Chapter 1

May 10, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: History, European History, Europe (1815-1915), Industrial Revolution
Share Embed Donate


Short Description

Download Chapter 1...

Description

CHAPTER 11: INDUSTRY The Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography

WHY DO GEOGRAPHERS CARE ABOUT INDUSTRY? 

Geography and Industry  



Location…Location…Location Most important is the spatial relationship between raw material, market, and site factors Read Case Study p. 344: “Maquiladoras in Mexico”

KEY ISSUE 1: WHERE IS INDUSTRY DISTRIBUTED? Origins of Industry Industrial Regions

WHERE IS INDUSTRY DISTRIBUTED?  Origin of industry  Industrial

Revolution: A technological transformation of

production and transportation associated with the abundant power from steam engines Originated in N. England and S. Scotland in the 18thC.  Diffused during the 19th to the rest of Europe and N. America and to other regions during the 20th C. 

 The

root of the Industrial Revolution was the development of several inventions that transformed the way goods were manufactured, creating an unprecedented expansion in productivity  A higher standard of living was the result  The Industrial Revolution was cited as the cause for the population growth into Stage 2 of the Demographic Transition

WHERE IS INDUSTRY DISTRIBUTED? 

The single most important invention for factories was the steam engine, invented by James Watt

First steam engine pulling a coal car

Child Laborers in Coal mines

WHERE IS INDUSTRY DISTRIBUTED? 



Cottage industries to the Industrial Revolution Impact of the Industrial Revolution was especially great on iron, coal, transportation, textiles, chemicals, and food processing

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

INDUSTRIAL REGIONS IN EUROPE 







United Kingdom: dominated production of steel and textiles in the 19th C. Expanded in the late 20th C. into high tech Rhine-Ruhr Valley: (Germany) Close proximity to large coal fields, enabling access to iron and steel production which in turn spurred the establishment of heavy metal industriesrailroad and armements. Close to the mouth of the Rhine River as it flows to the North Sea. Mid-Rhine: (Germany and France)Western Europe’s most important industrial area. German technology and French resources- Mercedes-Benz and Audi located in Mannheim Po Basin: (Italy) Southern Europe’s oldest and most important industrial area. Initially textile manufacturing- Two key assets: hydroelectricity from The Alps and cheap labor © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

INDUSTRIAL AREAS IN EUROPE

Figure 11-4

NORTH AMERICA’S INDUSTRIAL AREAS 







New England: Oldest industrial area in the US- Cotton textiles Middle Atlantic: Largest US industrial market. Close proximity to markets and consumers as well as communication and financial centers. Mohawk Valley: Industrial belt along the Hudson River in Upper New York State. Close the Erie Canal and Lake Erie – Steel processing, Aluminum and paper with abundant electricity from Niagara Falls Pittsburgh-Lake Erie, Western Great Lakes, Proximity to Appalachian coal and iron ore. The hub of the nation’s transportation network. (See Map) © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

INDUSTRIAL AREAS IN NORTH AMERICA

Figure 11-5

EAST ASIA’S INDUSTRIAL AREAS Japan: Became an Industrial power after WWII. Under-sold competitors with cheaper labor and abundant supplies of consumer goods – Cars, stereos and televisions. With competition high from other Asian markets, Japan trained workers for highly specialized and skilled jobs  China: Low cost labor, the world’s largest manufacturer of textiles and apparel, and household products. 

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

INDUSTRIAL REGIONS

Figure 11-3

KEY ISSUE 2: WHY ARE SITUATION FACTORS IMPORTANT? Proximity to Inputs Proximity to Markets Ship, Rail, Truck, or Air?

PROXIMITY TO INPUTS 

Bulk-reducing industries An Industry in which the inputs weigh more than the final product  To minimize cost an industry will locate near the source of inputs  Cost and location consideration is location of Energy 



Examples: Copper: Bulk Reducing  1. Mining  2. Concentration  3. Smelting  Steel: Changing Inputs  1 Iron Ore Figure 11-8  2. Coal 

PROXIMITY TO MARKETS 



Bulk-gaining industries  Bulk Gaining Industry makes something that gains volume or weight during production  To minimize cost Bulk Gaining will locate close to where it is sold Examples:  Fabricated metals 



Machinery Motor Vehicles 



Beverage production 



Beverages (Beer and Soft Drinks)

Single-market manufacturers  Specialized Manufacturing 



Located in the interior of the U.S. between Michigan and Alabama: The “Auto Alley”

Parts for Motor Vehicles

Perishable products 

Milk, Bread,

Figure 11-10

SHIP, RAIL, TRUCK, OR AIR? 



The farther something is transported, the lower the cost per km/mile Cost decreases at different rates for each of the four modes Truck = most often for short-distance travel  Train = used to ship longer distances (1 day +)  Ship = slow, but very low cost per km/mile  Air = most expensive, but very fast 

   

Modes of delivery are often mixed Large containers facilitate the timely transfer between modes Cost rises each time transfers are facilitated Break-of-Bulk Point is a location for many companies who use multiple modes where transfer of transportation modes is possible, such as a sea port, or an airport

KEY ISSUE 3: WHY ARE SITE FACTORS IMPORTANT? LABOR * LAND * CAPITAL

LABOR  The

most important site factor

 Workers

and Labor

 Labor-intensive

industries

 An

industry where wages and other employee compensations constitutes a high percentage of expenses.  Examples: textiles 

Textile and apparel spinning 



Textile and apparel weaving 



Treatment of fiber to create yarn from natural or human made material Weaving or knitting of yarn into fabric

Textile and apparel assembly 

Cutting and sewing of fabric; assembly into clothing and other products

TEXTILE AND APPAREL SPINNING     

Fibers can be spun from natural or synthetic elements Principal natural fiber is cotton Labor intensive industry done in low wage countries China produces 2/3 of the world’s cotton thread. Synthetics include regenerated synthetics (natural raw materials modified to produce fibers for weaving), 

 

True synthetics are processed from substances like petrochemicals that do not naturally form fibers. Nylon: the first synthetic fiber produced from petroleum Polyester: the leading synthetic fiber

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

COTTON YARN PRODUCTION

Figure 11-16

TEXTILE AND APPAREL WEAVING 

Weaving is an ancient art: two sets of thread places at right angles from each other   

 



Warp: Thread strung lengthwise on the loom or frame Weft: Thread crossing the warp thread Shuttle: Tool used to carry the weft over and under the warp.

