Ch. 29 - Critical and Evaluative Reading Made Easy

January 8, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Social Science, Psychology, Social Psychology
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ADVANCING VOCABULARY SKILLS Fourth Edition

Sherrie L. Nist

© 2010 Townsend Press

Unit Five: Chapter 29 • adroit

• platitude

• constituent

• promiscuous

• contention

• repudiate

• irreparable spontaneous



• pinnacle

• stigma

TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.

1 adroit

– adjective

• Doris is adroit in any kind of discussion or debate. She’s very skillful at getting others to see things her way. • Adroit chess players can make it seem as if the opponent is winning, when in fact he or she is about to lose in another move or two.

Adroit means A. impulsive. B. expert. C. not selective.

TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.

1 adroit

– adjective

• Doris is adroit in any kind of discussion or debate. She’s very skillful at getting others to see things her way. • Adroit chess players can make it seem as if the opponent is winning, when in fact he or she is about to lose in another move or two.

Adroit means A. impulsive. B. expert. C. not selective. The words very skillful suggest that adroit means “expert.” It would take an expert chess player to make the opponent seem to be winning when, in fact, that opponent is about to lose.

TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.

2 constituent

– noun

• Our senator genuinely wants to represent the citizens, so she makes serious efforts to find out how her constituents feel about important issues. • Many of Councilman Hall’s constituents live in poverty, so one way he helps those he represents is by working for programs to assist the poor. Constituent means A. someone represented. B. someone who speaks well. C. an officeholder.

TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.

2 constituent

– noun

• Our senator genuinely wants to represent the citizens, so she makes serious efforts to find out how her constituents feel about important issues. • Many of Councilman Hall’s constituents live in poverty, so one way he helps those he represents is by working for programs to assist the poor. Constituent means A. someone represented. B. someone who speaks well. C. an officeholder. The word represent the citizens suggest that constituent means “someone represented.” Similarly, in the second item, the words those he represents suggest that constituent means “someone represented.”

TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.

3 contention

– noun

• The artist’s contention is that he was born in Paris, but actually he was born in a small town in Missouri. • John’s contention was that smoking hadn’t hurt his health, but right after making that statement, he had a fit of coughing that lasted ten minutes.

Contention means A. an attempt. B. a realization. C. a claim.

TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.

3 contention

– noun

• The artist’s contention is that he was born in Paris, but actually he was born in a small town in Missouri. • John’s contention was that smoking hadn’t hurt his health, but right after making that statement, he had a fit of coughing that lasted ten minutes.

Contention means A. an attempt. B. a realization. C. a claim. The artist claims (falsely) that he was born in Paris. John claims that smoking hadn’t hurt his health. (His cough suggests otherwise.)

TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.

4 irreparable

– adjective

• The damage to the vase is irreparable. It broke into so many pieces that it cannot possibly be put together again. • LaTanya apologized to Fred for her angry words, but I’m afraid the harm to their friendship is irreparable.

Irreparable means A. untrue. B. not able to be fixed. C. unnatural.

TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.

4 irreparable

– adjective

• The damage to the vase is irreparable. It broke into so many pieces that it cannot possibly be put together again. • LaTanya apologized to Fred for her angry words, but I’m afraid the harm to their friendship is irreparable.

Irreparable means A. untrue. B. not able to be fixed. C. unnatural. If the vase cannot be put together again, the damage is not able to be fixed. The harm done by LaTanya’s angry words is so great that it is not able to be fixed even by an apology.

TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.

5 pinnacle

– noun

• Robin felt that being elected class president was the pinnacle of her college years. Her parents, though, wish that she had thought of her “personal best” more in terms of academic achievement. • The rock singer seems to have reached the pinnacle of her career: she’s at the height of her popularity, and her recordings are selling more than ever before. Pinnacle means A. the highest point. B. the starting point. C. the end.

A mountain pinnacle

TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.

5 pinnacle

– noun

• Robin felt that being elected class president was the pinnacle of her college years. Her parents, though, wish that she had thought of her “personal best” more in terms of academic achievement. • The rock singer seems to have reached the pinnacle of her career: she’s at the height of her popularity, and her recordings are selling more than ever before. Pinnacle means A. the highest point. B. the starting point. C. the end.

A mountain pinnacle

The words personal best suggest that pinnacle means “the highest point.” If the singer is at the height of her popularity, she seems to have reached the highest point of her career.

TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.

