The Cold War 1945-1960 Chapter 25
What were the causes, main events, and effects of the early Cold War?
The Cold War Begins Section 1
How did U.S. leaders respond to the threat of Soviet expansion in Europe?
Vocabulary: -satellite state -Cold War -iron curtain -Truman Doctrine -George F. Kennan
containment Marshall Plan Berlin airlift NATO Warsaw Pact
SSUSH20 The student will analyze the domestic and international impact of the Cold War on the United States. Element: SSUSH20.a Describe the creation of the Marshall Plan, U.S. commitment to Europe, the Truman Doctrine, and the origins and implications of the containment policy. Element: SSUSH20.b Explain the impact of the new communist regime in China, the outbreak of the Korean War, and how these events contributed to the rise of Senator Joseph McCarthy. Element: SSUSH20.c Describe the Cuban Revolution, the Bay of Pigs and the Cuban missile crisis. Element: SSUSH20.d Describe the Vietnam War, the Tet offensive, and growing opposition to the war.
The Cold War Begins Roots of the Cold War Main Idea: By the end of World War II, the relationship between the United States and the Soviet Union had fallen apart due to the fear that the Soviet Union was attempting world domination. Meeting the Soviet Challenge Main Idea: At President Truman’s urging, Congress aided Greece, Turkey, and other countries struggling against communist movements. Containing Soviet Expansion Main Idea: George F. Kennan presented a policy called containment, with the goal of keeping communism within its current borders. The Cold War Heats Up Main Idea: When the Soviets blockaded Allied-controlled West Berlin, The United Sates and Britain used a massive airlift to fly supplies into the city, showing how far they would go to fight communism.
American and Soviet Systems o o o o o
American System Capitalist democracy Free elections Economic and religious freedom Private property Respect for individual rights
Soviet System Dictatorship Communist Party made all economic, political and military decisions No religious worship No private property No freedom of speech
Name given to the competition between the U.S. and the Soviet Union Political and economic conflict and military tensions Lasted nearly 50 years, until the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991
Reading Skill: Contrast
April 12, 1945, Roosevelt dies In the Congress for 10 years Vice President for 83 days Took a harder line toward Stalin than Roosevelt had
February, 1945 Poland – Stalin agreed to let Poles choose own government Creation of United Nations
July, 1945 U.S.S.R. wanted $10 billion from Germany in reparations Allies said “No!” Agreed to divide Germany into four zones U.S. pushed for Polish elections as well as Eastern Europe Truman received word that the atom bomb had been tested
Reading Skill: Recognize Sequence
Stalin predicted the triumph of communism over capitalism Cominform: Soviet agency to direct Communist parties in the world Winston Churchill: “…an iron curtain has descended across the Continent.”
“From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of…Central and Eastern Europe…The Communist parties, which were very small in all these Eastern States of Europe, have been raised to pre-eminence and power far beyond their numbers and are seeking everywhere to obtain totalitarian control” --”Iron Curtain” speech Winston Churchill, March 5, 1946
Soviets lost 20 million people during WWII Soviets wanted to protect its interests, so Stalin established satellite nations (countries subject to Soviet domination) Poland, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, and East Germany became satellite nations by 1948 Yugoslavia maintained a degree of independence from the U.S.S.R. Tito (Josip Broz) was the communist dictator of Yugoslavia; refused to take orders from Stalin
Idea from George Kennan, an American diplomat stationed in Moscow; West needed intelligent long-range policies Policy recognized the possibility that Eastern Europe was lost to communism U.S. to resist formation of Communist governments elsewhere in the world
Great Britain gave world leadership to U.S. 1947 declaration that the U.S. would support nations that were being threatened by communism Americans provided aid to Greece and Turkey; Congress provided $400 million, plus military bases
Marshall Plan: called for the nations of Europe to draw up a program for economic recovery from the war. The U.S. would support them with financial aid of $13 billion Hoped to create strong democracies and open new markets for American goods
The Cost of Containment
Shipments Financed by the Marshall Plan
West Berlin: capitalist and democratic East Berlin: communist Many fled to West Berlin Stalin blockaded the city Supplies brought in by plane Stalin lifted the blockade in May 1949
North Atlantic Treaty Organization “association of democratic peaceloving states” to defend Western Europe Collective security: mutual military assistance; “an armed attack against one or more of them…shall be considered an attack against them all.”
