Chapter 14—Revolution and Nationalism
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Chapter 14—Revolution and Nationalism
Setting the Stage for Revolution in Russia Alexander III ruled with an iron fist. Anyone who was different-not an Russian Orthodox or who spoke a different language was called dangerous and a target of persecution. He made Russian the official language of the country and he persecuted Jews. He wouldn’t allow them to live amongst other Russians. The people of Russia had riots or pogroms against Jews in the country.
Nicholas II Nicholas vowed to rule like his father as an autocrat. Russia was behind the rest of Europe’s industry---this led Sergey Witte (Russian minister) to help finance industry in Russia. By 1900, Russia was 4th in steel production in the world. He also pushed for the Trans-Siberian Railway---the worlds longest railroad connecting east Russia to the west.
The Revolution Grows With industrialization came an increase in the gap between the rich and the poor. An industrial class began to grow and with them came the idea of overthrowing the government. The industrial class wanted to form a state where the workers would rule—they used Marxist ideas as basis for their new ideas 2 groups emerged: Mensheviks—they wanted a broad base of popular support for the revolution. And the Bolsheviks….
The Bolsheviks believed in a small number of revolutionaries who would fight for radical change. They were led by Vladimir Lenin—Lenin was ruthless and would stop at nothing to win. He was forced to flee to western Europe to avoid being arrested. While there he waited for his people to revolt and pave the way for his return to Russia.
Crisis at home Russo-Japanese War—The Russians were defeated in the Korea and Manchuria by the Japanese. Bloody Sunday—A group of protestors went the Czar’s palace and demanded better working conditions for the people—the Czar wasn’t home but his troops were and they killed between 500-1000 unarmed people. Russians protested the violence and Nicholas created a DUMA or a parliament—the leaders of DUMA wanted to model themselves after a constitutional monarchy, but they were quickly shut down of after 10 weeks of being in session.
Crisis at home WWI-Russia was unprepared for war and was defeated time and time again. Nicholas thought if he moved to the front he would be more successful in the war. He left his wife Czarina Alexandra to take care of the country on an every day basis. Alexandra relied on the help of Rasputin—a “holy man” He put all of his friends into positions of power and refused to make any reforms---this and his increased control over Russia caused him to be murdered by nobles.
The March Revolution A group of textile workers protested their working conditions in 1917. Their protest spread throughout Russia and forced the Czar to step down. A provisional government, made up of the defunct DUMA, attempted to fix Russia. The Soviets, organized councils of workers, held most of the power in the country and the Duma was essentially powerless.
Lenin and the Bolshevik Revolution
Lenin is returned to Russia by the Germans. He begins to rally people around him through his campaign slogan, “PEACE, LAND, and BREAD”. With increased support of the people the Bolsheviks take over the provisional government in Nov 1917. When the Bolsheviks take over, they immediately put Lenin into power.
Immediately after Lenin takes over, he signs the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. The agreement left the people humiliated and mad. Civil War-A group of those who opposed the treaty created the White Army. The leader of the RED Army was Leon Trotsky. For 2 years the white army (with support from the US) and the Red Army fought each other. Over 15 million men died due to war, famine, and disease during this period. In the end the RED ARMY was successful at defeating the White Army.
LENIN RESTORES RUSSIA
Lenin introduced the New Economic Policy—this included some capitalistic ideas. Peasants would be able to sell their surplus crops instead of turning them over to the government. The gov’t would maintain control over major industries, but would let small companies operate under private ownership.
Political Reforms Lenin recognized that nationalism would cause problems with Russia. He organized Russia into several selfgoverning republics under the common government called Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). The Republic would be controlled by the capital of Moscow. The Bolsheviks called themselves Communist after Karl Marx. He created a gov’t based on socialist and democratic principles—in reality the communist controlled the government. Lenin was not able to see the recovery of Russia because he died in 1924 as a result of several strokes. He left behind a power struggle over who would control USSR.
TOTALITARIANISM---STALIN Joseph Stalin “man of steel” was the Secretary of the Communist Party. He worked behind the scenes to put his friends into key positions in the government.
By 1928, he got complete control of the Communist Party. He was able to put his competitor, Trotsky (favored by Lenin), into exile.
Stalin wanted to create a totalitarian state in Russia with him as the leader. Totalitarianism describes a gov’t that takes total centralized state control over every aspect of public and private lives. EXAMPLES Of Totalitarianism States and leaders—Hitler, Mussolini, and Mao (China).
