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Chapter 17 • This period of industrialization and urbanization, bringing in its wake intense social and economic change, began first in Britain.
The Industrial Revolution Begins • A Booming Commercial Economy in the West – The Western and non-Western Worlds • Intellectual traditions and politics
• Britain’s Unique Set of Advantages – Commercial Vigor • In the eighteenth century, Britain became Europe’s leading commercial and colonial power
– Transportation • Water transportation played a crucial role in moving the coal, iron, cloth, and machines pumped out by Britain’s new factories and mines
– Raw Materials • Coal, iron, and cotton
The Industrial Revolution Begins – Labor • Rural laborers grew
– Capital • Britain had the capital to invest in industry • Inventors, innovators, and those who saw an opportunity could more easily find the means to start an industrial enterprise in Britain than elsewhere
– Entrepreneurship • More socially acceptable in England than elsewhere
• A Revolution in Agriculture
Chapter 17 • Urbanization and growing wealth fueled an increased demand for manufactured goods which was met by entrepreneurs who applied new mechanical inventions to the factory system.
New Markets, Machines, and Power • The Rising Demand for Goods – Inventors and Entrepreneurs • Some were landowning aristocrats; others rose from rags to riches
• Cotton Leads the Way – Weaving and Spinning • John Kay invented the flying shuttle, James Hargreaves invented the spinning Jenny, Richard Arkwright invented the water frame, Edmund Cartwright invented the power loom, and Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin
• Iron: New Processes Transform Production
New Markets, Machines, and Power – Smelting with Coal • Abraham Darby’s discovery started in 1708 – an efficient way to smelt iron with coal in a blast furnace
• The Steam Engine and the Factory System • Coal: Fueling the Revolution • Railroads: Carrying Industrialization Across the Land – Effects of the Railroad • Coal fueled the industrial revolution
• Britain’s Triumph: the Crystal Palace Exhibition
Chapter 17 • After 1830, industrialization began to spread more rapidly, but unevenly, outside Britain, as entrepreneurs from the continent traveled to learn from the British example and British technicians were enticed to other European countries.
Industrialization Spreads to the Continent – Governmental Aid • Continental governments took a more active role in supporting industrialization than British rulers had • They enacted tariffs, and subsidized new industries
– Remaining Traditional Economies • Most of southern, central, and eastern Europe remained tied to subsistence farms or large agricultural estates. • Exceptions were: Austria’s Bohemian lands, St. Petersburg, and Moscow
Chapter 17 • Industrialization impacted working conditions, home life, and social relationships, but it affected the working and middle classes in very different ways. – New Wealth • Britain’s national product increased more than three-fold between 1780 and 1850
– Population Growth • From 1780 to 1850, Britain’s population more than doubled
Balancing Benefits and Burdens of Industrialization • The Middle Class • The Working Classes – Factory Labor • Employed children from six o’ clock in the morning till seven in the evening
– Insecurity • Wages plummet, jobs lost C. 1830 EUGENE DELACROIX LIBERTY LEADING THE PEOPLE
Balancing Benefits and Burdens of Industrialization – Risks of Injury • Factory owners made no provisions for safety
– Lifestyle Changes • Employers maintained discipline with fines, curses, and whippings • Poor housing, overcrowded rooms
• Developing Working-Class Consciousness – Workers’ Organizations • Fraternal societies, trade organizations, and mutual aid societies
– Luddism • Forms of protest – rampages, smashing machines to pieces, or campaigning
Chapter 17 • As urban areas expanded because of population growth and opportunities for work, settlement in cities followed certain patterns but remained unplanned, while concerns about social problems such as crime and environmental pollution grew. – Urban Growth • The cities, with their promise of jobs and the lure of beer halls and theaters, attracted people • Most cities flourished through industrial activity, such as mining and manufacturing
Life in the Growing Cities • The Promise and Pitfalls of Work in the Cities • Living with Urban Growth – Environmental Changes • Rivers became polluted with waste, and air from the dirty coal fires • No modern sewers, sorely inadequate toilet facilities, and not enough clean water
– Different Neighborhoods • Middle classes lived in lower-floor apartments, and had the benefit of some running water • Working class sections and poverty-stricken areas lived “the poorest” of the worst-paid workers rub shoulders with thieves, rogues, and prostitutes
Life in the Growing Cities • Worrying About Urban Society: Rising Crime – Crime and Law Enforcement • Robert Peel • “Bobbies”
Chapter 17 • Industrialization brought a variety of health problems, from injuries on the job to the spread of disease, which affected the poor more than the rich and made life in the cities less healthy than in the countryside.
Public Health and Medicine in the Industrial Age • The Danger of Disease • Tuberculosis and diphtheria killed millions during the nineteenth century • Cholera killed some 100,000 in France and 50,000 in England
– Causes of Disease • Physical weakness and immorality, contagion, environental forces
• Seeking Medical Care – Doctors • Visiting a doctor was more likely to be hurt than helped, so people consulted physicians reluctatly
Public Health and Medicine in the Industrial Age – Alternative Medicine • Herbal drugs and natural remedies, vegetable laxatives, and faith healers
– Surgery • A last resort • Anesthesia and antiseptics • Dying from an infection
• Promising Developments for Public Health – New Developments in Medicine • European doctors applied scientific methods • Physical exams, feeling the pulse, taking blood pressure, and looking down the throat
Chapter 17 • Family life changed during this period as the middle class developed new ideals about how the family should operate and the working class experienced added pressures.
Family Ideals and Realities • Middle-Class Ideals: Affection, Children, and Privacy – Marriage • Affection, love, and emotional compatibility, social rank and wealth exerted less influence than they had in the past
– Family Size • Women gave birth to two or three rather than the five or six
– Children • Mothers and fathers began investing more time, effort, and other resources in child rearing
– The Home • The home represented a protected, glorified place for a satisfying personal life
Family Ideals and Realities • Separate Spheres: Changing Roles for MiddleClass Women and Men – The Man’s Sphere • Had legal authority over his wife and children • Had control over his wife’s personal property and any money she earned • Only men could vote
– The Women’s Domestic Sphere • Provide emotional support for her husband and cultivate a virtuous home environment • Care for children, clean house, serve meals, supervise servants, manage sewing and administering household accounts
– Middle-Class Success
Family Ideals and Realities • Working-Class Realities – Women Workers • Factory employers preferred to hire women because they worked for lower salaries
• Prostitution • Stress and Survival in the Working Classes