither
slavery or involuntary servitude shall ever exist” in any territory the United States might acquire as a result of the war with Mexico.
Wilmot Proviso Divided
Congress along regional lines – Northerners supported it and Southerners opposed it It was approved by the House of Representatives but the Senate rejected it.
Statehood for California – California applied to join the Union California’s constitution forbade slavery 1849
Statehood for California surprised the south – they assumed it would enter as a slave state because most of it lay south of the Missouri Compromise Line. South saw this as an attack on their Southern way of life. This
The Senate Debates The
issue of slavery was hotly debated in the Senate in 1849. The South threatened secession – the formal withdrawal of a state from the Union.
And Now a Little Intermission…
http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=7785615128986385422&hl=e n •http://video.yahoo.com/video/play?vid=f3efd88753d2450ec1bb30917ec b475b.550890
Compromise: Henry Clay worked day and night to find a common ground – this became known as The Compromise of 1850 California admitted as a free state Popular sovereignty in Utah and New Mexico Fugitive Slave Act – required people in the free states to help capture and return escaped slaves.
Resistance Against Slavery Some Northerners refused to follow the fugitive slave law Underground Railroad – secret network of people who would aid fugitive slaves in their escape.
Harriet Tubman – most famous “conductor”
– former slave – she returned to the South 19 times and escorted nearly 300 people to freedom in the North.
Uncle Tom’s Cabin
Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe novel made slavery not only a political struggle but a moral struggle.
Tension in Kansas - Nebraska Bill introduced in Congress by Sen. Stephen Douglas to divide the area into two territories: Nebraska in the north and Kansas in the South. This would repeal the Missouri Compromise and establish popular sovereignty for both territories. After months of bitter debate the Kansas-Nebraska Act was passed
“Bleeding Kansas” “Come
on then, gentlemen of the slave states…We will engage in competition for the virgin soil of Kansas and God give the victory to the side that is stronger in numbers as it is in right.” Sen. William Seward
“Bleeding Kansas” “border
ruffians” – from Missouri voted illegally – won the election and set up a government
“Bleeding Kansas” Abolitionists
were furious and organized a rival government
“Bleeding Kansas” Violence erupts Homes looted, buildings burned,
printing presses destroyed John Brown (Abolitionist)– believed false accounts that five men were killed by a proslavery mob. ○ He pulled five men from their beds
and hacked off their hands and stabbed them.
Violence over the issue of slavery spreads to the Senate Senator Charles Sumner delivered an impassioned speech attacking his colleagues for their support of slavery An angered nephew of South Carolina’s Sen. Butler entered the chamber and accused Sumner of libel and hit him with his cane repeatedly – Sumner suffered brain damage and didn’t return for three years
Anti-Slavery Parties Free-Soilers:
opposed the extension of slavery into the territories. Supported workers – pro-labor. Republican – opposed expansion of slavery into territories
Democratic Party Supported
Split on the issue of slavery
Dred Scott Decision Dred Scott - a slave from Missouri whose owner had taken him north to the free state of Illinois Dred sued for his freedom
Dred Scott Decision Supreme Court ruled: slaves did not have the rights of
citizens (ie… confirmed they were property and fundamentally not human) Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional as it interfered with the rights of property owners to control/manipulate/move their property
Lincoln-Douglas Debates Illinois
senate race between Abraham Lincoln and two-time senator Stephen Douglas
Lincoln-Douglas Debates Democrat
Douglas – believed in popular sovereignty to determine slave or free Slavery was not to be legislated on moral grounds – it was a backward labor system that would eventually go away with popular sovereignty
Lincoln – slavery is immoral – a labor system based on greed Need legislation in the territories to stop the spread of slavery Lincoln lost the election but these debates put him in the national spotlight and people considered him as a candidate for the presidency.
John Brown’s Raid at Harper’s Ferry: ardent abolitionist – led a slave uprising of
black and white men in Harper’s Ferry His goal – seize the federal arsenal, capture arms and start a slave uprising 60 of the town’s citizens were captured in hopes that their slaves would join the uprising, but not a single slave did. Local troops killed eight of Brown’s men Brown was captured and tried for treason and later hanged
Election of 1860
Three major candidates: Northern Democrats – Stephen Douglas Southern Democrats – Vice President Breckinridge Republicans – Abraham Lincoln Constitutional Union Party –
Lincoln Becomes President Lincoln wins with less than half of the popular vote and no electoral votes from the South States in the South respond by secession – South Carolina was first
The Confederacy is Born Delegates
from the seven secessionist states met in Montgomery, Alabama to form the Confederate States of America Delegates wrote a Confederate
Constitution (similar to the US Constitution except that it upholds the legality of slavery specifically whereas the US Constitution avoided the issue). It also guaranteed state’s rights Jefferson Davis is elected president ○ Considered “model” Southern gentleman and plantation owner.
The Big Question… Would
the North allow the South to leave the Union without a fight?
The War Begins at Fort Sumter The new Confederacy ordered that Fort Sumter (in South Carolina) be turned over to them and all U.S. troops stationed there removed or face attack. Lincoln refused to remove the troops
If he had, it would have been seen as an informal
recognition of the Confederate States as legitimate).
Jefferson Davis ordered an attack on Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861 thus starting the Civil War Union troops surrendered the Fort to the South.
Virginia seceded: prior to this Virginia was not convinced session was
constitutional, but unwilling to fight other southerner states by May the confederacy consisted of 11 states.