Ch 13 Sec 4 Soviet union under stalin Waterson
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Source R: The Stalinist Constitution
QW What can you infer about Stalin’s leadership of the Soviet Union?
Source S: Propaganda in Stalinist Russia
QW What does this source tell you about Stalin?
Man of Steel
Lenin and Stalin Aleksei Vasiliev
Lenin and Stalin in Summer 1917 Ivan Vladimirov
Totalitarian State Stalin would take power after the death of Lenin in 1924. He turned the Soviet Union into a Totalitarian State. Stalin’s Five-Year Plans *Main purpose was to build heavy industry & increase farm output. *All economic activity was brought under gov’t control - command economy was developed.
Five-Year Plans cont’d
Though output increased the standard of living remained low. *Wages were low & workers were forbidden to strike.
control of agriculture Collectives: large farms owned and operated by peasants as a group State set prices and access to supplies Peasants who did not want to give up their land resisted the collectives.
Collectivization of farms
Individual farms Each has own farmhouse Tractor Equipment etc Farmers make $ based on how productive they are. The more productive, the more $ they make.
Workers live in communal village, in govt housing projects
Collective farm – state (government) owned,
all equipment and Housing, pooled together. Everyone gets paid the same wages. All profits go to government, which then pays the workers. No incentive, no ownership of land
Stalin blamed kulaks, wealthy farmers, for resistance Land confiscated Millions were killed outright or sent to forced-labor camps to suffer a slow death.
"We farmers, on the basis of complete collectivization, will liquidate the kulaks as a class."
Angry peasants resisted collectivization by growing just enough to feed themselves. – In response the gov’t seized all their grain and purposefully left them to starve.
In 1932 this ruthless policy led to the Terror Famine-between 5 & 8 million people died in the Ukraine alone.
Stalin’s Terror Tactics Stalin ruthlessly used terror as a weapon against his own people. He committed crimes against humanity and violated his people’s individual rights.
were sent to the Gulag (a system of brutal labor camps where many died).
Hard / Physical Labor
Food was in short supply
Maria Tchebotareva Trying to feed her four hungry children during the massive 1932-1933 famine, the peasant mother allegedly stole three pounds of rye from her former field—confiscated by the state as part of collectivization. Soviet authorities sentenced her to ten years in the Gulag. When her sentence expired in 1943, it was arbitrarily extended until the end of the war in 1945. After her release, she was required to live in exile near her Gulag camp north of the Arctic Circle, and she was not able to return home until 1956, after the death of Stalin. Maria Tchebotareva never found her children after her release.
Ivan Burylov Seeking the appearance of democracy, the Soviet Union held elections, but only one Communist Party candidate appeared on the ballot for each office. Fear of punishment ensured that nearly all Soviet citizens “voted” by taking their ballot and ceremoniously placing it into a ballot box. In 1949, Ivan Burylov, a beekeeper, protested this absurd ritual by writing the word “Comedy” on his “secret” ballot. Soviet authorities linked the ballot to Burylov and sentenced him to eight years in camps for this “crime.”
The country had virtually become a labor camp
Stalin’s Terror Tactics Great
Purge (policy created by Stalin in which he eliminated rival party leaders and old Bolsheviks). –Started in 1934 –At least 4 million people were purged (killed) during the Stalin years. This puts the USSR in a bad position when it comes time to fight WWII, since Stalin liquidated many officers in the military…
Bodies were simply piled up to be buried in a mass grave
Stalin promoted atheism (the belief there is no god) as the official state policy…communism is your god.
Attempts to Control Thought
Propaganda-the attempt to boost morale & faith in the communist party by making himself (Stalin) a godlike figure.
Soviet Propaganda Poster “Look Me in the Eyes and Tell Me Honestly: Who is your friend? Who is your enemy? You have no friends among capitalists. You have no enemies among the workers. Only in a union of the workers of all nations will you be victorious over capitalism and liberated from exploitation. Down with national antagonisms! Workers of the world unite!”
"To whom goes all national profits? In the CCCP, to the workers."
“Love Your Motherland”
IN DECEMBER 1934, Sergey Kirov, a prominent early Bolshevik leader and loyal supporter of Joseph Stalin, was assassinated… a purge… …Stalin had ordered the execution.
Attempts to Control Thought Socialist
Realism-Goal to show Soviet life in a positive light & promote communism. – The following works of art illustrate socialist realism…
The Leaders: The Cult of Personality
Lenin in Front of the Globe Vladimir Sinitsky
Aleksei Nesterenko, 1938
German Tatarinov, 1950s
Lenin at the Kremlin Ivan Petrenko
Lenin in his Study
Nikolai Pavliuk, 1947
Lenin at the Smolny Institute Isaak Brodsky, 1930
Portrait of Stalin
Aleksandr Laktionov, 1945
Grigory Shpoliansky, 1949
Konstantin Lomykin, 1949
The Guiding Role of the Party
Vladimir Ilich Lenin Vasily Ivanov
Lenin With Farmers
Viacheslav Tokarev, c. 1960
Lenin with Villagers
Evdokiya Usikova, 1959
Gorky Reading to Stalin Viktor Govorov, 1940
Stalin as Organizer of the October Revolution
Stalin at a Political Meeting at the Kremlin
Stalin at the 8th Party Conference Petr Parkhets
Adoration of the Leaders
Lenin’s Arrival at Finland Station Arkady Rusin
On the Battlefield
Lenin on the Airfield
Boris Vladimirsky, 1930
Stalin in the Civil War Mikhail Bozhi, 1950
Trumpeters of the First Cavalry Mitrofan Grekov, 1934
The 1917 Revolution Karp Trokhimenko
The Return of the Victors Vasily Saicenko, 1953
Stalin and Kirov Visit the Volkhov Hydrostation Karp Trokhimenko
In the Stalin Factory Mikhail Kostinin
V. Malagis, 1950
Boris Vladimirsky, 1929
Agriculture and Education
The First Tractor
In a Girls’ School Ivan Vladimirov
Moscow State University
Mukhina’s Monument Aleksei Shovkunenko
Soviet Society Benefits Free
schooling Programs outside of school (sports) Free medical care Inexpensive housing Public recreation
communist values (atheism, glory of collective farming, love of Stalin) Housing scarce Most food in short supply
Russification Attempts to make the nations culture more Russian. 11 Soviet Republics Old Russian heartland the largest and most dominant. Attempt to overwhelm the other cultures in the USSR.