Ch.17 The Renaissance and Reformation

January 5, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: History, European History, Renaissance (1330-1550)
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The Renaissance and Reformation Chapter 17

What was the Renaissance? • • •

Renaissance = Rebirth 1350-1550 in European history was a rebirth in art and learning Subjects the Greeks and Romans studied

Why Italy? • • • •

Center of the Roman Empire Wealthy cities in the 1300s, they could afford to pay painters, sculptors, architects Italy was divided into independently run citystates which competed with each other This competition brought out the Renaissance

Renaissance Italy

What were the Famous City-States of Italy? • Florence- most famous, produced many artists. The Medici family was Florence’s richest. • Venice- wealthiest. Sailors and shipbuilders. Used canals instead of roads. • Genoa • Milan • Rome

The Rise of Italian City-States • • • • • •

No ruler could unite Italy City-states fought many wars over territory They became wealthy through trade because of Italy’s location Were linked to the “east” during the middle ages (Marco Polo), gained many new items Each was ruled by one powerful man Niccolo Machiavelli – wrote how a ruler should maintain power – The Prince 1513

Machiavelli believed rulers should do whatever it takes to maintain power “It is better to be feared than loved”

New Ideas & Art Section 2

Renaissance Humanism • • • • •

Humanism – way of understanding the world that believed that the individual and human society were important Francesco Petrarch- studied Roman writers Dante Alighieri – poet, wrote the “The Divine Comedy” Chaucer – wrote “The Canterbury Tales” Johannes Gutenberg- develop the printing press

Renaissance Men Leonardo da Vinci Michelangelo Buonarroti

Raphael Sanzio

-Scientist & Artist -Dissected corpses -Famous notebooks -The Last Supper -Mona Lisa

-Painter -Frescoes -The School of Athens

-Painted, sculpted and designed buildings -Sistine Chapel ceiling -The David -Moses

Da Vinci

The Last Supper



William Shakespeare • • • •

Renaissance spreads north to England Writer of tragedies, comedies, and historical plays Introduced over 1,000 words to the English language Hamlet, Macbeth, A Midsummer Night’s Dream, and Romeo & Juliet among others!

Read “A Midsummer’s Night Dream” On pages 627-632 and answer questions 1-5 on page 632. Questions will be Collected.

The Reformation Begins Section 3

Calls for Church Reform • • •

Reformation – many wanted to “reform” the Catholic church Many believed the church taxed people too heavily and spent lavishly Indulgences – sold by the church to reduce a punishment for sin

Martin Luther • • • • •

1517 – challenged the Catholic Church and led a movement known as Protestantism (to Protest) Believed that only faith = salvation Ninety Five Theses – arguments against indulgences (Wittenberg) Excommunicated by Pope Created his own denomination (branch)

Lutheranism 1. Faith in Jesus, not good works brings salvation 2. The Bible is the final source of truth about god, not priests. 3. Church is all believers, not just the clergy

John Calvin • • • • • •

Calvinism – agreed w/ Luther but added some new ideas God decides everything in advance, including who will go to heaven and hell: Predestination To prove they were “chosen” people lived good lives and worked hard Kings couldn’t run the church Became the Puritans Believed in theocracy-church led government

Catholics & Protestants Section 4

Counter Reformation •

• • • •

1500s & 1600s Catholic Church set out to defeat Protestantism = Counter – Reformation Bloody wars were fought until 1648 Pope Paul III formed the Council of Trent to fix the Catholic Church Jesuits – Society of Jesus, pope’s agents to spread Catholicism Catholic kings sent missionaries to convert

Pope Paul III

More Counter Reformation •

The Thirty Years’ War-worst religious war of the Reformation –

The Spanish Inquisition – Catholic Court used to combat heresy –

Protestants to the North of Europe, Catholics to the South of Europe

Executed 2,000 Spaniards

King Henry IV of France a Catholic king allowed French Protestants (Huguenots) to worship



Henry IV Of Spain

Henry VIII King of England • • •

• •

Ruled 1509 – 1547 6 wives (2 divorces, 2 beheaded) because he wanted a son Pope refused his request for annulment, makes like the marriage never happened 1534 The Act of Supremacy declared the king head of the Church of England not the pope The Anglican Church

The Six Wives of Henry VIII

Back and Forth in England •

• • •

Henry’s daughter Mary becomes queen in 1553 and restores Catholicism Arrested Protestants and had 300 burned at the stake, “Bloody Mary” After 5 years Mary died, her half-sister takes the throne--Elizabeth Queen Elizabeth I – restored the Anglican Church and became a great leader

Bloody Mary

Elizabeth I


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