Chapter 12 – Industrial & Nationalism - Windsor C
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Chapter Introduction Section 1: The Industrial Revolution Section 2: Reaction and Revolution Section 3: National Unification and Nationalism Section 4: Romanticism and Realism Visual Summary
The Industrial Revolution What were some of the effects of the Industrial Revolution?
The BIG Idea New Technologies The Industrial Revolution changed the way people lived and worked.
Every nation in the world has the ability to industrialize. A. Agree B. Disagree A. A B. B 0% B
The Industrial Revolution in Great Britain With its plentiful natural resources, workers, wealth, and markets, Great Britain became the starting place of the Industrial Revolution.
The Industrial Revolution in Great Britain (cont.) • Factors in Great Britain becaming the birthplace of the Industrial Revolution: – Agricultural practices became more efficient, producing more food at lower prices. – The enclosure movement of the eighteenth century caused many peasants to move to towns, increasing the labor supply.
The Industrial Revolution in Great Britain (cont.) – The wealthy merchant class of Britain had a ready supply of capital to invest in the new industrial machines and factories. Entrepreneurs devised new business methods and ways to make profits. – Britain had plentiful natural resources, such as water, coal, and iron ore.
The Industrial Revolution in Great Britain (cont.) – Britain’s vast colonial empire gave British manufacturers a ready outlet for goods.
• In the eighteenth century, cotton production using the cottage industry system was made inefficient by a series of new technological advances.
Industry in Great Britain by 1850
The Industrial Revolution in Great Britain (cont.) • New technological advances, such as the spinning jenny and flying shuttle, gave Britain an advantage in producing inexpensive cotton goods. • The cotton industry became more productive when Scottish engineer James Watt modified his steam engine to drive machinery.
The Industrial Revolution in Great Britain (cont.) • The steam engine was crucial to Britain’s Industrial Revolution, leading to an expansion of the coal and iron industries. • Factory owners wanted to use their machinery constantly, so laborers worked in shifts and machines ran continuously. Child labor was common.
The Industrial Revolution in Great Britain (cont.) • Railroads moved and manufactured goods more efficiently. • The first commercial railroad connected the cotton-manufacturing town of Manchester to the port of Liverpool.
Social Changes of Industrialization
The Industrial Revolution in Great Britain (cont.) • Railroads were a key component of the Industrial Revolution and led to ongoing economic growth.
Which is not a ripple effect caused by railroad expansion? A. New jobs were created to build the railroads.
D. More sales meant more profit to invest in more machinery.
C. People in rural areas could now travel to the cities to work.
A. A B. B 0% C. 0%C D. D
B. Less expensive transportation led to lower-priced goods.
The Spread of Industrialization The pace of industrialization in Europe and the United States depended on many factors, including government policy.
The Spread of Industrialization (cont.) • Governments in Belgium, France, and the German states supported industrialization and provided funds to build roads, canals, and railroads. • When the Industrial Revolution spread to the United States, thousands of miles of roads and canals were built to link East and West.
The Spread of Industrialization (cont.) • In 1807, Robert Fulton built the first paddlewheel steamboat, improving transportation on the waterways. Eventually, railroads provided the most effective means of transportation.
• As farmers and immigrants filled the cities, a labor force became available to the factory owners. • Women and children, who were paid lower wages, often worked in the factories.
What did Robert Fulton build? A. Steamboats B. Railroads
A B C 0% D C
D. Turnpikes and roads
A. B. C. 0% D.
Social Impact in Europe Industrialization urbanized Europe and created new social classes, as well as the conditions for the rise of socialism.
Social Impact in Europe (cont.) • European cities and towns grew dramatically by 1850. Factories were built in towns and cities to take advantage of their increasing populations. • The rapid growth of cities led to overcrowding, disease, and poverty.
• Industrial capitalism rose during the Industrial Revolution and produced a new middle class that built the factories, bought the machinery, and developed the markets.
