Chapter 16: Citizenship and the Law - Waverly

January 8, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Social Science, Law, Criminal Justice
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CIVICS IN PRACTICE HOLT

Chapter 16

Citizenship and the Law Section 1: Crime in the United States Section 2: The Criminal Justice System Section 3: Juvenile Crime

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HOLT, RINEHART

AND

WINSTON

CIVICS IN PRACTICE HOLT

Section 1: Crime in the United States

The Main Idea When a person breaks a law, it is called a crime. There are several types of crimes and a variety of reasons why people commit crimes. Reading Focus  What are five different types of crime?  What are four possible causes of crime?  How do we fight crime in the United States? ‹#›

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CIVICS IN PRACTICE HOLT

Section 1: Crime in the United States

Crimes against persons: Violent crimes—homicide, hate crimes, aggravated assault, or forcible rape

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CIVICS IN PRACTICE HOLT

Section 1: Crime in the United States

Crime against property:  The majority of crimes  Involves stealing or destroying property—

petty larceny, grand larceny, vandalism, or arson  Robbery involves property and persons. ‹#›

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CIVICS IN PRACTICE HOLT

Section 1: Crime in the United States

Different types of crime:  Homicide, aggravated assault, forcible rape, larceny,

   

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vandalism, arson, robbery Hate crimes—violent crimes committed because of prejudice Victimless—gambling and sale, possession, and use of illegal drugs White collar—committed by people in their work; stealing, embezzlement, and fraud Organized—a crime syndicate of career criminals; provides illegal goods and services; uses violence as a tool HOLT, RINEHART

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CIVICS IN PRACTICE Hate Crimes [02:49] HOLT

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CIVICS IN PRACTICE HOLT

Section 1: Crime in the United States

Causes of crime:  Poverty  Illegal drug use  Permissive society  Urbanization

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CIVICS IN PRACTICE HOLT

Section 1: Crime in the United States

Fighting crime:  1994—National crime bill includes tougher

sentences and grants for police officers and new jails.  Crime prevention education is taught in some schools.

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SECTION 1

CIVICS IN PRACTICE HOLT

Question: What are the different types of crime?

Types of Crime

organized crimes

victimless crimes white-collar crimes ‹#›

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CIVICS IN PRACTICE HOLT

Section 2: The Criminal Justice System The Main Idea Police officers arrest people believed to be breaking the law. An accused person must be tried and, if found guilty, punished. Reading Focus  What is the role of police officers in the criminal justice system?  What is the function of the courts after a suspect has been arrested?  How does our corrections system punish lawbreakers? ‹#›

HOLT, RINEHART

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WINSTON

CIVICS IN PRACTICE HOLT

Section 2: The Criminal Justice System

Police Officers  Protect life and property, prevent crime, and

arrest violators  Protect individual rights, maintain peace, and control traffic  Act as peacemakers, advisers, protectors, and community members ‹#›

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CIVICS IN PRACTICE HOLT

Section 2: The Criminal Justice System

Police Officers (continued)  Education, background check, aptitude tests,

physical and psychological exams are required.  Academies teach law, community relations, gathering evidence, arrest procedures, records keeping, first aid, weapon use, and other physical skills. ‹#›

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CIVICS IN PRACTICE HOLT

Section 2: The Criminal Justice System

After a suspect is arrested:  Suspect is entitled to due process before questioning.  Preliminary hearing—evidence evaluated and charges   

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dropped or trial is set; bail set Indictment—a formal charge is made Arraignment—suspect makes a plea before a judge Trial—defendant is presumed innocent; a judge presides and a jury deliberates the case presented by the prosecution and the defense Sentencing—judge decides the punishment; some states have mandatory sentences for certain crimes HOLT, RINEHART

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CIVICS IN PRACTICE Consequences [01:14] HOLT

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CIVICS IN PRACTICE HOLT

Section 2: The Criminal Justice System

Punishing lawbreakers:  Fines  Imprisonment (People hold different views of its

purpose: retribution, deterrence, rehabilitation, or social protection.)  Parole (Early release based on good behavior; overcrowding has forced paroles.)  Capital punishment (Opponents believe it violates the Eighth Amendment; it remains controversial.) ‹#›

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CIVICS IN PRACTICE

SECTION 2

HOLT

Question: What happens after a suspect is arrested?

Suspect is

Suspect is booked

arrested

Trial

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Arraignment

Preliminary hearing

Indictment

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CIVICS IN PRACTICE Teens and Consequences [01:44] HOLT

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CIVICS IN PRACTICE HOLT

Section 3: Juvenile Crime The Main Idea Most states prefer to handle juvenile, or young, criminals differently than adult criminals, but for some crimes this practice is changing. Juvenile Court [02:22]     ‹#›

Reading Focus What is juvenile crime? What are some possible causes of juvenile crime? How does the judicial system handle juveniles who break the law? What are some ways to avoid trouble with the law? HOLT, RINEHART

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CIVICS IN PRACTICE HOLT

Section 3: Juvenile Crime

Possible causes of juvenile crime:  Poor home conditions

 Poor neighborhood conditions  Gang membership  Dropping out of school and unemployment

 Alcohol and drugs  Peer pressure ‹#›

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CIVICS IN PRACTICE Juvenile Rights [03:20] HOLT

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CIVICS IN PRACTICE HOLT

Section 3: Juvenile Crime

The judicial system has changed the way it handles juveniles:  Prior to late 1800s—Juveniles at least seven

years old were tried in adult courts and sentenced to prison or death.  1870s—Reformers argued juveniles required special understanding.  Juvenile court system was set up to re-educate offenders. ‹#›

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CIVICS IN PRACTICE HOLT

Section 3: Juvenile Crime

The judicial system has changed the way it handles juveniles: (continued)  Hearings determine guilt or innocence of juvenile

offenders.  1967—Supreme Court granted juveniles the right of due process.  Juveniles do not have the right to a jury trial. ‹#›

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IN PRACTICE Juvenile DetentionCIVICS Center [01:06] HOLT

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CIVICS IN PRACTICE HOLT

Section 3: Juvenile Crime

Juveniles charged and found guilty  may be placed in a foster home.  may be sent to a corrections facility

like a training school.  may be given probation.  may be sent to a boot camp. Juveniles charged with felonies are often tried in adult courts and punished accordingly. ‹#›

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SECTION 3

CIVICS IN PRACTICE HOLT

Question: What happens when juveniles are charged and found guilty of breaking the law? juvenile correctional facility

probation

Juvenile Punishment Options placement in a training school

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boot camp

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CIVICS IN PRACTICE HOLT

Chapter 16 Wrap-Up 1. Identify and describe specific examples of five categories of crime. 2. What are some causes of crime? 3. What steps does a criminal suspect go through from the time of arrest to the time of sentencing? 4. What are the punishments that a convicted criminal faces? 5. What are the possible causes of juvenile delinquency? 6. What may a judge do if he or she finds a juvenile guilty of a crime? ‹#›

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