Chapter 17

January 6, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: History, European History, Renaissance (1330-1550)
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World Civilizations The Global Experience AP* Sixth Edition

Chapter

17

The Transformation of the West, 1450-1750

World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert

Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2004 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

The Transformation of the West I. The First Big Changes: Culture and Commerce, 1450-1650 II. The Commercial Revolution III. The Scientific Revolution: The Next Phase of Change IV. Political Change V. The West by 1750 World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert

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The Transformation of the West

World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert

Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2004 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

The First Big Changes: Culture and Commerce • A New Spirit – Francesco Petrarch (1304-1374)  Secular writing

World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert

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The Italian Renaissance • Begins 14th, 15th centuries – In northern Italy

• Italy – Urbanized – Merchant class – Political rivalry

World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert

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The Italian Renaissance • Petrarch, Boccaccio – Use Italian – Secular topics

• Painting – Use of perspective – Shadow, distance – Focus on humans

World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert

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Western Europe in the Renaissance and Reformation

World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert

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The Italian Renaissance • • • •

Michelango Buonarotti Leonardo da Vinci Nicolo Machiavelli Humanism – Looking back to classical past – Study of texts, especially ancient

World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert

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The Renaissance Moves Northward • By 1500, impetus moves north • Northern Renaissance – France, Low Countries, England, Germany  Thence to eastern Europe

– More concerned with religious matters – William Shakespeare – Miguel de Cervantes

World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert

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The Protestant and Catholic Reformations • 1517, Martin Luther's challenge – Attacks church institutions – Bible the only authority  Vernacular translations

• Protestant protest used for political gain – German opposition to the papacy – Rulers seize church lands

World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert

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The Protestant and Catholic Reformations • Henry VIII – Establishes Anglican church

• Jean Calvin – Calvinism  Predestination

World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert

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The Protestant and Catholic Reformations • Catholic Reformation – Renewal – Jesuits  Missionaries  Education

World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert

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The End of Christian Unity in the West • Religious Wars – France  Calvinists v. Catholics  1598, Edict of Nantes • Promises Protestants’ toleration

– 30 Years War (1618-1648)  Devastating to Germany  Netherlands independent

• Literacy increases World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert

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Europe Under Absolute Monarchy, 1715

World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert

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European Population Density, c.1600

World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert

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The Commercial Revolution • The Impact of the World Economy – Inflation, 16th century – Gold, silver from New World – Demand outstrips supply

World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert

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Social Protest • • • •

Proletariat develops Attitudes towards poor change Protests Witchcraft hysteria

World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert

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The Scientific Revolution: The Next Phase of Change • Did Copernicus Copy? • Nicolai Copernicus – Polish monk – Knowledge of work of al-Urdi, al-Tusi?  Earlier Arab scientists

World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert

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Science: The New Authority • New instruments add to data collection • Galileo Galilei – Uses Copernicus' work

• Kepler’s observations confirm earlier work • William Harvey – Circulatory system

World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert

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Science: The New Authority • Methods – Francis Bacon  Empirical research

– René Descartes  Skepticism

– Isaac Newton  System of natural laws

World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert

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Science: The New Authority • Deism – God does not intervene with nature

• John Locke – Use of reason

World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert

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Political Change • Absolute and Parliamentary Monarchies – 17th century, medieval balance disrupted – France dominates  Centralized monarchy  Bureaucracy  “Absolute monarchy"  Louis XIV the best example • Nobles kept at court

World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert

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Political Change • Absolute and Parliamentary Monarchies – Other absolute monarchs  Spain, Prussia, Austria-Hungary  Territorial expansion

– England  Difference  Civil War • Parliament triumphant

World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert

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Western Europe under Absolute Monarchies

World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert

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The Nation-State Definition • Common language, culture – National literature, songs, foods

• Territorial aspect • Common allegiance

World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert

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The West by 1750 • Political Patterns – Great change in central Europe – Frederick the Great of Prussia  Religious freedom  State regulates economy  Overseas commercial networks

World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert

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The West by 1750 • Political Patterns – Continual warfare  France v. Britain • Rivalry over overseas territory

 Prussia v. Austria • Territorial conflicts

World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert

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Enlightenment Thought and Popular Culture • Scientific Revolution leads to Enlightenment – Scientific methods applied to other fields

• General principles – People are good – Reason the answer – Belief in progress

World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert

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Enlightenment Thought and Popular Culture • Political science – Adam Smith  Laissez-faire

• Criminology • Society – Women's rights – Protection of children – Attack inequities World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert

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Ongoing Change in Commerce and Manufacturing • Mass consumerism • Agriculture – Nitrogen-fixing crops – Stockbreeding – Swamp drainage – Potatoes, etc. introduced

• Domestic system – Households produce finished goods World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert

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Innovation and Instability • Change becomes the norm

World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert

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Global Connections: Europe and the World • Proto-globalization • European attitudes towards others take shape – Feeling of superiority – The “noble savage”

World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert

Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2004 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

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