Ch. 25 Powerpoint

January 6, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: History, European History, World War II (1939-1945)
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“Despite its horrors, WWII did bring an end to the Depression in America. Millions of workers streamed back into the factories to produce airplanes, tanks and guns and to receive a welcome paycheck.”

CH. 25: WWII AT HOME, 19411945

Key Concepts  During WWII, the American economy

converted to producing materials for the war.  WWII ended the Great Depression as millions joined the wartime labor force and after the U.S. joined the war, the military.  The war was paid for with taxes and by government borrowing.

Mobilizing the War Economy  As Americans came out of the Depression,

people were eager to buy cars, refrigerators, and washing machines.  Government had to convince them to continue to sacrifice for the war effort.  The outcome of the war would depend on our

ability to produce war items

 May 1943: FDR organizes the Office of War


Conversion of the Auto Industry  Feb 10, 1942: Last day of automobile

production  Henry Ford built a new factory to produce B24 bombers  He wanted to build planes on an assembly line

(had never been done before)  Willow Run Plant  975 acres, employed 42,000+ people

New Opportunities for Profit  Secretary of War Henry Stimson  “You have to let business make money or business

won’t work.”  Cost plus system- government paid all development and production costs plus a percentage as profit on anything a company made for the war

New Markets and Methods  Robert Woodruff (Coca-Cola) “We will see

that every m an in uniform gets a bottle of Coca-Cola for 5¢ wherever he is and whatever it costs the company.”  Civilians at home increased their consumption to

help support to the program

 Henry J. Kaiser introduced mass production

techniques to shipbuilding  1941: It took 355 days to build a Liberty Ship  1945: It took only 14 days

Workers, the War and Unions  Union membership rose  10.5 million in 1941 to 14.8 million in 1945

 Labor and business representatives agreed to

no strikes or lockouts  Strikes did occur, but they were not endorsed by

the unions

 United Mine Workers called a strike in 1943  Coal prices soared and wages remained the same  Secretary of the Interior negotiated an end to the


Financing the War  Tax increases paid for 41% of the cost

 Revenue Act of 1942 set the income tax rate at 5%  U.S. Treasury sold war bonds

 Other money was borrowed  Deficit spending became a habit after WWII

“While American soldiers crouched in foxholes overseas, friends and families supported their struggle on the home front. Rationing and conserving resources, like gasoline, scrap metal and rubber, drew most of the country into the war effort.”


Key Concepts  The mood on the American home front was one of cooperation and determined optimism.  American consumers had money in their pockets for the first time in years and they looked for ways to spend it.  Shortages of many basic items, such as sugar,

meat and gasoline, plagued the wartime economy.  The government sought to maintain morale at home through various public relations campaigns.

Prosperity and Popular Culture  Money to burn  Cars were not available to buy  Book sales increased  62% of the population went to the movies each week

 Baseball and Popular Music  4,000 out of 5,700 major and minor league players enlisted in the


 Teams placed want ads in newspapers to find players  1943: Philip Wrigley began the All-American Girls’ Softball League

 Became the All-American Girls’ Baseball League in 1945  Music

 Frank Loesser’s “Praise the Lord and Pass the Ammunition”  “White Christmas”

Shortages and Controls  Clothing-no metal and less cloth available  Vests, patch pockets and cuffs eliminated from men’s suits  2 piece bathing suits were justified because the military

needed the fabric for uniforms

 Food  Sugar couldn’t be imported from the Philippines, nor could

coffee from Brazil  Meat was sent to the military

 1941: FDR created the Office of Price Administration

to stop inflation  Rationing begins in 1942

 Sugar ,coffee, meat, butter, shoes and gas

Campaigns at Home  Government had to create a sense of

patriotism and participation in order to convince the public to conserve resources  Scrap metal and other materials were collected for war time production  Cooking fats were saved to make powder for


 “Play your part,” “Conserve and collect,” “Use

it up, wear it out, make it do or do without.”