Social Impact in Europe (cont.) • The Industrial Revolution also led to the development of an industrial working class.
• The working class had little protection from factory and mine owners and faced dangerous working conditions. • Women and children made up a significant portion of the labor force due to their low wages.
• Factory Act of 1833-Limited child labor
Social Impact in Europe (cont.) • Reformers of these harsh working conditions advocated socialism and believed that public ownership of production would allow wealth to be more evenly distributed. • Utopian socialists such as Robert Owen believed that an ideal society could be created through socialism.
On what did the Factory Act of 1833 place limitations? A. Child labor
A B C 0% D C
C. Minimum wage
A. B. C. 0% D.
B. Hours a person could work per day
INDUSTRIALIZATION Transformed Society • The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain and spread throughout Europe and the United States. • New technologies improved the production and transportation of goods. • Workers migrated to cities as economies shifted from being farm-based to factory-based. • As cities grew, an industrial middle class and an industrial working class emerged.
IDEOLOGIES Arising From the Industrial Revolution • Harsh conditions in factories made socialism attractive. • Liberalism and nationalism threatened conservative governments, leading to the revolutions of 1830 and 1848. • Liberal reforms helped Great Britain to avoid revolution, while France, Austria, and Russia grew more authoritarian. • The Crimean War broke down the Concert of Europe, enabling nationalists to unify Germany and Italy.
CULTURAL MOVEMENTS Arising From the Industrial Revolution • Romanticism emphasized emotions and individuality in response to the Enlightenment’s emphasis on reason. • The Industrial Revolution heightened interest in scientific research. • Growing confidence in science undermined religious faith, leading to increased secularization. • Interest in science led to the realism movement, featuring ordinary people instead of romantic heroes.
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enclosure movement in Great Britain during the 1700s, the Parliamentary decree that allowed fencing off of common lands, forcing many peasants to move to town
capital money available for investment
entrepreneur a person interested in finding new business opportunities and new ways to make profits
cottage industry a method of production in which tasks are done by individuals in their rural homes
puddling process in which coke derived from coal is used to burn away impurities in crude iron to produce high quality iron
industrial capitalism an economic system based on industrial production or manufacturing
socialism a system in which society, usually in the form of the government, owns and controls the means of production
derived process of obtaining a product from a parent substance
hypothetical assumed but not known
conservatism a political philosophy based on tradition and social stability, favoring obedience to political authority and organized religion
principle of intervention idea that great powers have the right to send armies into countries where there are revolutions to restore legitimate governments
liberalism a political philosophy originally based largely on Enlightenment principles, holding that people should be as free as possible from government restraint and that civil liberties—the basic rights of all people—should be protected
universal male suffrage the right of all males to vote in elections
multinational state a state in which people of many nationalities live
constitution the basic principles and laws of a nation, state, or social group that determine the powers and duties of the government and guarantee certain rights to the people in it
radical relating to a political group associated with views, practices, and policies of extreme change
militarism reliance on military strength
kaiser German for “caesar,” the title of the emperors of the Second German Empire
plebiscite a popular vote
emancipation the act of setting free
abolitionism a movement to end slavery
unification the act, process, or result of making into a coherent or coordinated whole; the state of being unified
regime the government in power
romanticism an intellectual movement that emerged at the end of the eighteenth century in reaction to the ideas of the Enlightenment; it stressed feelings, emotion, and imagination as sources of knowing
secularization indifference to or rejection of religion or religious consideration
organic evolution the principle set forth by Charles Darwin that every plant or animal has evolved, or changed, over a long period of time from earlier, simpler forms of life to more complex forms
natural selection the principle set forth by Charles Darwin that some organisms are more adaptable to the environment than others; in popular terms, “survival of the fittest”
realism mid-nineteenth-century movement that rejected romanticism and sought to portray lower- and middle-class life as it actually was
individuality a total character that distinguishes an individual from others
approach the way or method one examines or studies an issue or a concept
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