Chapt11 Lecture 13ed Pt 3

January 5, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Social Science, Anthropology, Osteology
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Human Biology Sylvia S. Mader Michael Windelspecht

Chapter 11 Skeletal System Lecture Outline Part 3

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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11.3 Bones of the Appendicular Skeleton

Skeletal remains •

Characteristics to be determined –

Age is approximated through dentition, studying areas of bone ossification, and joint condition.



For gender, it is best to use the pelvic bone, but the thickness of long bones or skull characteristics may also be used.



Ethnicity is difficult to tell, but skull characteristics are most useful. 2

11.4 Articulations

Types of joints (where bones meet bones) • __________ – usually immovable such as the sutures between cranial bones

• ______________ – tend to be slightly movable such as the intervertebral disks • __________ – freely movable joints such as the ball-and-socket hip and shoulder joints, and the hinge knee and elbow joints 3

11.4 Articulations

Anatomy of a synovial joint Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

a: © Gerard Vandystadt/Photo Researchers, Inc. bursae joint cavity filled with synovial fluid

articular cartilage meniscus

meniscus

ligament ligament

head of humerus

scapula

b. Generalized synovial joint

ulna

humerus c. Ball-and-socket joint

a. A gymnast depends on flexible joints.

Figure 11.9 The structure of a synovial joint.

d. Hinge joint

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11.4 Articulations

Summary of synovial joints movements • Flexion – __________ in joint angle • Extension – _________ in joint angle

• __________ – body part moves toward midline • __________ – body part moves away from midline

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11.4 Articulations

Summary of synovial joints movements • Rotation – body part moves around its own axis • Supination – hand faces anterior or downward • Pronation – hand faces posterior or downward

• Circumduction – body part moves so that a cone shape is outlined 6

11.4 Articulations

Summary of synovial joints movements • Inversion – sole of foot turns inward • Eversion – sole of foot turns outward

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11.4 Articulations

Visualizing synovial joints movements Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Rotation: Body part moves around its own axis.

extension flexion

abduction

flexion extension

abduction

Inversion: Sole of foot turns inward.

adduction

flexion adduction

extension

abduction adduction

Flexion: Joint angle decreases. a.

Extension: Joint angle increases.

Adduction: Body part moves toward midline.

Supination: Hand faces anterior or downward. Pronation: Hand faces posterior or downward.

Abduction: Body part moves away from midline.

b.

c.

Circumduction: Body part moves so that a cone shape is outlined.

Eversion: Sole of foot turns outward. d.

Figure 11.10 Synovial joints allow for a variety of movement.

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11.5 Bone Growth and Homeostasis

What are the important cells in bone growth, remodeling, and repair? • Osteoblasts – bone-forming cells • Osteocytes – mature bone cells that maintain bone structure derived from osteoblasts • Osteoclasts – bone-absorbing cells • Chondroytes – cartilage-forming cells 9

11.5 Bone Growth and Homeostasis

How does bone develop? •

Ossification is the formation of bone in 2 distinct ways.:

1.

_____________________ – bone development between sheets of fibrous connective tissue; used in flat bones

2.

_____________________ – cartilage is replaced by bone; used by most bones

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