Ch. 12 – World War I

January 5, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Social Science, Political Science, International Relations
Share Embed Donate

Short Description

Download Ch. 12 – World War I...


Ch. 11 notes

World War I (1914-1918) U.S. History

 Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand  June 28, 1914. Franz Ferdinand of AustriaHungary killed w/ his wife in the city of Sarajevo by a Serbian nationalist named Gavrilo Princip.  Event that marked the beginning of WWI.

Causes of WWI  Nationalism – extreme pride in one’s own ethnic group/nation.  Militarism – industrial revolution allowed for creation of powerful weapons & organization of large armies.  Imperialism – competition to gain colonies and control weaker nations (profit $$ & power).  Secret Alliances – European nations entangled in secret treaties & alliances to defend each other.

Causes of WWI  Central Powers – Austria-Hungary, Germany, Ottoman Empire (and Italy – changed sides in 1916)

 Allied Powers – France, Great Britain, Russia, and later United States (and Serbia – small, insignificant)

Europe in WWI

Causes of WWI  Mobilization of Alliances  Aust.-Hung, blamed Serbia for assassination of Archduke. Demanded full access to Serbian government files. Serbia refused to comply.  1) Aust.-Hung declares war on Serbia.  2) Russia mobilizes army to defend Serbs.  3) France joins Russia.  4) Germany mobilizes to aid Aust-Hung and declares war on Russia & France.

Causes of WWI  Invasion of Belgium  August 4, 1914 Germany invades Belgium on its way to France.  Great Britain ally w/ France, they also declared war on Germany in Aug. 1914.  Secret Alliances soon brought other European countries into war.

Reasons for U.S. Involvement  Supplying the Allies  President Woodrow Wilson called for U.S. to remain neutral.  Strong economic ties made neutrality almost impossible. Allies counted on U.S. for supplies.  Many Americans sympathetic to Allies – shared a common heritage w/ Great Britain.

Reasons for U.S. Involvement  British Naval Blockade  1914-1915 Great Britain set up a naval blockade in the North Sea to cut trade w/ the Central Powers. Hoped to starve Germans & Austrians into surrendering.  German U-boats (submarines) Fire  Germans began sinking any ship found in blockade zone, even passenger ships.  Lusitania – May, 1915. U-boats sank British passenger ship. 128 Americans drowned. Outraged U.S.

Reasons for U.S. Involvement  Zimmerman Telegram  Sent by Germany to Mexico in 1916, but British intercepted it. Germany asked Mexico for assistance in the war. (If Allies were defeated, Mexico would regain the southwestern United States.)  President Wilson outraged, ordered American ships to shoot U-boats on sight.

Reasons for U.S. Involvement  Declaration of War  German U-boats declared unrestricted submarine warfare on all ships found in the ocean.  March 1917 - Revolution in Russia overthrows the czar. Loss of Russia for the Allies made participation by U.S. crucial.  April 2, 1917 U.S. declares war on Germany.  “We must make the world safe for democracy.” – President Wilson

Role of U.S. Government during WWI  U.S. federal government increased control over nation during World War I.  Necessary to raise an army, finance war effort, encourage public support of war.

Role of U.S. Government during WWI  Selective Service Act (1917) – U.S. needed to raise an army. Required men to register for military draft at 21 yrs old (or older).  War Industries Board (WIB) – U.S. short on supplies early in the war. WIB to increase production and control limited resources (food, oil, etc.)

Role of U.S. Government during WWI  Financing the War – U.S. government organized Liberty Bond and Victory Loan drives to raise $ for the war effort. Held rallies, parades, etc. – Americans felt patriotic for doing their part.

Role of U.S. Government during WWI

 Feeding the Allies – Top needs were wheat, pork, sugar. Americans cut back to save food. Also grew vegetables in “victory gardens” in school playgrounds, backyards, etc. – Americans tripled amount of food sent to the Allies!

Role of U.S. Government during WWI  Attacks on Civil Liberties  U.S. govnt passed war-time laws to limit criticism of the war effort. – Espionage Act (1917) – illegal to “interfere” w/ war effort. – Sedition Act (1918) “disloyal” language about U.S. illegal. – Anti-immigrant hysteria against GermanAmericans. Some lost jobs, beaten, etc.

Role of U.S. Government during WWI  Role of Women – Thousands joined workforce to replace drafted men. Others worked as military nurses, etc. – Helped to gain public support for women’s suffrage. (19th amendment passed in 1920)

Fighting in WWI American Troops (“doughboys”) – Wilson selected General John J. Pershing to lead U.S. troops, known as the American Expeditionary Force.  Conditions of War – Soldiers fought in 25,000 miles of muddy trenches that crisscrossed Europe. Trenches mostly on Western and Eastern Fronts No glory or heroics.

Fighting in WWI  New Weapons – Gave advantage to the defense. Little ground gained. – Rapid-fire machine guns, U-boats, Mustard gas, Tanks, Airplanes, Barbed wire across “No Man’s Land”

Fighting in WWI  Battle of Argonne Forest – Sept. 1918 – American troops began major offensive against German in Argonne forest. Tide of war turned as Germans began retreating!  Armistice (cease-fire) – November 11, 1918 – German delegates signed a ceasefire in a converted railroad car in Paris. WWI was over.

End of WWI  President Wilson’s Plan for World Peace  Named the “Fourteen Points Plan” – open treaties, freedom of the seas, free trade, arms reduction, self-determination (national groups had right to their own territory and selfgovernment)  Most important part of plan included a League of Nations (to settle disputes and prevent future wars).

End of WWI  Treaty of Versailles  Peace treaty of WWI.  “War Guilt” clause - Germany is responsible for entire war, must pay reparations (damages), disarm (no military), lost territory.  New nations of Poland, Yugoslavia, and Czechoslovakia were created and carved out of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia.

End of WWI  Defeat of Treaty of Versailles  Congress thought League of Nations would entangle U.S. in another war.  U.S. rejected & refused to sign Treaty of Versailles in November 1919.

End of WWI  Conclusion…  WWI called “The Great War”. Did more destruction than any other war in history.  Treaty of Versailles set stage for international problems that led to World War II!

View more...


Copyright � 2017 NANOPDF Inc.