Stalin Builds a Totalitarian State
Stalin creates a command economy---a system in which the government made all the economic decisions. Stalin creates a 5 Year Plan-the goal of the plan was to have the gov’t rapidly increase industry and strengthen its defense. To reach its outrageous goals—it limited production of consumer goods. The people were left with food, housing, and clothing shortages. The gov’t controlled all aspects of life: it assigned jobs for people, told them when/if they could move, people would arrest those who didn’t contribute to society, The goals were not met, but USSR did have increase in production in their country.
Totalitarian Traits Dictatorship-One Party Rule Dynamic Leader Ideology—Set of beliefs to support govt State Control over all sectors of Society State Control over individuals Dependence on Modern Technology— Weapons Communication to spread ideas Organized violence to force cohersion
Weapons of Totalitarianism Police Terror-Stalin used the police to destroy his enemies. In 1934 Stalin had the Great Purge-it killed anyone who went against Stalin’s power. Thousands of Bolsheviks were helped in the Revolution were killed for crimes against the USSR. Even the Director of the Moscow Zoo faced his wrath when the monkeys got TB
Weapons of Totalitarianism Indoctrination and Propaganda— Indoctrination is when the people are instructed in the beliefs of the gov’t. Socialist Realism-this was an artistic style that promoted Communism Censorship Religious Persecution
LIFE UNDER STALIN Women gained equal rights. By 1950, 75 % of the women were doctors. Women were still responsible for housework and childcare. Education-The government controlled all education and created schools that taught the benefits of the communist way of life.
China Imperial China collapses by nationalist groups. Sun Yixian was a nationalist who led the new Republic of China. He wanted to build a modern government using these 3 principles: Nationalism, democracy, and economic security. When Yixian turned over his presidency to one of his generals, the country quickly went under the control of a dictator and the country became perfect for a revolution.
China underwent a period of revolutions and when WWI occurred the people of China were angry about the Treaty of Versailles—Japan got all of Germanys territory in Asia. The Chinese people were angry and revolutionaries began to protest imperialist/Europeans—this is when Mao Zedong( China’s greatest revolutionary leader) emerges as a leader of the revolutionaries.
The Communist Party
Mao seeks out help in repairing the Chinese government from the West, but when the U.S. and its allies refuse to help the struggling country Mao looks to Russia for help. Mao bases his revolution on Lenin. When the leader Sun Yixian dies he leaves Chiang KaiShek to take over the govt. Kai-Shek (Jiang) believes in more democratic ideas and he gets support from the allies. A civil war develops between those who support Mao (mostly peasants) and those who support Kai-Sek (Jiang).
As the civil war occurs, the Communist pushed further and further out of China during a period called the LONG MARCH. Just as the nationalist are able to push the communist out to the outskirts of China, China is invaded by the Japanese. “Little Red Book”—1949 A list of Mao’s speeches that the people of China were required to have after Mao and the Communist were able to take over China.
India Mahatma Gandhi led the protest against the British control of India. The Amristar Massacres was supposed to be a peaceful protest against the Brittish but the British soldiers Open fired on peaceful Protesters killing over 400 pple
Mahatma means “GREAT SOUL” in Indian. His teachings blended Hindu, Islam, and Christianity. He encouraged a policy of non-cooperation . He encouraged civil disobedience—deliberate and public refusal to obey an unjust law. He called on Indians to refuse to do the following: buy British goods, attend government schools, pay British taxes, and vote in elections.
In 1935, British allowed for self rule in and limited democratic elections. The RAJ had ended.
Under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Turkish nationalist were able to overthrow the last Ottoman Emperor. Kemel separated Islamic law from the laws of Turkey and tried to modernize the Republic of Turkey. Persia and Iran-Before WWI both Russia and Britain had interest in Persia. When Britain tried to take Persia the people protested and a revolution occurred. Reza Shah Pahlavi took over the country and renamed it Iran. In Arabia, several countries united to form Saudi Arabia. In the 1920s this area developed because of the discovery of oil reserves in the area.
The Age of Uncertainty Einstein created his theory of relativity—as moving objects get near the speed of light, space, and time become relative. Freud changed the way people thought about the human mind. He said human behavior was irrational-due to urges and desires buried in the unconscious mind of each person.
Literature Existentialism-there is no universal meaning to the world. Each person much give meaning to their life through his or her own actions. T.S. Eliot was a American Poet who wrote, “The Wasteland”.
