Chapter 16: The Early Americas

January 5, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: History, World History, Aztec
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Chapter 16: The Early Americas Section 1: The Maya Section 2: The Aztecs Section 3: The Incas

Section 1 The Maya • The Maya was located in an area known as Mesoamerica. • The Maya settled in present-day Guatemala. • Thick Tropical Forrest on the Yucatan Peninsula. • Begin living in small isolated villages, then began building large cities in Mesoamerica • Crops: beans, squash, avocados, and MAIZE

Mayan Classical Age • Height of the Maya was AD 250-900 • Trading – Exports: cotton and cacao beans – Imports: obsidian, jade, colorful bird feathers

• Built pyramids, palaces, and plazas – King Pacal’s Temple in Palenque

• Special Ball Game: tlachtli

Mayan Culture • Social structure and religion were major aspects • Religion: Polytheistic – Gods could be helpful or harmful – Gods needed blood to prevent disasters or the end of the world

• Structure: – king, priests merchants noble warriors (higher class) – farming families (lower class)

Mayan Achievements • Built observatories • Made 2 Calendars – 365 day (harvest) – 260 day (religious)

• Number system with symbol for zero • Writing like hieroglyphics • Amazing Art and architecture • Mayan jade and gold jewelry

Mayan Decline • People stopped building • Moved from cities to the countryside • Fall of Mayan: Historians aren’t really sure, but could have been a combination of factors: – Burden of working for the king – Warfare between the cities – Food shortages – Climate Changes and Droughts

Section 2 The Aztecs • Farmers migrated to Central Mexico in the middle of Lake Texcoco • Capital city was Tenochtitlan (200,000 people) – Built causeways to overcome geographic challenges – Canals – chinampas

• War, trade, and tribute were key factors in the Aztec Civilization. – – – – –

Cotton, gold and food spies Conquered nearby towns Controlled trade network Large markets

Aztec Complex Structure • Aztec king – Most important in society

• Trusted Nobles – Collected taxes, judges, government officials

• Warriors and Priests – Religious ceremonies – Highly respected – Kept calendars

• Merchants and Artisans • Farmers and Laborers – Made up majority of the population – Paid the most tribute – Found it hard to survive; only slaves struggled more

• Slaves

Religion and Warfare Cultural Achievements • Worshipped many gods • Gods controlled nature and human activities • Priest made as many as 100,000 human sacrifices a year • Victims came from frequent battles with neighboring peoples

• Stone pyramids and statues • Jewelry and Mask made of gold gems, and bright feathers • Women embroidered colorful designs on clothes • Astronomy and School • Calendar like the Mayans • Kept detailed records • Strong oral tradition (riddles and speeches)

Cortes Conquers the Aztecs • Conquistadors reached Mexico in 1519 led by Hernan Cortes • Cortes was looking for gold, land, and to convert natives • Moctezuma II (Aztec Emperor) believed Cortes to be Quetzalcoatl (ket-suhljyg-WAH-tuhl) – legend

• Moctezuma II gave the Spaniards gifts, but Cortez captured Moctezuma. • The Aztecs attacked the Spanish and managed to drive them out. • Moctezuma was killed in battle. • The Spanish returned within a year and conquered the Aztec. – – – –

Help from natives Better weapons Natives scared of horses Small pox killed thousands of natives

Section 3 The Incas • While the Aztecs were ruling Mexico, the Inca Empire arose in South America (near the Andes). • Capital was Cuzco (KOO-skoh), now Peru • Pachacuti (pah-chah-KOO-tee) expanded the Inca territory • By 1500s, the Inca territory stretched from Ecuador to central Chile • To rule effectively, they set up a central government

Government and Economy • Removed leaders of the people he conquered and replaced them • Made conquered children go to school in Cuzco to learn Inca way of life. • Language unified the empire – Quechua (KE-chuh-wuh)

• Today many people in Peru speak Quechua

• Government controlled the economy • Told families how to work • Labor tax system called Mita • No merchants or markets; government officials distributed goods through mita • Leftover food was stored in capital for an emergency

Well-Organized Economy • Farmers – Tended to government land, in addition to their own

• Villagers – Made cloth and other good for the army

• Soldiers – Worked mines, built roads and bridges

Inca Life and Religion • Common people had little personal freedom, but government protected empire • Upperclass vs. Lower class • Rulers relax in luxury at royal retreats like Machu Picchu • No slaves

• Warmer valleys – Maize and peanuts

• Cooler Mountains – potatoes

• Raised llama (South American animal related to camels) for meat and wool • Thought their rulers were related to the sun god and never really died – Mummies – Animal sacrifices – Magical powers

Inca Achievements • Inca temples • Master Builders – Masonry – Network of Roads/Two Major Highways

• Artwork – Pottery, gold/silver jewelry

• Weavers • No writing system, but used quipus (KEE-pooz) to keep records • Also had an oral tradition (oral memorizers)

Pizarro Conquers the Incas • Conquistadors arrive in South America • Civil Wars begin in South America • Atahualpa (ah-tah-WAHLpah) won the war, but had weakened the army • Francisco Pizarro led in an army, the Spanish attacked the Inca by surprise.

• The Spanish quickly conquered Atahualpa. • The natives gave the Spanish gold, silver, and precious metals worth millions of dollars today. • Despite the huge payment, the Spanish kill Atahualpa. • The Incas fight back, but the Spanish eventually defeated the Incas and took over the empire.

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