Traditional weavers were men Mechanized weaving is clustered today in low wage countries far from the apparel market The low wages in China and India, offset the high shipping costs to European and North American markets (China- 60% of fabric, India – 30% of fabric) © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

WOVEN COTTON FABRIC PRODUCTION

Figure 11-17

TEXTILE AND APPAREL MANUFACTURING 

Sewing: activity older than spinning and weaving 



Original sewing done with individual needles made from animal horn, and eventually iron. First sewing machine built in France (1830) by Barthelemy Thimonnier. 8o of them were installed in a factory to sew the uniforms of the French army. 







Tailors, fearing loss of income, stormed the factory and destroyed the machines.

Isaac Singer credited with creating the first US machine in 1850s

Textiles assembled into four main types of products: garments, carpets, home products, and industrial items MDCs are where most of the assembly occurs because most consumers of textiles live in MDCs. 

2/3 of women’s blouses are sewn in MDCs

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

PRODUCTION OF WOMEN’S BLOUSES

Figure 11-18

LAND & CAPITAL 

Rural sites Early factories were multistoried buildings in cities  Modern factories are single story buildings on the out-skirts of cities 



Environmental factors Early factories were located near rivers  Modern factories often take into account other sources of power 



Capital 

Borrowed money to finance industry is important for LDCs and MDCs Figure 11-20

KEY ISSUE 4: WHY ARE LOCATION FACTORS CHANGING? Attraction of New Industrial Regions Renewed Attraction of Traditional Industrial Regions

ATTRACTION OF NEW INDUSTRIAL REGIONS 

Changing industrial distribution within MDCs  To minimize labor costs some manufacturers are locating to places where wage rates are lower than in traditional industrial regions  Interregional shift within the United States 

Shift from the North-east to the South and West 





Right-to-work laws: the law requires a factory to maintain an “open shop” and prohibits a “closed shop.” Closed shop mean only union employees may work in the factory. Southern States; more difficult for unions to organize and develop collective bargaining

Textile production 



Early 20th century New York’s garment district housed a large percentage of textile and apparel industry Moved to the south in the mid 20th Century for lower wages

CHANGING U.S. MANUFACTURING

Figure 11-21

MANUFACTURERS OF MEN’S AND WOMEN’S SOCKS AND HOSIERY

Figure 11-22

ATTRACTION OF NEW INDUSTRIAL REGIONS 

Interregional shifts in Europe 





Support and assistance from the European Union to industries willing to relocate to economically distressed peripheral areas Diffused from traditional Northwestern European industrial centers Convergence shifts 



Primarily eastern and southern Europe where incomes are lower

Competitive and employment regions 

Primarily Western Europe’s traditional core industrial areas which have experienced job loss in recent years

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

EUROPEAN UNION STRUCTURAL FUNDS

Figure 11-23

ATTRACTION OF NEW INDUSTRIAL REGIONS 

International shifts in industry since 1970 East Asia  Includes China, Japan, and S. Korea (a leading producer of steel and fabricated metal products including motor vehicles)  South Asia  India, with one of the fastest growing economies leads the world in textile manufacturing. Motor vehicle production is on the rise.  Latin America  Low wage region in Mexico  Maquiladora plants have located in Mexico’s North to be near the U.S., Mexico’s largest market 



Changing distributions 



Steel manufacturing and textiles has been most impacted by new locations due to cheaper markets other than the U.S. and Europe

Outsourcing 

Despite transportation costs MDCs can profitably transfer much of the steps of manufacturing to low paid, less skilled workers in LDCs

WORLD STEEL PRODUCTION

Figure 11-24

GLOBAL PRODUCTION

Figure 11-25

APPAREL PRODUCTION AND JOBS IN THE UNITED STATES

Figure 11-26

ATTRACTION TO TRADITIONAL REGIONS 

The reason for renewed attraction is Proximity to skilled labor and Rapid Delivery to market  Fordist, or mass production (pioneered by Henry Ford) Each worker was assigned a specific task to perform repeatedly  Most workers did not need an education or skill specialization to do their job 

 Post-Fordist,

or lean production (pioneered by Toyota)

Workers are placed in teams and told to figure out a variety of tasks  A problem is addressed through arriving at consensus  Workers in a factory are treated alike and managers don’t get special treatment 

 Just-in-time

delivery

A type of industry that delivers goods frequently (daily, or hourly)  It saves time for management by eliminating wasteful inventory 

 

Two types of disruptions can occur with “Just In Time” delivery: Labor unrest, or an Act of God

ELECTRONIC COMPUTING MANUFACTURING

Figure 11-28

WOMEN’S AND GIRLS’ CUT AND SEW APPAREL MANUFACTURING

Figure 11-29

THE END.

Up next: Services

View more...

Comments

Copyright � 2017 NANOPDF Inc.
SUPPORT NANOPDF