Chapter 13

January 22, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Social Science, Sociology, Globalization
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Chapter 13 Conflict and Negotiation Learning Outcomes

1 Describe the nature of conflicts in organizations. 2 Explain the role structural and personal factors play in causing conflict in organizations. 3 Discuss the nature of group conflict in organizations.

4 Describe the factors that influence conflict between individuals in organizations. 5 Describe effective and ineffective techniques for managing conflict. 6 Identify five styles of conflict management.

© 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

1

Learning Outcome

Describe the nature of conflicts in organizations.

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Nature of Organizational Conflict Conflict – any situation in which incompatible goals, attitudes, emotions, or behaviors lead to disagreement or opposition between two or more parties Functional Conflict – a healthy, constructive disagreement between two or more people Dysfunctional Conflict – an unhealthy, destructive disagreement between two or more people © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Emotional Intelligence (EI) Emotional intelligence – Amanda • the power to control one’s emotions • perceive emotions in others • adapt to change • manage adversity

© 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Importance of Conflict Management Skills-Amanda “As managers we spend about 21% of our time dealing with conflict.” • Conflict management skills predict managerial success • High Emotional Intelligence (EI) needed to manage conflict • EI is valid across cultures © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Consequences of Conflict-Xiaohan Positive Consequences Leads to new ideas Stimulates creativity Motivates change Promotes organizational vitality Helps individuals and groups establish identities Serves as a safety valve to indicate problems

Negative Consequences Diverts energy from work Threatens psychological well-being Wastes resources Creates a negative climate Breaks down group cohesion Can increase hostility and aggressive behaviors

Diagnosing Conflict-Tessa • Examine the issue • Analyze the context • Know the parties involved

© 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Questions to Use When Diagnosing Conflict-Tessa Yes Are the parties approaching the conflict from a hostile standpoint? Is the outcome likely to be a negative one for the organization? Do the potential losses of the parties exceed any potential gains? Is energy being diverted from goal accomplishment?

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No

2

Learning Outcome

Explain the role structural and personal factors play in causing conflict in organizations.

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Causes of Conflict in OrganizationsJustin Structural Factors • Specialization • Interdependence • Common resources • Goal differences • Authority relationships • Status inconsistencies • Jurisdictional ambiguities

Personal Factors • Skills and abilities • Personalities • Perceptions • Values and ethics • Emotions • Communication barriers • Cultural differences

Beyond the Book: “Bully” Gates?

Bill Gates has been known to berate employees for unsatisfactory performance, even insulting and yelling at them. Is Gates a bully, or does he just hate incompetence?

© 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Globalization and Conflict-Richard Cultural differences and individual differences increase the potential for conflict

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3

Learning Outcome

Discuss the nature of group conflict in organizations.

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Forms of Conflict in OrganizationsTyson Interorganizational Conflict – conflict that occurs between two or more organizations Intergroup Conflict – conflict that occurs between groups or teams in an organization Intragroup Conflict – conflict that occurs within groups or teams

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Forms of Conflict in OrganizationsKaylee Interpersonal Conflict – conflict that occurs between two or more individuals

Intrapersonal Conflict – conflict that occurs within an individual

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Managing Interpersonal Conflict-Kellie • Understand power networks • Recognize defense mechanisms • Develop strategies to deal with difficult people

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Beyond the Book: Under-the-Table Torment

Public humiliation in the corporate world has taken a back seat to more subtle personal jabs. Overt office conflict is more likely to be noticed as such, so antagonistic coworkers only try what they think they can get away with. © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

4

Learning Outcome

Describe the factors that influence conflict between individuals in organizations.

© 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Forms of Intrapersonal Conflict-Ben K. Interrole Conflict – a person’s experience of conflict among the multiple roles in his/her life Intrarole Conflict – conflict that occurs within a single role, such as when a person receives conflicting messages from role senders about how to perform a certain role Person–role Conflict – conflict that occurs when an individual is expected to perform behaviors in a certain role that conflict with his/her personal values © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

[Resolving Intrapersonal Conflict-Karla] • Use self-analysis • Diagnose the situation: • Ask if the organization’s values match your own, and • Ask role senders what is expected

• Use political skills to buffer negative effects of role conflict stress © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

An Organizational Member’s Role SetHillary Outside the organization

Client

Inside the organization

Supervisor

Focal Role

Supplier

Potential employee

Employee 1

Employee 2

Boundary of the organization

Employee 3

Superior

Superior role senders

Colleague

Peer role senders

Employee’s colleagues

Employee role senders

SOURCE: J. C. Quick, J. D. Quick, D. L. Nelson, & J. J. Hurrell, Jr. Preventative Stress Management in Organizations, 1997. Copyright © 1997 by the American Psychological Association. Reprinted by permission.

