Chapter 17 - Emergencies

January 13, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Arts & Humanities, Architecture
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Emergencies CHAPTER 17

17-1 Blowout & Flat Tires  Blowout  Sudden loss of air pressure in the tire  New or old, tires can blowout at any time 

Pothole or sharp object in the road

Most blowouts are caused by excessive tire wear 

Average tires have a tread life of 60,000 miles  The way you drive will determine how short the life of the tires get • • • • • •

Hard cornering or braking Driving in hot temperatures Driving fast Peeling out Road surfaces Over- or under- inflating

How to avoid a blowout  

Check tire pressure and tire tread Rotate your tires

Responding to a Blowout  Don’t slam on your brakes  This is a natural reaction, but can cause you to completely lose control 

Grip the wheel tightly and coast

 Concentrate on staying in your lane  If one of your front tires blows out, the car will pull hard in the direction of the blowout 

Steer away from the blown tire

If the back tires blow out, the car will weave like a skid 

Steer toward the blown tire

 Pull off the road

Flat Tires  If your tire blows out, you have two choices…  

Call for help Fix it yourself

 Make sure the area you are in is safe to change a tire 

If you are too close to traffic, don’t attempt to change it

 It is not hard to fix a flat tire, most people just don’t

know how to do it or are not prepared  Most newer vehicles come with the proper equipment, but make sure you are prepared   

Spare tire (DUH!) Car jack Lug wrench

Fixing A Flat  Park on level ground  Put on your emergency flashers, put parking brake on, and make sure passengers are out of the vehicle  Put the jack under the vehicle and crank until the flat

tire is off the ground  Remove the tire using the lug wrench 

Take them off diagonally in succession

 Place the spare tire on the vehicle and replace the lug

nuts 

Put them on diagonally in succession

 Lower the vehicle and its ready to go

Flat Tires  On many vehicles, the spare tire is not full sized  Spare tires are not designed for a lot of miles  Spare tires can deteriorate from dry rotting or heat  Replace the spare when you replace tires

17-2 Mechanical Failures  Brake failures  Most brakes do not fail…it could be a number of causes 

Engine failure or interruption of the flow of brake fluid can cause the power assist or full-power feature of the brakes to fail  Brakes will still work but you have to apply much more pressure Brake pads are totally worn out  It takes time to wear out the brake pads, so you will notice a gradual reduction in effectiveness of your brakes  If your brakes begin grinding, you failed, not your brakes!

 Overheated brakes  Going downhill on a long, steep descent, you brakes can over heat, called brake fade

Mechanical Failures (cont.)  Steering Failure 

Most vehicles today have power steering 

Steering failure most commonly occurs from engine failure  The steering wheel will turn, but is very difficult

If you try to turn the wheel and you can’t, your power steering has completely failed 

Stop the car and turn on your flashers

 Stalled Engine  

Can occur from water getting to the engine or excessively cold weather, and also forgetting to put gas in the car If it stalls while you are driving, try to start the vehicle Put the vehicle in neutral and turn the ignition  If it starts, shift to drive and continue  If not, pull over  Keep in mind, it may be difficult to steer 

Mechanical Failures (cont.)  Stuck Accelerator 

  

Often caused by an obstruction on the floor in front of the driver’s seat, but can also be caused by a mechanical problem with the vehicle

Try to free the accelerator with your foot by lifting up on the accelerator pad If that doesn’t work and you have a passenger, have them reach underneath and pull up on the accelerator If no passenger, shift to neutral and pull over 

Do not turn the car off until you have come to a complete stop

 Headlight Failure  Try flipping them off and on several times  If that doesn’t work, try you high beams 

They usually use different bulbs, so they will work even when the low beams do not

If neither work, turn on your flashers and pull over when it is safe to do so

Mechanical Failures (cont.)  Dead Battery 

If you attempt to start your vehicle and hear nothing, your battery may be dead 

Can be caused by  Defective alternator  Extremely cold weather  Leaving your lights on

Jump-Starting Your Car Attach the positive clip (red) to the positive terminal of the working battery  Attach the positive clip (red) to the positive terminal of the dead battery  Attach the negative clip (black) to the negative terminal of the working battery  “Ground” the other end of the negative clip (black) by attaching the clip to the dead vehicle’s frame, metal engine block, of to an engine bolt 

Mechanical Failures (cont.)  Dead Battery (cont.)  