1955, Soviet Union formed a military alliance with its satellite nations in Eastern Europe except for Yugoslavia
What Will Happen to Postwar Europe?
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The Korean War Section 2 How
did President Truman use the power of the presidency to limit the spread of communism in East Asia? Vocabulary: -Jiang Jieshi -Mao Zedong -38th parallel
Douglas MacArthur limited war SEATO
The Korean War Communists Gain Control of China Main Idea: Americans were shocked when communists won the Civil War in China and greatly expanded communist control in the world. Americans Fight in Korea Main Idea: After communist-controlled North Korea invaded South Korea, the United States sent military aid to South Korea, which ultimately resulted in a stalemate.
The Korean War Has Lasting Effects Main Idea: President Eisenhower’s threat of nuclear weapons convinced the communists to sign a cease-fire, but there was no clear victory in the war.
Civil War in China Jiang Jieshi – leader of Nationalist government Corruption – diverted American aid Generals would not fight
Mao Zedong – Communist rebel Promised to feed the people Defeated Jiang in 1948, with Jiang fleeing to Taiwan Established the People’s Republic of China
Reading Skill: Categorize
Political Cartoons: The Korean War
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Americans Fight in Korea
Korea: after WWII, Korea divided into two zones – North and South; Yalu River divided China and North Korea South Korea was democratic (pro-American) North Korea- communistic government June, 1950, North Koreans invaded South Korea by crossing over the 38th parallel USSR boycotted the Security Council UN called on members to defend South Korea
Fought in WWI and WWII Commander of Americans in Asia in WWII Controlled Japan after war, establishing a democracy
North Koreans swept through S. Korea with only area near Pusan unconquered Defended Pusan; MacArthur invaded Inchon to cut North Korea’s supply lines N. Koreans retreated back across the 38th parallel UN troops neared Chinese border “Home by Christmas” offensive
Chinese pour over the border in November, 1950 Push UN forces back into S. Korea Stalemate Disagreed with Truman on limited war Letter to Joseph Martin Fired by Truman in 1951 War dragged on until 1953 53,000 American dead
Should the United States Invade China?
Elected 1952 promising to end the Korean War Careful not to start a war with USSR over Eastern Europe Continued policy of containment Ended the Korean War with a ceasefire in 1953
Results of the Korean War Two
Koreas remain divided at about the 38th parallel; North Korea is communist and South Korea is a democracy Set a precedent of Presidents committing U.S. troops to battle without a declaration of war Increased military spending Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO)
Domestic Politics and Policies Presidents Truman and Eisenhower pursued different styles to meet the challenges of the postwar period.
Korean War's Impact on America
The Cold War Expands Section 3
What methods did the U.S. use in its global struggle against the Soviet Union? Vocabulary: -arms race Nikita Khrushchev -John Foster Douglas nationalize -Eisenhower Doctrine Suez crisis -massive retaliation Eisenhower Doctrine -brinkmanship CIA -mutually assured NASA destruction
The Cold War Expands The Arms Race Heightens Tensions Main Idea: When the United States discovered that the Soviet Union had set off an atomic bomb, an arms race between the two nations started as each developed increasingly powerful nuclear weapons. Eisenhower Introduces New Policies Main Idea: Eisenhower favored a defense policy of stockpiling nuclear weapons so that the United States could threaten enemies with the use of overwhelming force. The Cold War Goes Global Main Idea: Tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union led to conflicts in countries throughout the world. Continued…
Soviets test an atomic bomb U.S. develops hydrogen bomb China is taken over by Mao Zedong after he defeats Jiang Jieshi in a civil war; Beijing falls to the Communists in 1949
Truman ordered the production of a hydrogen bomb Tested in 1952 Oppenheimer and Einstein were opposed Knew that Soviets would develop it; arms race
Struggle to gain weapons superiority over the USSR Tested the hydrogen bomb at Bikini Island Nuclear Arsenals Brinkmanship ICBMs
The Arms Race
Reading Skill: Identify Main Ideas
Domestic Uses of Cold War Technology
Eisenhower’s New Policies Foster Dulles – Secretary of State Policy of massive retaliation Brinkmanship - “You have to take some chances for peace, just as you take chances in war.” Policy saved money by focusing on nuclear power, not conventional forces John
Stalin died March 5, 1953 Nikita Khrushchev became new leader Death of Stalin eased tensions between the U.S. and the U.S.S.R.
