Chapter 10 Growth and Expansion (1790

May 8, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: History, European History, Europe (1815-1915), Industrial Revolution
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Chapter 10 Growth and Expansion (1790-1825) Section 1 Economic Growth

Which type of job appeals to you the most? A. Factory work B. Farm work C. Office work

A. A B. B 0% C. 0%C A

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What effects did the Industrial Revolution have on the U.S. economy?

How Things Are Made • During Colonial times, most people lived and worked on farms • Workers were in short supply outside the home • To make up for lack of workers, Americans developed tools that made their jobs easier and more efficient • At home, people made clothes, furniture, farm equipment, and household items • By the mid-1700s, the way things were made began to change

Changes To How Things Are Made • First happened in Great Britain • British inventors created machinery to perform some of the work involved in cloth making • Ran by water power • Textile (cloth) factories were built by fast moving rivers • People left the farms and moved in order to make money • This is known as the Industrial RevolutionHand made to machine made products

Industrial Revolution in New England • New England was the first to have the Industrial Revolution in America • The regions geography contributed to the development of the Industrial Revolution • 1. Farming was difficult in New England (Poor soil, short growing season) • 2. New England had rivers and streams for waterpower • 3. New England was close to resources (coal and iron deposits) • 4. Had many ports

New Technology

• During the Industrial Revolution, new inventions were introduced • The spinning jenny, the water frame, and the power loom allowed many steps in making cloth to be done by machines • These machines saved time and money • Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin- removed seeds from cotton • Before the cotton gin- A person can clean only one pound of cotton in a day • After the cotton gin- A person could clean 50 pounds a day

Advances in Production • • • • • • • •

• • • •

In 1798 Eli Whitney was to make 10,000 guns in two years Before Whitney, each gun was made by hand, so each gun would be different If a piece broke, its replacement part would have to be custom made By 1800, Whitney had not delivered the guns He was called to Washington to explain the delay Whitney arrived with a box full of different parts- barrels, triggers, and so on Whitney took one part from each pile and assembled a gun in seconds Made machines that could make parts that were exactly alike Used standardization- using interchangeable parts Made items faster and less expensive Repairs were easier Could now produce hundreds of guns in the time it took a gunsmith to make one

Patents and Factories

• 1790- Congress passed a patent law to protect the rights of inventors • The British tried to keep the information secret, but a few British workers brought the knowledge to the United States • Samuel Slater memorized the design and made a cotton mill in Pawtucket, Rhode Island • Slater’s Mill started the Industrial Revolution in the United States • Francis Cabot Lowell improved the Slater’s process • All stages of cloth making were performed under one roof • Lowell began the factory systemAll steps in one place to increase efficiency

Free Enterprise • Industrial growth requires competition to flourish with little government interference • Capitalism is the economic system of the United States • Individuals put their capital into a business hoping to make more money • Free enterprise also describes our economy • People may produce, sell, and work were they want • The major elements of free enterprise are competition, profits, private property, and economic freedom

Agriculture Expands

• Even with the Industrial Revolution, most Americans still lived and worked on farms • In the Northeast, farmers marketed their produce locally • In the South, cotton production rose dramatically • Slavery rose dramatically as well • Between 1790 and 1820Cotton production soared from 3,000 bales to more than 300,000 bales per year • Farmers moved to the West to plant cotton • Western farmers north of the Ohio River concentrated on raising pork and cash crops such as corn and wheat

Which of the following was a result of the invention of the cotton gin? A. It encouraged farmers in the Northeast to begin planting cotton. B. It led to a dramatic increase in Southern cotton production. C. D.

A. A It had no impact on the B. B 0% 0% 0% demand for cotton. C. C It encouraged many plantation owners to free their enslaved workers.D. D A

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In which area of the country was cotton the major crop?

A. The North

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B. The South

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C. The West

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Corporations Develop

• Corporations- Large businesses • Developed rapidly in the 1830s when legal obstacles to their formation were removed • Corporations made it easier to sell stock • They could now finance improvement and development

How were corporations financed? A. They received money from the federal government.

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D. Taxes collected from citizens funded the corporations.

A B C D B

C. Shares of ownership called stock were sold.

A. B. C. D. A

B. One wealthy individual provided all of the money.

Cities Come of Age

• Factories led to the growth of towns and cities • Cities such as New York, Boston, and Baltimore grew as centers of commerce and trade • The economy grew in these cities • Cities like Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, and Louisville profited from their locations on major rivers • These cities didn’t have sewers, so diseases spread • 1793- Yellow fever killed thousands in Philadelphia • Fires spread easily because of wood buildings • Libraries, museums, and shops developed in cities

What effects did the Industrial Revolution have on the U.S. economy? 1. The shift from home based economy to the factory system 2. The importance of capitalism and free enterprise and the development of corporations 3. The growth of industry and cities 4. The invention of machinery that allowed goods to be mass-produced

Chapter 10 Section 1 Quiz

The use of interchangeable parts, first introduced by Eli Whitney, increased the price of products. 1. True 2. False

The development of textile mills in New England reduced the demand for cotton. 1. True 2. False

The changes in the way goods were made in the mid-1700s first appeared in 0% 0% 0% 0%

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France Britain Spain United States

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New England The West Middle Atlantic The South

Who invented the cotton gin? 0% 0% 0% 0%

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Samuel Slater Amanda Hugenkiz Eli Whitney Francis Cabot Lowell

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