Chapter 16: Slavery Divides the Nation*

January 5, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: History, US History, The Civil War And Reconstruction (1850-1880), Civil War
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Chapter 16: Slavery Divides the Nation… Section 1: Slavery in the Territories

The Missouri Compromise • Missouri Compromise: – Agreement proposed in 1819. – By Henry Clay to keep the number of slave and free states equal.

The Missouri Compromise • Debates about slavery in new territories.....Yes or No!!! • 1819: – 11 free states – 11 slave states

• Missouri wanted to join the union as a slave state. • This would give the South the majority in the Senate!!!

The Missouri Compromise • Maine wanted to become a state as well. • Henry Clay came up with a compromise. • Maine was admitted as a free state and Missouri as a slave state....This would keep everything balanced!!

The Missouri Compromise • Congress drew an imaginary line through Missouri....36' 30'N(Latitude)... • Slavery was permitted in Louisiana Purchase territory south of the line. • And banned slavery north of the line. • Exception: Missouri itself (all slave state)

Slavery in the West… • Wilmot Proviso– Law passed in 1846 that banned slavery in any territories won by the U.S. from Mexico.

• Popular Sovereignty: – Mid-1800's – Idea that each territory could decide for itself whether or not to allow slavery.

Wilmot Proviso • 1848: – Mexican War adds much land to the U.S. in the West!

• David Wilmot: – Member of Congress from Penn. – Tried to have all new Mexican territory slave free – Ban on slavery!

• Called this the Wilmot Proviso

Wilmot Proviso • Wilmot Proviso: • Passed by House of Reps. • Senate rejected the Wilmot Proviso. • Continued arguments about slavery!!

Opposing Views • Southerners: Wanted slavery • Northerners: Opposed slavery • In between the two extremes: Moderates • Felt that the Missouri Compromise line should extend to the Pacific Ocean. • Some felt that the new states should be able to decide for themselves.

The Free-Soil Party • Free-Soil party: – Bipartisan antislavery party founded by the U.S. in 1848 to keep slavery out of the western territories.

Free Soil Party • Antislavery members that came from two parties: • 1. The Northern Democrats. • 2. Whigs. • Goal of party: – Keep slavery out of western territories

Election of 1848 • Free-Soil Party: – Martin Van Buren(Ban on Slaves)

• Democrats: – Lewis Cass(popular sovereignty)

• Whigs: – Zachary Taylor(wins election)(slave owner)

• Slavery was main issue!!!

The Compromise of 1850 Section 2 Chapter 16

California’s Impact • 1849: – 15 free states – 15 slave states

• California wanted to enter as a free state. • Along with possibly : – Oregon. – Utah. – And New Mexico.

• South would be out-voted by free states in the Senate! • South wanted to secede from the U.S.

Clay v. Calhoun • Clay: – AKA "The Great Compromiser" feared the nation would break apart.

• John C. Calhoun(S.C.): – Refused to compromise – 1.Wanted slavery in western territories. – 2. Demanded that fugitive slaves be returned to their owners.

• If the North did not agree, the South would part in peace.

The Compromise of 1850 • Five Parts: • 1. California would enter Union as a free state. • 2. Divided the rest of the Mexican Cession into – New Mexico and Utah. (popular sovereignty)

• 3. Ended the slave trade in Washington D.C. – (Congress would have no power over slave trade between slave states)

• 4. Strict fugitive slave law. • 5. Settled border disputes between Texas and New Mexico.

Fugitive Slave Act • Required all citizens to help catch runaway slaves. • If anyone let a fugitive escape....$1,000 fine and jail time. • Special courts were created to handle cases--• NO suspects were allowed a jury trial!! • Judges received $10 for sending the accused runaway to the South....$5 to set them free.

Uncle Tom’s Cabin • Antislavery Bestseller: • Harriet Beecher Stowe • Tells of an enslaved African American noted for his kindness. • His owner whips him to death for not telling the whereabouts of two runaway slaves. • Uncle Tom's Cabin outsold every book except the Bible in the years leading up to the Civil War. • Translated into over 20 different languages.

The Crisis Deepens… Section 3 Chapter 16

Kansas-Nebraska Act • Proposed by Senator Stephen Douglas • 1854: – law that established the territories of Kansas and Nebraska. – Giving the settlers the right of popular sovereignty to decide on the issue of slavery.

• This territory stretched from Texas to Canada. • President Franklin Pierce and Stephen Douglas helped to push it through Congress

Kansas-Nebraska Act • Southerners were happy with the Act. • Northerners were outraged! • The Missouri Compromise already banned slavery in these territories. • It seemed the KansasNebraska Act would repeal the Missouri Compromise! • Northerners openly challenged the Fugitive Slave Act.

The Crisis Turns Violent • Most new settlers came because they wanted land cheap! • Abolitionists moved into area as well as proslavery settlers. • Border Ruffians– proslavery bands from Missouri who often battled antislavery forces in Kansas.