Iron Curtain Uprisings – workers rioted and won greater control of government Hungary – Huge demonstrations crushed by Soviet troops; many executed Poland
Suez Crisis 1956
Nasser of Egypt seized the Britishowned Suez Canal. British and French attacked Egypt to regain the canal. Eisenhower got them to withdraw, leaving Egypt with the canal
Stated that the U.S. would aid any country in the Middle East requesting aid against Aggression (Communistinspired) Sent troops to Lebanon to put down a revolt
Palestine: many Jews fled there I948 Jews proclaimed nation of Israel War between Israel and Arabs U.S. backed Israel; USSR backed Arabs
1952 pro-communist leader controlled Iran 1953 U.S. organized his overthrow by the CIA and restored the Shah of Iran Created long-term resentment against the U.S.
Cold War Initiatives
First artificial satellite to orbit Earth U.S. first satellite crashed Soviets shot down U-2 plane Military-industrial complex
Soviets launched Sputnik October 1957 Housed a 1-watt radio transmitter Powered by three silver-zinc batteries Transformed the world
From Sputnik to the International Space Station Sputnik
The International Space Station
First Man in Space
Yuri Gagarin in Vostok 1 April 12, 1961 First to orbit the Earth Parachuted to Earth
First American in Space John
Glenn Three orbits February 20, 1962
Apollo Program Moon
program Apollo 11 July 20, 1969 Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin walk on the Moon
Program began in 1972 Reusable space craft Two have been lost
Joint program between the United States and Russia Weight – 404,069 pounds Dimensions – 240 feet by 90 feet
Future of Space Travel
Since 1961, more than 400 humans in space Working to improve life on Earth Future – extend life beyond Earth
Belief that if one country fell to the Communists, its neighbors would follow Vietnam, a French colony; French fought Ho Chi Minh, Vietnamese communist ruler U.S. provided military aid to France French lost in 1954 at Dien Bien Phu Vietnam divided into Communist North and anti-Communist South U.S. provided aid to South
Rio Pact: regional defense alliance with 18 other nations Organization of American States (OAS) formed to increase cooperation
1959 Fidel Castro overthrow Batista, a corrupt dictator He established a Communist government Castro seized American property Exports to Cuba halted and diplomatic ties ended
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Cold War at Home Section 4
How did fear of domestic communism affect American society during the Cold War?
Vocabulary: -Red Scare Alger Hiss -Smith Act Joseph R. McCarthy -McCarthyism HUAC -Hollywood Ten blacklist -Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
The Cold War at Home Worrying About Communists at Home Main Idea: Americans began to fear that communists in the United States were working for the Soviet Union, and Congress started investigations of potential communists. Spy Cases Worry Americans Main Idea: Spy trials attracted public attention and drew awareness to the threat of communist agents working against the United States. Alger Hiss’s case and Julius and Ethel Rosenberg trial were two controversial cases that received national interest McCarthy Uses Ruthless Tactics Main Idea: Senator McCarthy became chairman of an investigations committee against potential communists, were he spent years making reckless accusations that often discredited people.
Political Cartoons: Red Scare or Red Smear
HUAC – Second Red Scare
Smith Act: unlawful to overthrow the government House Un-American Activities Committee Charged Hollywood personalities with being members of the Communist party Hollywood Ten – Cited for contempt of Congress and served jail terms ranging from six months to a year Blacklist – list of people whom employers agreed not to hire
Reading Skill: Identify Causes and Effects
Set a quota system for countries; this system discriminated against immigrants from Asia and Southern and Central Europe to keep communists out of the U.S. Vetoed by Truman, but Congress passed it over the President’s veto
Alger Hiss: convicted of lying in a slander case against Whittaker Chambers Julius and Ethel Rosenberg: accused of passing atomic secrets to the Soviets; executed in 1953
Reading Skill: Compare and Contrast
The Red Scare
Joseph McCarthyRepublican Senator Indicated that State Dept was full of communists Accused Sec. of State George Marshall Said Army full of commies in 1954 Hearings were televised and Americans saw him as a bully
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