Power Relationships in OrganizationsKrystle Types of Power Relationships Equal vs. equal

Behavioral Tendencies and Problems Suboptimization  Competition  Covert fighting  Constant friction

Examples of Interventions  Define demarcation lines  Integrate units  Teach negotiating skills

High vs. low

Control vs. autonomy  Resistance to change  Motivation problems

 Bureaucratize power through rules  Use a different leadership style

High vs. middle vs. low

Role conflict, role ambiguity, stress  Concessions  Doubletalk  Use of sanctions and rewards

 Improve communication  Clarify tasks  Teach power strategies SOURCE: W. F. G. Mastenbroek, Conflict Management and Organizational Development, 1987. Copyright John Wiley & Sons Limited. Reproduced with permission.

Aggressive (Defense) MechanismsZach Fixation – an individual keeps up a dysfunctional behavior that obviously will not solve the conflict Displacement – an individual directs his or her anger toward someone who is not the source of the conflict Negativism – a person responds with pessimism to any attempt at solving a problem © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Compromise (Defense) MechanismsBen M Compensation – an individual attempts to make up for a negative situation by devoting himself/herself to another pursuit with increased vigor

Identification – an individual patterns his or her behavior after another’s Rationalization – a compromise mechanism characterized by trying to justify one’s behavior by constructing bogus reasons for it © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Withdrawal (Defense) MechanismsKyle M Flight/Withdrawal – entails physically escaping a conflict (flight) or psychologically escaping (withdrawal) Conversion – emotional conflicts are expressed in physical symptoms Fantasy – provides an escape from a conflict through daydreaming © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

5

Learning Outcome

Describe effective and ineffective techniques for managing conflict.

© 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Win–Lose vs. Win–Win StrategiesKyle P

Strategy

Dept. A Dept. B Organization

Competitive

Cooperative

Lose Lose Win Win–

Lose Win Lose Win–

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Lose Lose Lose Win

Ineffective Techniques for Dealing with Conflict-Dillin Nonaction Character Assassination

Secrecy

Conflict Due Process Nonaction

Administrative Orbiting

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Beyond the Book: Looking for Trouble

A South Carolina woman on probation signed a court document with instructions as to what body part the judge could kiss. The judge rewarded her with an additional 90 days of probation. The lesson: considering the consequences of your words can avoid needless conflict and negative consequences. © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Effective Techniques for Dealing with Conflict-Robin Superordinate Goals Confronting and Negotiating

Changing Structure

Conflict

Expanding Resources

Changing Personnel

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Negotiation a joint process of finding a mutually acceptable solution to a complex conflict

© 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Negotiation-Katie

• • • •

Two or more people involved Conflict of interest exists Willing to negotiate for a better outcome Parties prefer to work together

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Approaches to Negotiation-Miles Distributive Bargaining – the goals of the parties are in conflict, and each party seeks to maximize its resources

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Approaches to Negotiation-Miles Integrative Negotiation – focuses on the merits of the issues and seeks a win–win solution

© 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

6

Learning Outcome

Identify five styles of conflict management.

© 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Conflict Management Styles-Evan Avoiding – deliberate decision to take no action on a conflict or to stay out of a conflict Accommodating – concern that the other party’s goals be met but relatively unconcerned with getting own way Competing – satisfying own interests; willing to do so at other party’s expense

© 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Conflict Management Styles-Evan Compromising – each party gives up something to reach a solution

Collaborating – arriving at a solution agreeable to all through open and thorough discussion

© 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Conflict Management Styles-Evan Assertive

Competing

Collaborating

Assertiveness

(Desire to satisfy one’s own concerns)

Unassertive

Compromising

Avoiding

Accommodating

Uncooperative

Cooperative

Cooperativeness

(Desire to satisfy another’s concerns) SOURCE: K. W. Thomas, “Conflict and Conflict Management,” in M. D. Dunnette, Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, (Chicago: Rand McNally, 1976), 900. Used with permission of M. D. Dunnette.

Creating a Conflict-Positive OrganizationLinda Value diversity and confront differences

Take stock to reward success and learn from mistakes

Conflict Positive

Seek mutual benefits, and unite behind cooperative goals

Empower employees to feel confident and skillful © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

3 Organizational Views of Conflict Competitive conflict

Belittle differences Suspect

Seek win–lose situation

Blame

SOURCE: The Conflict-Positive Organization by Tjsovold, © 1991. Reprinted by permission of Prentice-Hall, Inc., Upper Saddle River, N.J.

© 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

3 Organizational Views of Conflict Avoidance of conflict

Evade differences

Despair

Reduce risks

Withdraw

SOURCE: The Conflict-Positive Organization by Tjsovold, © 1991. Reprinted by permission of Prentice-Hall, Inc., Upper Saddle River, N.J.

© 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

3 Organizational Views of Conflict Positive conflict

Value diversity Take Stock

Seek mutual benefit

Empower

SOURCE: The Conflict-Positive Organization by Tjsovold, © 1991. Reprinted by permission of Prentice-Hall, Inc., Upper Saddle River, N.J.

© 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Conflict Management Tools

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