• 1855: – Kansas held elections to choose law-makers. – Border Ruffians crossed the border into Kansas and voted illegally.

Two Governments • Proslavery legislature was elected and passed laws that angered Northerners. • 1. People could be put to death for helping slaves escape. • 2. Speaking out about slavery became a crime punishable by two years of hard labor. • The antislavery settlers refused to follow laws and created their own legislature and governor! • Kansas now had TWO separate governments!!

Bleeding Kansas • Nickname of Kansas because of the guerrilla warfare that took place throughout 1856. • Guerrilla warfare: – The use of hit-and-run tactics

• Killings at Pottawatomie Creek – Led by antislavery activist John Brown sparked many deaths in Kansas.

Dred Scott Case • Dred Scott was enslaved in Missouri for many years. • He moved with his owner to Illinois and then to Wisconsin where slavery was banned. • They eventually moved back to Missouri where Scott's owner died. • Scott filed a lawsuit and argued that because he had lived in free territory, he had become a free man!

The Supreme Court Ruling.. • Angered Northerners! • 1. Supreme Court stated that Scott could not file a suit because slaves were not citizens. • 2. Slaves were considered property. • 3. The Court did not have the power to outlaw slavery in any territory--• The Missouri Compromise, according to the Court, was unconstitutional! • This meant that slavery was legal in all territories!!!!

The Republican Party Emerges… Section 4 Chapter 16

The Republican Party… • • • • •

Developed in 1854. Free-Soilers. Northern Democrats. Antislavery Whigs. ALL wanted to stop slavery!!!

Election of 1856 • John C. Fremont: – Republican – Frontiersman who helped with California's independence – Little political experience – Opposed slavery.

Election of 1856 • James Buchanan: – Democrat: – “Northern man with southern principles" – Hoped to attract people from the North and South.

Election of 1856 • Millard Fillmore: – "Know-NothingParty“ – Wanted to preserve the Union.

Results • Buchanan wins the election!!! • The Republicans did win 1/3 of popular vote. • This showed that they had a lot of influence! • Southerners began to worry that their influence was fading!!

Abe Lincoln • • • • • • • • • •

Born in Kentucky. Grew up in Illinois. Frontiersman. Self taught education. (only was in school for 1 yr.) Studied to be a lawyer "Just Folks“: simple man. Wrestling Honest-plain spoken. Opposed the Kansas-Nebraska Act Decided to run for Senate against Stephen Douglas!

Lincoln- Douglas Debates • Seven debates between Lincoln and Douglas. • Slavery was main issue. • Douglas was a supporter of popular sovereignty. • Lincoln opposed slavery in new territories. • Douglas won the debates by a slim margin... • Lincoln did become very popular from the debates (esp. in the North).

John Brown’s Raid • • •

• • • • • • •

1859: Raids Harpers Ferry, Virginia Raided a federal arsenal (gun warehouse) Captured by Robert E. Lee 10 raiders are killed by Lee's troops and Brown is captured! In court: Brown was found guilty of murder and treason (actions against one's country) Sentenced to Death! Martyr: (willing to give up your life for beliefs).

A Nation Divides Section 5 Chapter 16

Election of 1860… • Abraham Lincoln: – Republican candidate

• Stephen Douglas: – Northern Democrats

• John Breckinridge: – Southern Democrats

• John Bell: – The Constitutional Union Party – (Moderate --still looking for compromise between the North and South)

Election of 1860 Results… • Abraham Lincoln wins the election!!! • Last Effort to Save Union: • Senator John Crittenden – Kentucky. – Tries to introduce bill that would extend the Missouri Compromise line all the way to the Pacific.

• The South decides to secede from the Union.

The Confederate States of America… •

• •

Seven states: – South Carolina. – Alabama. – Florida. – Georgia. – Louisiana. – Mississippi. – Texas. New President of Confederacy: – Jefferson Davis of Mississippi. The confederate troops began to seize federal property in the South.(forts, post offices, government buildings)

The Civil War Begins… • The Confederates attacked Fort Sumter on April 11, 1861. • The Union commander, Major Robert Anderson, was forced to surrender on April 13, 1861. • This sparked the beginning of the Civil War!!!

Essay Topics… • 1. Explain how the election of 1860 was the final blow that started the Civil War. (Provide examples...) • Provide three examples to support the following statement...(details needed) • A series of compromises delayed the Civil War for 40 years.

• 2. Describe the Dred Scott Supreme Court case. • --Three parts of decision • --Two major results • 3. Explain the four major parts of the Compromise of 1850.

Essay Topics… • 4. List two ways in which the LincolnDouglas debates helped Abe Lincoln.

• 5. Explain Harriet Beecher Stowe's novel Uncle Tom's Cabin. • --How did North react. • --How did South react. • --Impact of the novel

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