6 platitude

– noun

• Some conversations are made up entirely of platitudes: “Good to see you.” “We’ve got to get together sometime.” “Well, take care.” • I made no response to the clerk’s “Have a nice day.” He meant well, but I’m tired of platitudes like that.

Platitude means A. good advice. B. an unoriginal comment. C. a lie.

TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.

6 platitude

– noun

• Some conversations are made up entirely of platitudes: “Good to see you.” “We’ve got to get together sometime.” “Well, take care.” • I made no response to the clerk’s “Have a nice day.” He meant well, but I’m tired of platitudes like that.

Platitude means A. good advice. B. an unoriginal comment. C. a lie. The first item gives three examples of an unoriginal comment. In the second item, “Have a nice day” is another example of an unoriginal comment.

TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.

7 promiscuous

– adjective

• In this age of HIV and AIDS, it’s more important than ever for people to be choosy about sexual partners. Being promiscuous can have deadly consequences. • When it comes to women, Erik and Harry are opposites. Erik dates one woman at a time and is serious about commitment, but Harry is totally promiscuous. Promiscuous means A. faithful. B. unselective. C. rude.

TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.

7 promiscuous

– adjective

• In this age of HIV and AIDS, it’s more important than ever for people to be choosy about sexual partners. Being promiscuous can have deadly consequences. • When it comes to women, Erik and Harry are opposites. Erik dates one woman at a time and is serious about commitment, but Harry is totally promiscuous. Promiscuous means A. faithful. B. unselective. C. rude. In the first item, the word choosy suggests that promiscuous means the opposite—“unselective.” In the second item, unlike Erik, Harry is unselective about whom he dates.

TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.

8 repudiate

– verb

• The actor repudiated his biography, saying it had been written without his consent or cooperation and that it was filled with lies. • After the millionaire died, several people showed up claiming to be his children and demanding a share of his estate, but his real family repudiated their claims.

Repudiate means A. to accept. B. to discuss. C. to reject.

Protesters repudiating the war in Iraq

TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.

8 repudiate

– verb

• The actor repudiated his biography, saying it had been written without his consent or cooperation and that it was filled with lies. • After the millionaire died, several people showed up claiming to be his children and demanding a share of his estate, but his real family repudiated their claims.

Repudiate means A. to accept. B. to discuss. C. to reject.

Protesters repudiating the war in Iraq

If the actor says the biography is filled with lies, he rejects it. The millionaire’s real family would reject the claims of people pretending to be children of the dead man.

TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.

9 spontaneous

– adjective

• The key to good acting is to be so well prepared that all words and actions seem natural and spontaneous, not rehearsed. • When I asked Shawn to the movies, I tried to make the invitation sound spontaneous, as if I’d just thought of it. I didn’t want him to know that I’d been planning it, nervously, for days.

Spontaneous means A. unplanned. B. clever. C. irresistible.

TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.

9 spontaneous

– adjective

• The key to good acting is to be so well prepared that all words and actions seem natural and spontaneous, not rehearsed. • When I asked Shawn to the movies, I tried to make the invitation sound spontaneous, as if I’d just thought of it. I didn’t want him to know that I’d been planning it, nervously, for days.

Spontaneous means A. unplanned. B. clever. C. irresistible. Words and actions seem unrehearsed would seem unplanned. Although the invitation has been carefully planned, the speaker tries to make it sound unplanned. The words just thought of it are a clue.

TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.

10 stigma

– noun

• In the past, seeing a psychiatrist might harm a person’s reputation, but now there’s little or no stigma attached to seeking help for psychological problems. • For a long time, there was a stigma associated with divorce. Today, of course, divorce is so common that it’s no longer considered a disgrace.

Stigma means A. dishonor. B. an insight. C. an argument.

TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.

10 stigma

– noun

• In the past, seeing a psychiatrist might harm a person’s reputation, but now there’s little or no stigma attached to seeking help for psychological problems. • For a long time, there was a stigma associated with divorce. Today, of course, divorce is so common that it’s no longer considered a disgrace.

Stigma means A. dishonor. B. an insight. C. an argument. In contrast with harming a person’s reputation, seeing a psychiatrist no longer has dishonor attached to it. In the second item, the word disgrace suggests that stigma means “dishonor.”

SENTENCE CHECK 1 Complete each item with the correct word from the box. A. adroit

B. constituent

C. contention

F. platitude

G. promiscuous H. repudiate

D. irreparable

E. pinnacle

I. spontaneous J. stigma

1. Some animals are ___________ in their breeding habits, mating freely with no apparent effort at selection.

2. The painting was being auctioned off as an early work of a well-known artist—until the artist _______(e)d it, saying that she had never painted it at all.

