ch6s3

January 5, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: History, US History, Revolution And Post-Independence (1775-1820), Revolutionary War
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Which method of fighting do you feel would be more effective—hand-to-hand combat or guerrilla warfare? A. Hand-to-hand combat B. Guerilla warfare

A. A B. B

Chapter 6 The American Revolution (1776-1783) Section 3 The War Moves West and South

How did fighting in the West and South affect the course of the Revolutionary War?

Native Americans • Mohawk chief Joseph Brant and other Native Americans were concerned about the events of the Revolutionary War • Battles took place with Native Americans along the Western frontier • Some sided with the Patriots • Most sided with the British • The British seemed like less of a threat

With whom did most Native Americans side during the American Revolution?

A. Britain B. America

A. A B. B 0% A

0% B

The British and Native Americans • Brant and allies raided American settlements • In New York and northern Pennsylvania • Henry Hamilton was the British commander at Detroit • Hamilton’s nickname was the “hair buyer” because he would pay for American scalps

Vincennes • George Rogers Clark from the Virginia militia set out to stop the attacks on western settlers • July 1778- Clark and 175 soldiers went down the Ohio River • Took Kaskaskia and then Vincennes • Henry Hamilton then took Vincennes back in December • Clark vowed to get it back • February 1779- Clark surprised the British and forced Hamilton to surrender • This strengthened the American position in the West

Glory at Sea • Battles raged on sea • The British navy kept the Patriots ships from entering or leaving American harbors • The blockade prevented supplies and reinforcements from reaching the Continental Army

Privateers

• Continental Congress ordered 13 warships built • Only two sailed, the others were captured by the British • The American navy was too weak to operate effectively • Congress authorized about 2,000 ships to sail as privateers • Privately owned with weapons • Getting crews for these ships was easy because it was very profitable • The privateers captured more British ships than the American navy

Of the thirteen American warships built to fight the British, how many actually made it to sea? A. One B. Two C. Five D. Ten

0% A

A. B. C. 0% D. B

A B C 0% D C

0% D

John Paul Jones • John Paul Jones raided British ports • Near Great Britain in September 1779 • Jones’ ship, the Bonhomme Richard, met the British ship the Serapis escorting merchant ships • The two ships fought for hours • Jones’ ship was sinking and the British captain asked him to surrender • Jones responded “I have not yet begun to fight” • In the end the Serapis’ captain surrendered

Struggles in the South • In 1776, the Americans crushed the Loyalists at the Battle of Moore’s Creek • Also saved Charles Town from the British • It was a small battle, but its impact (effect) was great • 1778- The British saw that they were no closer to victory, so they moved the war to the South • There were more Loyalists there • They could also use their sea power more in the South

British Victories

• Late 1778- General Henry Clinton sent 3,500 troops from NY to take Savannah Georgia • The British occupied the coastal cities and overran most of the state • Early 1780- Clinton himself headed south with a large army to attack Charles Town • Charles Town surrendered in May • Patriots lost about 5,500 soldiers • Worst American defeat of the war

New Commander in the South • Clinton returned to NY, leaving General Charles Cornwallis in command of the British forces in the South • Horatio Gates was sent to face Cornwallis • The armies met at Camden, South Carolina • The British won • The British army soon met a new kind of warfare

Guerrilla Warfare • The British didn’t get the Loyalist support they expected • Small forces of Patriots attacked the British as they moved across the countryside • These bands used guerrilla warfare (hit and run attacks) • Caught the British off guard • Francis Marion, the Swamp Fox, operated out of the swamps in South Carolina • One British colonel grumbled that “the devil himself” could not catch Marion

Francis Marion, a successful guerrilla leader, was known by what nickname?

A. Hiding Francis B. Merry Marion C. The Swamp Fox D. The Mountain Man 0% A

A. B. C. 0% D. B

A B C 0% D C

0% D

Help From Spain • Bernardo de Galvez loaned thousands of dollars to the Americans • Galvez opened the port of New Orleans • Tons of supplies and ammunition were shipped up the Mississippi River • With these supplies, George Rogers Clark captured key posts • 1779- Spain declared war on Britain • Galvez raised an army of Spanish soldiers along with Creoles, Native Americans, and African Americans • Captured key forts and opened supply lines for military supplies from Spain, France, Cuba, and Mexico

Patriot Victories

• The British moved northward through the Carolinas in September 1780 • Patriots defeated the British at Kings Mountain and brought new support for independence • October 1780- Nathaniel Greene replaced Gates as commander in the South • Greene avoided full scale battles and split the army in two • The British were defeated at the Battle of Cowpens under Patriot General Daniel Morgan • The forces were reunited in March and met Cornwallis’ army at Guilford Courthouse (Greensboro, NC) • Greene’s forces were forced to retreat • The British sustained (suffered) great losses

British Retreat

• Cornwallis knew he had to act quickly to win the war • More French troops were on the way • Lord Cornwallis marched to Virginia in April 1781 • The British almost captured Governor Thomas Jefferson and the Virginia legislature • Jefferson fled on horseback • Washington sent Lafayette and General Anthony Wayne to fight Cornwallis • Cornwallis set up camp at Yorktown and waited for further orders from Clinton in New York

How did fighting in the West and South affect the course of the Revolutionary War? -George Rogers Clark’s victories helped strengthen the American position in the West -In the South, the American strategy of guerrilla warfare, along with aid from the Spanish, helped defeat the British campaign there

Chapter 6 Section 3 Quiz

More Native Americans fought with the British than with the Americans during the Revolutionary War. A. True 89% B. False

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Tr ue

11%

The British decided to concentrate their efforts in the South partly because the South had many Loyalists. A. True 79% B. False

ls e Fa

Tr ue

21%

The British captured both Savannah, Georgia, and Charles Town, South Carolina. 58%

Fa

ls e

42%

Tr ue

A. True B. False

Supplies and reinforcements could not reach the Continental Army because of a blockade. lack of money. British spies. Native Americans.

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A. B. C. D.

The hit-and-run technique of fighting, which caught the British off guard, is called

A. face-to-face combat. B. guerrilla warfare. C. shipboard fighting. D. swamp fighting.

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