Art Artist began to rebel against traditional painting. They didn’t recreate realistic art—they created a new style of art called Surrealism-this showed art in a dreamlike existence outside of reality. Pablo Picasso came out of this time period using a style called Cubism-this broke objects down into geometric shapes.
The Jazz Age
Jazz developed by African Americans in the US. This was a form of lively, loose music
People began to express themselves in a new way. Women began to dress in a new risky style and they became known as Flappers.
Women during the time period began to smoke and drink with men in public at places called speakeasies. Speakeasies were illegally run Nightclubs during the 1920s. Alcohol was outlawed by the 18th Amendment and these illegal Nightclubs allowed people to enjoy.
Al Capone, one of the most famous mafia leaders ever, made his $$ through illegally selling alcohol in places like speakeasies.
Charles Lindberg was the 1st pilot to fly alone across the Atlantic Ocean in 1927. Later in 1932, Amelia Earhart became the 1st woman to fly solo.
KDKA was the 1st Commercial radio station.
DEPRESSION The government in Germany, known as the WEIMER REPUBLIC, was very weak. They had high inflation and money was losing its value. U.S. banks tried to help German economy to recover. Charles Dawes, an American banker, loaned Germany the $$ to survive. The Dawes Plan gave $200 million to Germany in order for it to improve its economy (money situation).
1929 Stock Market Crash
The U.S. stock market was the financial capital of the world. People were buying stocks on a margin meaning they would pay a stockbroker for a part of the stock and the broker would cover the rest of the cost of the stock. People began to question the high value of some stocks and they began selling stocks. Other people got nervous because of the selling of the stocks and no one was buying stocks. The market crashed –people who owed money for margin stocks couldn’t pay for the stock and the economy went into a depression.
The Great Depression This period of financial despair was known as the Great Depression. People, unable to afford homes, began to live in makeshift homes called shantytowns. In the U.S. Franklin Roosevelt began a program called The New Deal—it was a large public works program designed to make jobs for the unemployed. Regulations were imposed to reform the stock market and the banking system.
Fascism Since the economy was so poor, people in countries wanted a strong leader to solve their problems. Fascist were a group that appealed to people –they were very nationalistic, they believed in authority and strong militaries. Within a fascist government, the party was ruled by one person called a dictator. They didn’t allow individual rights.
Mussolini- IL DUCE The economy in Italy is poor and Mussolini appeals to the people that he can Improve the economy and increase the power of Italy by having a strong, large military. Mussolini gained power by using “thugs” to intimidate his political opponents—who does that remind you of? The King of Italy decided Mussolini was the answer to his problems and he allowed him to rule Italy. As the leader of Italy, Mussolini abolished democracy, outlawed all political parties and controlled the economy.
The Fascist party was gaining political popularity in other countries—especially in Germany. Adolf Hitler emerged as the leader of the Nazis. He tried to take over the government using a revolution, so the government sent him to prison. In prison he wrote, Mein Kampf—My Struggle. The book was extremely popular and Hitler ran for president. He lost to Hindenburg, but was given a position in the govt—chancellor.
The economy in Germany was horrible and with the depression the people of Germany were looking for a solution to their problems. The people were getting more and more angry with the effects of the Treaty of Versailles. Hitler promised to return Germany to the power it had prior to WWI. When the depression hit, Germany Hitler became the leader of the country.
Hitler became the fuehrer or leader. Anyone who opposed him would be immediately arrested. He took away all the rights of the German people—he burned books that were against his beliefs or his policies. He attacked anyone who was different from the ideal German that he imagined in his head—Jews, physically and handicapped people, Gypsies, and anyone else who was believed to be against Germany.
Japan… During the 1920’s Japan’s economy was good and a civilian government controlled the country. When the economy went bad, the military took over the government. This government decided that the way to make Japan more self sufficient was to get more raw materials to help to boost it’s economy. The way to get more raw goods is through conquering other countries. The Emperor was powerless against the military—if he stopped militarism the military would remove him from office.
Japan invaded Manchuria in 1931 to get coal and iron. In 1937, Japan invaded China and 200,000 people were killed during the capture of the Chinese capital. By 1939, Japan had used up a lot of China’s resources and it was looking at Southeast Asia to get more resources. The U.S. stopped sending fuel and metal to Japan and the Japanese attacked Indochina to get more supplies. In 1940, Japan signed the Tripartite Pact with Germany and Italy. It said each country would help the other countries if the U.S. attacked it. When the U.S. found out about Indochina FDR quickly stops trade with Japan. Hideki Tojo became a prime minister and he promoted expansionism.