Once you have started your car, let it run for a few minutes Remove the cable from both vehicles  

Negative first, then positive Make sure the ends of the cables don’t touch

If your battery dies again, have it looked at by a mechanic

 Windshield Wiper Failure 

Over time, excessive heat or cold can cause your wiper blades to rot or crack  

Causes metal to contact and scratch the windshield Can make visibility reduced

You may not be able to drive your vehicle if you cannot properly clear your windshield

 Hood Latch Failure 

Don’t slam on brakes   

 

Pull over to the side of the road Check to see if it was not latched or if the latch is broken  

Put on your flashers Look through the opening between the hood and the dashboard Lean your head out the window if you have to

If it seems to be functioning, shut the hood and begin to drive…slowly  In case the hood flies open again It the latch is broken, use wire, cable, or rope to secure it

Take to a service station and have it fixed

17-3 Skids  Skid  Loss of directional control of a vehicle that occurs when a vehicle loses traction  Most likely to happen when driving at high speeds in bad weather, on dirt or gravel roads, or on wet or icy pavement 

Can happen on dry surfaces and low speeds, but it depends on conditions

Types of Skids Power Skid  Braking Skid  Cornering Skid  Downshifting Skid 

Types of Skids  Power Skid 

Caused from accelerating too quickly especially on slick road surfaces 

Doing this with rear-wheel drive will cause the back end to skid to the side

Ease off the gas when you feel the tires spin Remember to accelerate slowly on slick roads or roads with poor traction

 Braking Skid  

Caused by one or more of a vehicle’s brakes locking up Can occur only in vehicles without anti-lock brakes 

  

More common on slippery roads

If your front wheels lock, you will plow straight ahead If your back wheels lock, your vehicle may start to spin If this happens, take your foot off the brake until your wheels start spinning again

Types of Skids  Cornering Skid  Occurs when your vehicle loses traction on a curve  Usually caused by driving too fast 

If roads are slippery or tires are worn, your chances increase

Take your foot off the gas and make steering adjustments to straighten out

 Downshifting Skid  Shifting from a high gear to a low gear too quickly  Make sure you engage NEUTRAL each time you downshift instead of moving straight to the lower gear

Responding to a Skid  Your natural instinct will be to hit the brakes…avoid this! 

Slamming on your brakes will only cause you to skid more

 Road conditions will determine how to respond to a skid:  

Skidding on dry surfaces – turn the wheel sharply in the appropriate direction to correct the skid Skidding on slippery surfaces – turn wheel slightly to bring vehicle back under control

 Steps to Follow: 

Take foot off gas to decrease speed 

 

Don’t use brakes

Steer car gently in the direction of the skid When the vehicle starts to straighten out, turn wheels back the other way

“Spinning Out”  Corrective steering will not work  Brake hard  ABS will engage all four tires  Non Anti-lock vehicles will lock  The vehicle will travel in a straight line in its general

direction of travel

17-4 Other Emergencies  Not all emergencies are going to be caused by

mechanical failure or driver error  Other emergencies you may encounter while driving       

Running out of fuel Debris on the roadway Deep water escapes Downed power lines Car fires Car jacking Police chases

Running Out of Fuel  Doesn’t necessarily sound like an emergency, but it will

be if…  

  

Stranded on an isolated stretch of road You are in an unsafe area It happens during the night Weather is hot, cold, or inclement weather Middle of the freeway

 Odds are that it will happen at least once in your lifetime  Don’t wait until your gas gauge reads “empty”   

Low levels differ between vehicles Usually located in the owner’s manual Good rule of thumb – no less than ¼ of a tank left before filling

Roadway Debris  Occasionally you will encounter things in the road Auto parts  Pieces of tire  Boxes  Rocks  Tree branches  Furniture 

Avoid whenever possible, but don’t swerve

 If your windshield becomes obstructed by debris,  Turn on wipers to knock it away  Pull over and remove it if wipers cannot

Deep Water Escape  Cars don’t float very well or for a long time

in water 

Do not remove seatbelts before entering deep water 

 

Protection from impact if you fall off a bridge or other elevated point

Go to the window that is highest out of the water and try to open immediately If it doesn’t open, try the door  

If your vehicle get trapped in deep water, you need to get out fast

The pressure outside the door will hold it closed As the water level rises inside the vehicle, pressure will equalize and you can open the door

If it still doesn’t work, kick out a window

 Remain as calm as possible!

Downed Power Lines  Avoid driving over downed power lines  Don’t panic if they fall on top of your vehicle  Tires will insulate you from any electrical shock

 Do not try to exit your vehicle  Turn your emergency flashers on and try to alert

other drivers of the downed lines

Car Fires  If you suspect your vehicle may be on fire,

pull over immediately 

Pick an area without people

 Turn off your ignition and get all people

inside the car out of the vehicle  Move as far away as possible in case of a fuel explosion  If the fire is far away from the fuel tank and is localized, you can try to put it out  

Do not use water Try to smother the fire by throwing dirt, sand, large blanket, or clothing onto it

Car Jacking  People trying to steal other driver’s vehicles   

Choose a route that doesn’t go through a dangerous area Try not to drive alone Make sure your doors are always locked and windows shut

 Most likely, they will approach while you are moving

slowly or stopped   

Leave enough room in front of you and to the side so that you can escape Turn car off and lock doors any time you leave the vehicle unattended If your car breaks down, stay in the vehicle and lock the doors

 When parking…    

Stay in well-lit areas Avoid walking to your vehicle alone Have your keys ready in your hand Inspect from the outside to see if anyone is hiding in the vehicle

 Most important thing to remember…  

If you are a victim or threatened with a weapon, give them what they want It is not worth your life

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