Ch 12, Sec 1-2: The Imperialist Vision and the Spanish

January 5, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: History, US History
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Ch 12, Sec 1-2: The Imperialist Vision and the Spanish-American War

Imperialism • The idea of economic and political domination of a strong nation over a weak nation • New idea for Americans at the turn of the century • Americans stopped focusing on U.S. problems and wanted to take over other lands for several reasons: – Economic growth – Military competition – Cultural dominance/superiority

Economics leads to Imperialism • U.S. needed new markets for trade • U.S. ran out of land to take over in America – Frontier was closed

• American factories were mass producing goods and overproducing for American needs

Cultural Superiority to Imperialism • Americans wanted to show their dominance to others • Idea of manifest destiny of new lands was strong • Spread American ideas, beliefs, and technology

Annexing Hawaii • Mid 1870s-Hawaii’s economy was struggling • U.S. traders/politicians offered to help for sugar • U.S. was given a naval base at Pearl Harbor • Traders/farmers took over Hawaii’s gov’t from 1870-1890 • McKinley Tariff was passed to make U.S. sugar cheaper than Hawaiian sugar • Hawaiian traders were angry and pushed the U.S. to annex Hawaii as a protectorate

Trade in Latin America • U.S. bought materials from Latin America • Latin America did not buy manufactured goods from the U.S. • Pan-Americanism-idea that the U.S. and Latin America should work together to support peace and increase trade • Wanted to end European influence in the Americas – Latin American countries said no

Military leads to Imperialism • U.S. wanted to start trading in Asia • Japan didn’t want anything to do with the U.S. • U.S. sent 4 military ships to Japan and forced them to allow the U.S. to trade with Japan • U.S. saw a strong military as a benefit for trade causing the military to grow bigger/stronger • Military ships needed coal for power, so the U.S. took over small islands for refueling points (led to the desire for Cuba)

The Fight Over Cuba • Cuba was a Spanish colony • Produced 1/3rd of the world’s sugar • 1868-Cubans fought for Independence for 10 years but failed • Freedom fighters fled to the U.S. for help • Cuba and the U.S. started trading heavily between each other • A second revolution started in 1895

Americans Support Cuba • America gov’t tried to remain neutral but the people wanted to help • U.S. press reported horror storied about things the Spanish troops did to the Cubans – Fed Cuban prisoners to sharks/dogs – Other articles said blood covered everything in Cuba

• Known as Yellow Journalism-created storied to sell more papers

Spanish Response to the Revolution • Sent 200,000 troops to Cuba • Destroyed plantations, train tracks, and sugar mills • They raided towns and killed 1000s of people

American response to Spain’s troops in Cuba • Cubans hoped the destroyed American property in Cuba would bring the U.S. into the war • U.S. wanted to negotiate a peace with Spain or the U.S. would have to help the Cubans • Spain said Cuba could have independence if they remained under the Spanish Empire – Cuba refused

• U.S. sent USS Maine to Havana Harbor in case Americans in Cuba had to leave

USS Maine in Havana • • • • •

Bombed in Feb 1898 Nobody knew who attacked it U.S. newspapers blamed Spain Brought the U.S. to prepare for war April 19, 1898 U.S. declared Cuba free from Spain and promised military help in Cuba to start the Spanish-American War

U.S. Plan for Spanish-American War • Attack Spanish Fleet in the Philippines to prevent it from coming to Cuba • American navy from China was sent to attack the Philippines while the army came from the west coast of the U.S. • Philippines were taken quickly between the Filipinos and Americans from Spain

Problems for the U.S. in Cuba • Navy was well funded and prepared for war • Army was in bad shape – Not enough troops – Poorly trained – Disease spread fast

Rough Riders take charge • Calvary unit in the army • Teddy Roosevelt led his troops to attack Kettle Hill and San Juan Hill in Cuba • Spanish troops started losing other battles fast • Spanish troops were sent to board ships in the Havana • U.S. Blockade destroyed these ships • Spain surrendered in Santiago, Cuba 2 weeks later

Results of the Spanish-American War • Cuba was free at last • U.S. annexed Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines • U.S. paid Spain $20 million for the Philippines

U.S. Control of the Philippines • Filipino fighters attacked U.S. soldiers • Gen. Arthur MacArthur was sent to take care of the problem • Created “reconcentration” camps to separate fighters from civilians • U.S. built up roads, hospitals, schools, and gov’t buildings to reduce tensions • Fighting stopped by 1902 • Philippines were granted freedom in 1946 after WWII ended

Governing Puerto Rico • Foraker Act-made Puerto Rico and unincorporated territory • Made Puerto Ricans non-citizens with no rights (until 1917) • U.S. could still make laws that they had to follow • Still a protectorate of the U.S. • Could be the 51st state of the U.S. some day or could be a free country again

Governing Cuba • U.S. Military ran gov’t ran Cuba • Cubans got to make a constitution to gain their freedom • Platt Amendment had to be a part of the constitution – 4 parts – U.S. was given a naval base on Cuba for refueling (Guantanamo Bay) – “Gave” Cuba their freedom but also made them a protectorate of the U.S.

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