“During WWII, thousands of American women rolled up their sleeves and went to work in defense plants and shipyards. Adapting quickly to work usually done by men and overcoming a sometimes cold welcome from fellow male employees, they helped satisfy the Allies’ urgent need for military goods.”


Key Concepts  During WWII, American women of all ages

went to work.  Women were successful in their new jobs despite the hardships and discrimination they faced.  At the end of the war, women were strongly encouraged to leave their jobs, whether they wanted to or not.

Rosie the Riveter  Fictional character used in posters and

propaganda  Created by the government to get women to help in the effort

Shifting Patterns of Employment  Young single women were already working

 The goal was to entice older, married women into the workforce  1941: 14.6 million working women, 1944: 19.4

mill.  ¾ of working women were married  By the end of the war, ½ of women workers were married

The Wartime Working Experience  Working conditions for women of color  They faced racial and gender discrimination  Through lawsuits and protest African American

women were able to change some of their workplace situations

 Benefits of Employment  Pay off debts from the Depression  Sense of independence

 Show their patriotism

Problems for Working Women  Hostile reactions from male workers

 Work restrictions  Child care  Responsibilities in the home

 Low wages

The Postwar Push to “Demobilize” Women  Women were expected to leave their jobs

after the war  Men returning from war wanted their jobs back and needed them  Some women wanted to go back to domestic work

“For many Americans the war broke down racial barriers in the job market. Japanese Americans, however, fell victim to bitter prejudice at home as the U.S. battled Japan abroad.”


Key Concepts  Events on the home front helped stimulate the movement for equal rights for African Americans.  Mexican Americans and Native Americans battled discrimination at home and entered the

work force in greater numbers during the war.  A large number of Japanese Americans were forced into internment camps by the U.s. government during the war, while others served courageously in the military.

The Wartime Struggle Against Jim Crow  During the 1940s, 2 mill+ African Americas migrated from   

 

the south to the north and west Population was concentrated in urban ghettos When the war began 1 in 5 African Americans was unemployed Black soldiers in Salina, KS were refused service at a lunch counter that served German POWs Military remained segregated Early 1941, A. Philip Randolph threatened a march on Washington  June 25th FDR signed Executive Order 8802, which opened jobs in

defense plants to all Americans

 1942: Congress on Racial Equality founded in Chicago

Mexican Americans and Braceros During WWII  The Bracero Program  1942 shortage of farm workers  An agreement between the U.S. and Mexico to provide

transportation, food, shelter and medical care for workers  200,000+ participants  When their contracts were over, they were sent back to Mexico

 Zoot Suit Riots  April and May 1943: Fighting breaks out between sailors and Los

Angeles residents of Mexican descent

 Zoot suit consisted of baggy pants and a long jacket    

Sailors would threaten and attack “zoot suiters” Early June 1943 fighting was widespread Zoot suiters were usually arrested, sailors were not Military officials restricted sailors’ leave time

Native Americans and the War at Home  50,000+ worked in war industries

 Native Americans who had worked in defense plants or served overseas were not as likely to return to reservations

The Japanese American Internment  1/10 of the American population

 2/3 of them were American born citizens  Others feared sabotage and spying  Feb. 19, 1942: FDR signs Executive Order 9066  Secretary of War established military zones and

removed Americans of Japanese ancestry from them  110,000 sent to internment camps  Relocations happened very quickly  Most lost everything they owned

Cont’d  All camps were located in remote areas  They had wooden barracks covered with tar paper, surrounded by

barbed wire fences and armed guards

 17,000 Japanese Americans served in the military  1,200 volunteered from internment camps

 442nd Regimental Combat Team won more medals for

bravery than any other in U.S. history  4 cases against relocation were sent ot he Supreme Court  All 4 were decided in favor of the government

 Internees were released in early 1945  Many had been left homeless

 1988: Pres. Ronald Reagan signs a law awarding $20,000 to

each surviving internee

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