Chapter 2: Managing Personal Stress

January 23, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Science, Health Science, Immunology
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Chapter 2: Managing Personal Stress

How can you control your own stress, and the stress of your employees?

Managing Stress: Objectives 

Eliminate stressors  Develop resiliency  Cope temporarily with stress


Stress 

Reduces national economy by $500 billion  Leaves almost half of all adults with health problems  Causes between 60 and 80 percent of industrial accidents  In workplace, is primarily caused by incompetent management 3

Managers Who Experience Stress...       

selectively perceive information fixate on a single approach to a problem overestimate how fast time passes adopt a crisis mentality consult and listen to others less rely on old habits are less able to generate creative thoughts 4

Stress as a Force Field Current Level of Functioning

Driving Force A

Restraining Force A

Driving Force B

Restraining Force B

Driving Force C

Restraining Force C

Driving Force D

Restraining Force D 5

Reactions to Stress Alarm – increase in anxiety, fear, sorrow or loss  Resistance – attempt to control stress using defense mechanisms  Exhaustion – stop trying to defend against stress. Stress related pathology occurs in this stage 


Stress Defense Mechanisms Aggression – attack stressor directly  Regression – use behavior that was successful at an earlier time  Repression – deny that stress exists  Withdrawal – leave stressful situation  Fixation – persist in response regardless of effectiveness 


Experiencing Stress STRESSORS •Anticipatory •Encounter •Time •Situational

REACTIONS •Physiological •Psychological

RESILIENCY •Physical •Psychological •Social 8

Types of Stressors 

Time Stressors  Work overload  Lack of control Encounter Stressors  Role conflicts  Issue conflicts  Action conflicts


Types of Stressors 

Situational Stressors  Unfavorable working conditions  Rapid change Anticipatory Stressors  Unpleasant expectations  Fear


Consequences of Stress 

Physiological  Immune response  Coronary disease  Viral infection Psychological  Burnout


Stress as a Person/ Situation Interaction  

Assumption: Events trigger stress, but people respond to stress differently Resiliency factors moderate stress Without Resiliency



With Resiliency

No Reaction 13

Resiliency Factors 

Physical: cardiovascular health, dietary control, rest  Psychological: emotionality, self-esteem, hardiness  Social: close emotional ties, common experiences, supportive interactions, mentors, teams


Managing Stress Enactive Strategies Eliminate stressors

Proactive Strategies Develop resiliency

Reactive Strategies Temporary coping



Long term

Short term





Time Required






Eliminating Stressors Type of Stressor Time

Encounter Situational Anticipatory

Elimination Strategy Effective time management. Efficient time management. Delegating Collaboration and team building Emotional intelligence Work redesign Goal setting Small wins 16

Managing Time Effectively 

Spend time on important, not urgent, matters  Identify what you feel is important vs. what you feel is urgent  Focus on results, not methods  Don’t feel guilty for saying “no”


Types of Activities That Determine Time Use URGENCY HIGH



1 Crises Customer Complaints 2 Mail Ringing Telephone Unscheduled Interruptions


3 Developmental Opportunities Innovating Planning 4 Escapes Routines Arguments 18

Personal Principles for Time Use 

Ask yourself:  What do I stand for?  What do I care passionately about?  What do I want to be remembered for?  What do I want to have accomplished 20 years from now?  What principles do I want everyone in the world to follow? 19

Managing Time Efficiently – 20 Rules for Everyone          

Read selectively Make a list of things to accomplish Have a place for everything Prioritize your tasks Do several trivial things simultaneously List five 10-minute tasks Divide up large projects Determine critical 20 percent of tasks Save best time for important matters Limit others’ access to you

         

Don’t procrastinate Keep track of time Set deadlines Do something productive while waiting Do busy work at one set time Reach closure on one thing per day Schedule some personal time Don’t worry on continuing basis Write down long-term goals Be alert for ways to improve your time management 20

Managing Time Efficiently – 20 Rules for Managers        

Hold routine meetings at end of day Hold short meetings standing up Set a time limit Cancel meetings sometimes Have agendas, stick to them, and keep track of time Start meetings on time Prepare meeting minutes and follow up Insist that subordinates suggest solutions to problems

   

   

Meet visitors in doorway Go to subordinates’ offices Don’t overschedule your day Have someone else answer phone and e-mail Have a place to work uninterrupted Do something with each piece of paper Keep workplace clean Delegate work, identify amount of initiative granted, and give others credit for their success 21

Collaboration 

Maintain an “emotional bank account”  Make deposits by treating people with kindness, courtesy, honesty and consistency  Minimize withdrawals made by not keeping promises, not listening, not clarifying expectations, or not allowing choice 22

Work Redesign  

Lack of freedom is most important contributor to stress Use job redesign model to reduce stress  combine tasks  form identifiable work units  establish customer relationships  increase decision-making authority  open feedback channels 24

Eliminating Anticipatory Stressors through Goal Setting 1. Establish a Goal

2. Specify Actions and Behavioral Requirements

4. Identify Criteria of Success and a Reward

3. Generate Accountability and Reporting Mechanisms 25

Small Wins Strategy 

Identify something under your control  Change it in a way that leads toward desired goal  Find another small thing to change and change it  Keep track of changes made  Maintain the small gains made through change 26

Developing Resiliency  

Some stressors will not go away Resiliency increases capacity to withstand negative effects of stress


Balance Life Activities Cultural Activities Work Activities Intellectual Activities

Physical Activities Spiritual Activities Family Activities

Social Activities


Increase Cardiovascular Conditioning 

MOVE! Exercise:  Lowers blood pressure  Increases heart efficiency  Lowers triglyceride levels  Lowers cholesterol  Increases energy  Reduces anxiety and depression


Take Control of Your Diet 

Eat a variety of foods  Maintain optimal weight  Reduce fat intake  Eat more whole foods  Reduce sugar intake  Reduce sodium intake  Avoid alcohol and caffeine


Improve Hardiness   

Take control of your life Do something that you can be committed to and involved in Feel challenged by change, not paralyzed


Moderate Type A Personality Syndrome 

Type A people:  have a chronic, combative struggle with the social and physical environment  are aggressive, hostile, impatient  are subject to time demands, selfimposed pressure  eat fast, walk fast, talk fast!


To Moderate Type A Behavior  

Focus on small wins Use deep-relaxation strategies  meditation  yoga  self-hypnosis  biofeedback


Increase Social Resiliency   

Maintain friendships and family relations Find and use a mentor  must be two-way relationship Work in teams  involve others in defining challenges  encourage participation  share resources broadly  focus on team, rather than individual, rewards 34

Temporary Stress Reduction 

Muscle relaxation  Deep breathing  Visualization - Imagery and fantasy  Rehearsal  Reframing


Managing Your Own Stress 

Enactive, proactive and reactive strategies  Recognize and observe your own stress reactions (e.g., irritability, muscle tightness, fatigue, sleep disorder, distractibility, confusion, etc.  Learn to surf...reframe perceptions


Managing Your Own Stress     

Build time management skills Regularly revisit goals and priorities, beware of reactivity Learn to delegate. Trust and share your work with others Communicate and participate with colleagues and employees Find reason and time to laugh


Managing Others’ Stress... 

attend to your own stress  mentor and monitor time management: set goals with time lines, check in regularly  redesign work: task demand, control, intellectual challenge, clarified responsibilities  set boundaries and expectations: create a healthy organizational culture 38

Managing Others’ Stress... 

 

make time to play, celebrate small and big wins, develop relationships, and relax don’t sweat the small stuff communicate and participate


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