Ch.7 Guided Reading Answersx
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Ch. 7 Immigration and Industrialization Guided Reading Answers
Italy, AustriaHungary, Russia, Greece, Turkey, Armenia
Mexico, Jamaica, Cuba, Puerto Rico, other islands in the West Indies
1. Native-born spoke English 2. Native-born tended to have ancestors from Northern-Western Europe 3. Native-born Americans tended to be Caucasian 4. Native-born Americans tended to be Protestant
Escape religious persecution, overpopulation, find good farmland, jobs, freedom To make money, to seek their fortunes, to mine gold, to find better paying jobs
To find work, lived in territories taken by the US; to flee political turmoil
x x x
1. Non-English speakers 2. New immigrants came from other parts of the world. Southern – Eastern Europe 3. Many new immigrants were Asian. 4. Many new immigrants were Catholics or Jews
Chinese Exclusion Act excluded Chinese immigrants starting in 1882 for 10 years, then it was revisited and continued until 1892, then until 1943. Exceptions- students, teachers, merchants. Gentlemen’s Agreement – Japanese school children in SF were segregated, Japan protested, President Roosevelt stepped in to broker the Gentlemen’s Agreement which limited Japanese workers to America in exchange for desegregation.
Cities cheaper and more convenient; ethnic neighborhoods and cultural opportunities not found in rural areas Fewer farm laborers needed because of new technology; believed jobs could be found in cities; cultural opportunities not found in rural areas. Fewer farm laborers needed because of new technology; believed jobs could be found in cities; hope of less racial violence and political oppression than in the South; cultural opportunities not found in rural areas.
Construction of mass-transit networks, based on new forms of transportation as cable cars, electric streetcars, and electric railways Chlorination and filtration
Sewer lines and sanitation departments
Full-time professional fire departments and the automatic sprinklers; replacement of many wooden buildings with ones made of brick, stone, and concrete. Full-time professional police departments
Urbanization – growth of cities. Social Gospel Movement – preached salvation through service to the poor. Settlement houses community centers in slum neighborhoods that provided assistance to people in the area, especially the immigrants; Jane Addams – one of the most influential members of the Settlement house movement
Supported reform; named independents to his cabinet; set up a commission to investigate customhouses; fired 2 top officials of the New York customhouse The reformers
Supported reform; urged Congress to pass a civil service law (the Pendleton Act). Authorized a bipartisan civil service commission to make appointments based on merit rather than on spoils Supported low tariff; tried to convince Congress to lower rates; ran for a second term on a low tariff platform Supported a high tariff; won passage of the McKinley Tariff Act, which raised tariffs to their highest level ever. They were lowered
They were raised.
An organized group of people that control the activities of a political party in a city.
“Looking Backward” By John Keppler
“The Immigrant Dumping Ground”
“ Who Stole?”
“Let Us Prey”
“ ’Twas him”
The Problem(s) •Beginning at the end of the Civil War, the US Government became interested in groups such as Big Business. Big Business started to influence and take control over the Government. •Politicians started to accept bribes from these groups because they would help them out financially in donations called Campaign Contributions.• •Leaders of political parties all over the United States had control over politicians at every level of the government. They had the final say about who ran for political office. •People voted in public so election frauds were common. It was very easy to tell who a person voted for because the ballots were different colors. •A lot of the government jobs were controlled by the people elected into office. Mayors, governors, and The President would give jobs to their supporters. This was called the spoils system. •In 1883 the Pendleton Act was passed which gave The President even more power to appoint officials of his choice to federal jobs. •Until 1930, parties called political machines were prevalent. They would abuse their power and try to get others to vote their way by bribing. They would use money to bribe and give rewards to whoever followed directions. These groups met at Tammany Hall in New York City.
The Solution(s) •The main proposal to solve the problem of government corruption was to give the people more control over the government. •The voters, instead of the officials already in office will have more say in who will run for elected office. •People were given the power to remove an elected official from office if they went against their wishes. •Recall elections could be held if the people formed a petition. •If people wanted a law enacted, they could present it to the legislature to be proposed as a new law. •The limit of one term was considered for the president because he then would not have to worry about reelection. •Whenever political parties received donations, they had to make the source public. •Voting would be private to limit the possibility of pressure at the ballots.
"Thomas Nast, an important political cartoonist in 19thcentury America, was known for exposing government corruption. This 1871 cartoon illustrates the Tammany Hall scandal by depicting William Marcy "Boss" Tweed and his ring as vultures."
"G.H. Pendleton is perhaps best remembered for his opposition to Abraham Lincoln's policies during the Civil War. In the 1864 election, Pendleton was the oppositional vice presidential candidate, on the Democratic ticket with George B. McClellan." He was elected for the Senate in 1878 for Ohio. He was chair of the Civil Service Committee. He became popular in the Civil Service Reform Act.
"Tammany Hall, located on West 14th Street in New York City, ca. 1914. Tammany Hall was the meeting place for, and popular name of, the Democratic Party political machine that dominated much of New York City's political life until 1933." [Library of Congress]
"An undated portrait of William Marcy Tweed, better known as Boss Tweed. As the head of Tammany Hall, the U.S. Democratic Party organization in New York City, Tweed became infamous for his greed and arrogant abuse of political power." [Library of Congress] Abusing power was very common during the age of progression. Many politicians would receive bribes and sneak under the law.
Americanization Movement assimilation Chinese Exclusion Act consolidation
conservation demographics Ellis Island industrialism initiative Jim Crow Laws Meat Inspection Act monopoly muckrakers NAACP nativism patronage Plessy v. Ferguson political machine progressivism Pure Food & Drug Act recall referendum segregation social Darwinism suffrage tariff tenements The Jungle trusts urban rural urbanization vertical trust
horizontal trust xenophobia