SENTENCE CHECK 1 Complete each item with the correct word from the box. A. adroit

B. constituent

C. contention

F. platitude

G. promiscuous H. repudiate

D. irreparable

E. pinnacle

I. spontaneous J. stigma

1. Some animals are ___________ promiscuous in their breeding habits, mating freely with no apparent effort at selection. Animals that make no effort at selection are unselective.

2. The painting was being auctioned off as an early work of a well-known artist—until the artist __________ repudiated it, saying that she had never painted it at all. If the artist says she didn’t paint the picture, she is denying the validity of the claim that it is one of her early works.

SENTENCE CHECK 1 Complete each item with the correct word from the box. A. adroit

B. constituent

C. contention

F. platitude

G. promiscuous H. repudiate

D. irreparable

E. pinnacle

I. spontaneous J. stigma

3. Eyeglasses have become so fashionable by now that there is no longer any __________ about wearing them.

4. After the earthquake, some houses that were still standing nevertheless had to be completely destroyed; the damage to them was __________.

5. Tisha is a(n) _______ sales representative; she can convince anyone on the phone, and she can get her foot in any door.

SENTENCE CHECK 1 Complete each item with the correct word from the box. A. adroit

B. constituent

C. contention

F. platitude

G. promiscuous H. repudiate

D. irreparable

E. pinnacle

I. spontaneous J. stigma

3. Eyeglasses have become so fashionable by now that there is no longer any __________ about wearing them. stigma Something that is fashionable would not carry any mark of shame.

4. After the earthquake, some houses that were still standing nevertheless had to be completely destroyed; the damage to them was __________. irreparable

If they had to be destroyed, they must not have been able to be repaired.

5. Tisha is an _________ adroit sales representative; she can convince anyone on the phone, and she can get her foot in any door. The description of Tisha’s abilities show that she is a skillful and clever sales representative.

SENTENCE CHECK 1 Complete each item with the correct word from the box. A. adroit

B. constituent

C. contention

F. platitude

G. promiscuous H. repudiate

D. irreparable

E. pinnacle

I. spontaneous J. stigma

6. Many people say that the plays of William Shakespeare— considered the greatest playwright who ever lived—represent the __________ of English drama. 7. Our football game was ___________; we had no plans to play, but then we found an old football as we walked across the field.

SENTENCE CHECK 1 Complete each item with the correct word from the box. A. adroit

B. constituent

C. contention

F. platitude

G. promiscuous H. repudiate

D. irreparable

E. pinnacle

I. spontaneous J. stigma

6. Many people say that the plays of William Shakespeare— considered the greatest playwright who ever lived—represent the __________ pinnacle of English drama. The greatest writer’s plays would represent the highest point of drama.

7. Our football game was ___________; spontaneous we had no plans to play, but then we found an old football as we walked across the field. If they had no plans to play, the game was unplanned.

SENTENCE CHECK 1 Complete each item with the correct word from the box. A. adroit

B. constituent

C. contention

F. platitude

G. promiscuous H. repudiate

D. irreparable

E. pinnacle

I. spontaneous J. stigma

8. When Galileo made the _________ that the sun, not the Earth, is the center of our planetary system, the Catholic Church forced him to deny what he knew to be true. 9. Some elected representatives vote as the majority of their _________s wish, but others follow their own choice, even if it represents a minority opinion.

10. When Jimmy tells me about his problems, I don’t know what to say. I just mumble _________s like “That’s too bad” or “Oh well, I’m sure you’ll work it out.”

SENTENCE CHECK 1 Complete each item with the correct word from the box. A. adroit

B. constituent

C. contention

F. platitude

G. promiscuous H. repudiate

D. irreparable

E. pinnacle

I. spontaneous J. stigma

8. When Galileo made the _________ contention that the sun, not the Earth, is the center of our planetary system, the Catholic Church forced him to deny what he knew to be true. Since Galileo knew it was true, he made the claim that it was true.

9. Some elected representatives vote as the majority of their __________ constituents wish, but others follow their own choice, even if it represents a minority opinion. Some officials vote as the majority of the people they represent wish.

10. When Jimmy tells me about his problems, I don’t know what to say. I just mumble __________ platitudes like “That’s too bad” or “Oh well, I’m sure you’ll work it out.” This item gives two examples of commonplace remarks.

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